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Jean Piaget was criticized by others becausehis findings often derived from observing his own childrenconservationnotion that substances weight, mass, and volume remain the same even if it changes shapechildren master conservation in what stageconcrete (think C) 7-11 yrs oldWho expanded on Piaget's conceptualization of Moral Development?Lawrence KohlbergLev Vygotskyleading theorist of moral development, believed that stages unfold due to educational interventionReversibilityone can undo an action; an object can return to its intial shapewho termed reversibilityJean Piagetreversibility happens in which stageConcrete operational thoughtegocentrism occurs in which stagepreoperational thought, 6 yrsegocentrismchild cannot view the world from the vantage point of someone elseLawrence Kohlberg had how many levels of morality3, preconventional, conventional, postconventionalHeinz dilemmamethod used by Kohlberg to assess level and stage of moral developmentidentity crisis comes from which theoristErik EriksonTrust vs Mistrust coined by ___ in which stageErikson, first stageErikson's final stageIntegrity vs DespairErikson has how many life stages8Kohlberg's first level (preconventional) is guided byconsequencesKohlbergs 2ns level of morality isconventionalIn the conventional stage of morality, there is a desire tolive up to society's expectations, and conformhighest level of moralitypostconventionalpostconventional moralityself-imposed moral principles rather than set by society or familysome people may never reach which level of moral developmentpostconventionalcoined concept "zone of proximal development"Lev Vygotskyzone of proximal developmentthe difference between what children can do with assistance and what they can do alonetheorists considered maturationistsFred and Erikson- means people mature over timematurationists believethat certain behaviors will not manifest themselves until the necessary environmental stimuli are presentJohn Bowlbybonding and attachmentIn which Eriksonian stage does the midlife crisis occur?generativity v stagnationHarry HarlowStudied attachment in monkeys with artificial mothersMaccoby and Carol researchfound that males outperformed females in mathematics not until high school or collegeHarry Harlows experiments showedbaby monkeys were more likely to cling to terry-cloth surrogate mother than wire surrogate motherFreud's psychosexual stagesoral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage, genital stagesuicide rates ___ with ageincreasethe fear of death is greatestduring middle ageattachment is most significant during what freudian stageoralthis freudian stage least involves sexualitylatency (6-12)Stanley CoopersmithFound that child-rearing practices have impacts in self-esteem. Children who had the reasons for punishment explained to them and understood them were found to have higher self-esteem.stage theorists assumequalitative changes between stages occurCephalocaudalhead to toePiaget's final stageformal operational thoughtin formal operational thought stageabstract thinking emerges and problems can be solved using deductionKohlberg has __ stages and __ levels6 stages broken into 3 levelswhich stage does the Oedipus complex occur inphallic stageThe female version of the Oedipus complex isElectra complexOrder of Freud's stagesoral, anal, phallic, latency, genitalEleanor Gibson and Richard Walk coined term...visual cliffEmpiriciststheorists that believe development consists of quantitative changesJohn Lock coined this theoryempiricismEmpiricism is the forerunner ofbehaviorismempiricism believes developmental changes arequantitativeorganicismbelieves developmental changes are qualitativereflexes important in which stagesensorimotorobject permanence/ object constancy requiresrepresentational thoughtschemaa conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the worldschema of permanency and constancy occurs in what stave of lifesensorimotor birth to 2john Bowlby asserted thatconduct disorders and psychopathology can result from inadequate attachment and bonding in early childhoodthe term instinctual used by clinicians meansbehavior that manifests itself in all normal members of a given speciesethology was coined byKonrad Lorenzethology meansstudying animals' behavior in natural environmentcomparative psychologycomparing lab research of animals to generalizations made to humanscentration occurs in which stagepreoperationalcentration meansfocusing on a key feature of a given object or situation while not noticing the rest of itPiaget's view towards teaching childrenteachers should lecture less bc children in concrete operations stage learn best by their own actions and experimentationacquisition of symbolic schema happens in which Piaget stagepreoperational stagewhat do Freud and Erikson agree abouteach developmental stage needs to be resolved before an individual could move onto nextreinforcers do whatincrease probability that behavior will occurwhich theorist coined object lossBowlbyobject loss meansprotest to despair to detachmentprimal scene meanschild witnessing parents having intercoursethe preconscious mind isdeeper than the conscious but not as deep as the unconsciousBASIC-ID meansbehavior, affective responses, sensations, imagery, cognitions, interpersonal relationships, and drugsanimism occurs whenchild acts as if nonliving things have lifelike abilitiesanimism occurs in which stagepreoperational period 2-7 yrsWhen did Elementary school counseling and guidance services begin gain momentum?1960sDaniel J Levinson research showedmen in study experienced moderate to sever midlife crises and age 30 crisis occurs in men when they feel it will soon be too late to make later changestheorist most concerned with maternal deprivationHarry Harlowfixation occurs whendevelopment comes to a haltphobia vs. anxiety isanxiety reaction = client is unaware of fearfreud felt morality developed fromsuperegothe father of transactional analysisEric Bernetheorist that believes aggression is inbornKonrad Lorenzthe father of guidanceFrank ParsonsIn initial stage of Kohlbergs moralityfear is guided by punishmentcritical period meanswhen an organism is susceptible to a specific developmental processimprinting meansrapid learning during a critical period of development; infant will follow moving objectimprinting was coined by the work ofKonrad Lorenzhigher order needs can also be calledmetaneedsMaslow's Hierarchy of Needs stateslower order physiological and safety needs and higher order needs, like self-actualizationMaslow researched self-actualization byinterviewing the best people he could find that escaped the psychology of the averagePiaget isa structuralist who believes stage changes are qualitative.Piaget said the act of taking in new information is calledassimilationaccommodation refers tothe modification of a childs cognitive structure (schemas) to deal with the new informationnomenclature is also calledequilibrium or equilibrationmaturational viewpoint of development believesthe mind is seen as being driven by instincts while environment provides nourishmentmaturational counselors allowclients to work through early conflictsritualistic behaviors are known asfixed-action patterns brought on by sign stimuliRobert Kegan and holding environment meanclient can make meaning in face of crisis and can find new directionKegan 6 stages of life span developmentincorporative, impulsive, imperial, interpersonal, institutional, and interindividualcounseling someone from another cultural background is consideredcross-cultural, multicultural, and interculturalcultural pluralism meansa minority group will keep their own unique cultural values and will participate in wider/ dominant cultureeach socioeconomic group representsa separate culturetwo theorists that agreed individuals have an instinct to fight regardless of culturefreud and lorenzwhich theorist had no part in social psychologyBernethe APGA became the what until 1992AACDthe APGA, or AACD, became theACAACA helped with the growth of cross cultural counseling byforming the association for non-white concerns in personnel and guidanceDaniel Levinson wrote which bookSeasons of a Mans Life and Seasons of a womans lifeDaniel Levinson postulated what about men and womenmen - midlife crisis between 40-45 and women approx 5 years earlierLevinsons theory is believed to be biased for what reasonagainst women for not accounting for developmental changes3 factors that enhance interpersonal attractionclose proximity, physical attraction, similar beliefscontextualism meansbehavior must be assessed in the context of the culture in which the behavior occursCarol Gilligan felt Kohlbergs theory...was more applicable to males than femaleswhat helped popularize the multicultural counseling movementthe civil rights movementprobable outcome in cases also referred to asprognosisrecommendations arewhat the counselor believes must transpire from psychotherapeutic standpointfrustration aggression theory associated withJohn Dollard and Neal MillerDollard/Miller hypothesisfrustration leads to aggressionAlbert Ellis was the father of what approachrational emotive behavior therapypopular cognitive consistency or balance theory in social psychologyFestingersbalance theory suggestspeople strive for consistency or balance in terms of their belief systemstatistical norms measureactual conductcultural norms describehow people are supposed to actmores arebeliefs and social customs on rightness and wrongness of behaviorwho was the first to focus on sociocultural issuesFrank Parsonsuniversal culture indicatesbiological similarities and samenessEmory Bogardus establishedsocial distance scaleBogardus Social Distance Scale evaluatedhow individual felt toward other ethnic groupsfoot-in-the-door phenomenonone should ask for a small favor and their chances of having someone agree to a larger favor after that are greaterthere can be many cultures within a...societyis ethnocentrism universal?yesacculturationthe adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culturemodal personality isone that is characteristic or typical of a group in questiona popular individual most likely hasgood social skillssocial exchange theory saysa relationship will endure if the rewards are greater than the coststerminal drop theorydramatic decreases in intellectual functioning does occur only in the final 5 years of lifeapproach approach conflict theory coined byLeon Festingerapproach-approach conflictConflict that results from having to choose between two attractive alternativesbystander effectthe finding that a person is less likely to provide help when there are other bystanderscognitive dissonance theoryperson will look for things that are consistent with their behaviormiddle and upperclass citizens in US want counselor tohelp them work out problems on their owncog dissonance research deals mainly withcognition and attitude formationwhich theory is used most often to promote understanding between cultures and racesRogerian person-centeredtherapeutic surrenderoccurs when a client is able to trust the counselor and self-discloses. (Building rapport, trust, listening, conquering client resistance, and self-disclosure are helpful in promoting therapeutic surrender.)assimilation contrast theoryclient perceives counselor's somewhat similar attitude/statement as even more similar (assimilation error) and dissimilar attitudes as even more dissimilar (contrast error).negative transference can be mistaken fortherapeutic resistancemonolithic perspectiveindicates that the counselor perceives all the people in a given group as being identicalstructure in multicultural counseling is...important! explain roles in initial sessionconnotation errormisunderstanding the emotional context of the word when the dictionary definition is differentwhich case was a prime factor in history of multicultural counselingBrown vs Board of Education, outlawed segregation in schoolsmulticultural counseling promoteseclecticismemic frame of referencewants to know what someone participating in a culture thinks; emphasizes that each client is an individual with differencesetic view of referenceemphasizes that clients are similaralloplastic meanschanging external factorsautoplastic meanschanging own thoughts and behaviorsa conversion disorder should be suggested whena client is exhibiting symptoms which cannot be accounted for via medical examsmalingeringDeliberate faking of a physical or psychological disorder motivated by gain.ambivalent transference isuncertaintypersonalism in multicultural counseling meanscounselor will make best progress if he or she sees the client primarily as a person who has learned a set of survival skills rather than as a diseased patientsocial facilitation coined byFloyd Allportsocial facilitation meansthe presence of others improves an individual's performance even when there is no verbal interactionthe sleeper effect meansafter a period of time, one forgets the communicator but remembers the messagewhat authors helped introduce social psychologymcdougall and ross "introduction to social psychology"who is associated with obedience and authorityStanley Milgram- pyschologistmilgram was known for what studyfatal shock punishment research when told to do so by authority figurestendency to affiliate with others is firstborns and only childrenavoidance-avoidance conflicta choice must be made between two unattractive goalsOsgood & Tannenbaum's congruity theoryclient will accept suggestions more readily if the client likes the counselorMuzafer Sherif et al and boys camp researcha cooperative goal attained by working in joint manner can bring two hostile groups together, reducing competitionAsch situationpeople will conform to an obviously incorrect decision one third of the timeintrospectionexamination of one's own thoughts and feelingsintrospection says what about those in social classthose in higher social classes would be able to engage in self examination or reflectionwhich theorist created individual psychologyAdlerwhich theorist created analytic psychologyJungtransactional analysis three ego stateschild, adult, parentwho created transactional analysisEric Bernetopographic notionmind has depth like an ice bergthe parent is equal to what freudian statesuperego; moralityresolution of the Oedipus complex is done byidentification with the parent of the opposite sexthe ego isthe executive part of personality that directs rational behavior; reality principlethe id is driven byinstinctsthe superego isthe conscience driven by moralityEros meansloveThanatos meansdeaththe id is driven by what priniciplethe pleasure principlewhich freudian principle is the balancer in moralitythe ego (executor)who developed systematic desensitizationWolpemanifest and latent content belong todreamsthe surface meaning of dreams is calledmaifest contentthe hidden meaning of dreams is calledlatent contentlittle albertconditioned 9 yr old boy, taught to be afraid of furry objects, specifically ratscase of little albert done byWatsonRogerians do not emphasizediagnosis or giving advicecontroversial aspect of Freud theoryOedipus complexsubjective units of disturbance scaleconcept used in forming hierarchy to perform Wolpe's systematic desensitization; created by process of introspectionIntrosepctionprocess of examining our own thoughtsthe conscious mind is aware ofimmediate environmentthe preconscious mind is aware ofmemories, ideas, images back into present thoughtthe unconscious mind is aware ofmaterial that is normally unknown or hidden from the clientthe most important defense mechanism isrepressionreaction formationwhen the client cannot accept a given impulse and thus behaves in the opposite mannerSublimationperson acts out in unconscious impulse in socially acceptable mannerrepression isautomatic and involuntarysuppressionvoluntaryidentification as defense mechanismperson identifies with a cause or successful person with the unconscious hope that he or she will be perceived as successful toosour grapes rationalizationunderrates an rewardSweet lemon rationalizationoverrates a rewardprojectiondisguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to othersintrojectionA process of taking in the values and standards of others.critics say what about Freuds theoryaspects of it are difficult to test from scientific standpointinterpretation in counseling helps...make clients aware of unconscious processesorgan inferiority relates toAlfred Adler individual psychologyorgan inferiority postulatesbiologically based defect that gives rise to feelings of inadequacyinsight coined byKohlerLogos meanslogic; Men operate from thiswomen operate from which greek principleEros; life and intuitionmandalas were used byJungwho emphasized drive for superiorityAdlerwho believed that sibling interaction had more impact than parent-childAdlerNeo-Freudians emphasizedsocial factorssome neo-freudians are:Adler, Horney, Erikson, Sullivan and Frommunconditional positive regard belongs toRogersintroversion and extroversion belong toJungintroversion meansturning in of libidoextroversion meanstendency to satisfy and please other people firstMyers-Briggs Type Indicator associated withJungRudolph Dreikers was first todiscuss use of group therapy in PPsocial connectedness belongs toAdlerparadoxical techniques associated withViktor Franklparadoxical techniques encourage clients todefy logic and intensify/ purposefully engage in maladaptive behaviorsJung called feminine sideanimaJung called masculine sideanimusmaterial that makes up collection unconsciousarcheotypescommon archeotypespersona, anumis/ anmia/ self, and the shadowaccurate empathywhen counselor experiences clients point of view in terms of feelings and cognitionsacceptance and committment therapy (ACT) coined bySteve HayesACT goal is toperceive feelings and thoughts as harmless, not focus on symptom reductionbehaviorst believe in what when it comes to symptomsstrive for symptom reduction not substitutioneclectic association withThornecountertransferencecounselor --> clienttransferenceclient --> counselorlifestyle, birthorder, and family constellations coined byadlerlaw of effectsresponses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situationwho coined the law of effectsEdward Thorndikeclassical conditioning is associated withPavlovoperant conditioning is associated withSkinnerwhen speaking of conditioning, the word conditioned meanslearnedskinners operant conditioning is also calledinstrumental learningrespondent behavior refers toreflexespavlovs conditioning is also calledrespondentnegative reinforcement is not the same aspunishmentmost effective time interval between CS and US is.5 or half a secondwhen the UCS is placed before the CS, what happensnothing, no conditioning; called backward conditioningstimulus generalizationthe tendency to respond to a stimulus that is only similar to the original conditioned stimulus with the conditioned responsestimulus discriminationa learned ability to differentiate among similar productsexperimental neurosis occurs whenthe experiment becomes too difficult and the subject cant differentiate between stimuli that are almost identicalextinction occurs whenthe conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with an unconditioned stimulusJohn b Watson is associated withlittle albertone way to promote extinction of a behavior is toto ignore a behaviorbehavior modification strategies are based mainly oninstrumental conditioning, or Skinnerbehavior therapy is based mainly onclassical conditioning, or Pavlovoriginal studies done to prove animals can be conditioned done byNeal Millersignificance of Little Albert experiment wasfear does not come from psychopathology within unconscious mind, but from learningMary Cover Jones proved what about learningit could be used as a treatment for phobiasdepth psychology =topographic workcounseling paradigm also meanstreatment modelconcreteness also meansspecificitybiofeedbackdevices are used to primarily teach clients to relax or to control the bodyhigher order conditioningwhen a new stim is paired with the CS and the new stim takes on the power of the CStemperature trainerindividuals can ward off migraines by raising the temperature in their handEMG therapydirect muscle feedbackpremack principleefficient reinforcer is what the client likes to do; use higher probability behavior to reinforce lower probability behaviorEEG provides what feedbackbrain wave rhythmscontinuous reinforcementreinforcing the desired response every time it occurstwo basic reinforcement schedulesratio and interval"interval" is based ontime rather than number of responsesThe most difficult intermittent schedule to extinguish is the ____________.variable ratioSUDS was coined byJoseph WolpeSUDS meanssubjective units of disturbance scalethe SUDS is used forcreating the anxiety hierarchy; 0 is total relaxation and 100 is most anxiety producinga stimulus which accompanies a primary reinforcer takes on reinforcement properties of its own, this is calledsecondary reinforcerbackup reinforcerany reinforcer that makes a conditioned or generalized reinforcer effective- can be purchased using tokensaversive conditioninga type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)behavioral rehearsalA role-playing strategy in which a client acts out a behavior he wants to change or acquire. Can be quite useful in assertiveness training.systematic desensitization steps1) relaxation training. 2) construction of anxiety hierarchy. 3) desensitization in imagination. 4) in vivo desensitizationbehavioral sex therapy also calledsensate focuscovert sensitizationclient is instructed to imagine a relief scene such as an enjoyable feelingfloodinga person is exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguishedimplosive therapyan exposure technique in which clients are helped to imagine being kept in a feared but harmless situationbehavior therapists shy away from punishment becausethe effects are usually temporary and it teaches aggressionwhich theorist did not believe that punishment was effectiveSkinnerneophytebeginnerlogotherapy meanshealing through meaningparadoxical intentionadvising the client to purposefully exaggerate dysfunctional behavior in the imaginationexistentialismconsidered humanistic; helps client discover meaning in his or her life by doing deed, experiencing value, or sufferingwho is founding father of CBTEllisexistential therapy criticized forbeing too vague regarding techniques and proceduresbehavior therapy criticized fortoo simplistic and does not deal with underlying causesexistentialists focus onthe here and nowthe I-Thou relationship asserts thatthe relationship is horizontalTheorists that are existentialistsFrankl, Yalom, and Maycognitive triad of depression coined byBeckUmwelt meansphysical worldMitwelt meansrelationship worldEigenwelt meansidentity worldFrankl learned in concentration camps thatyou cannot control the environment, you can control your responseexistentialists emphasize the choice, decision, and willphenomenology refers toclients internal personal experience of eventsontology refers tothe philosophy of being and existingWilliam Glasser coinedreality therapyreality therapy incorporatedcontrol therapy, later called choice therapywhat is the purpose of discussing the past with reality therapyto identify successful behaviorsGlasser's position on mental illnessdiagnostic labels give clients permission to act sick or irresponsible.relationship of client/counselor in reality therapylike friend who asks what is wrongGlasser book that popularized reality therapySchools without Failurefinal step in Glassers theory isto never give uppositive addiction according to glasserpositive behaviors like joggingGlasser- responsible person will have what identitysuccessAlbert Ellis coined what therapyRational emotive behavior therapyREBT change of cognitions also known asself-talk and internal verbalizationsPhilosopher closely related to REBTEpictetusABC theoryactivation event, belief system, emotional consequenceABC theory D and Edisputing irrational belief, new emotional consequenceshoulds and oughts are examples ofmusturbationsbibliotherapy is a form ofhomeworkwho coined ABC TheoryEllisEllis' feelings towards animal studiesonly humans think in declarations (internal dialogue)"pictures in your mind" belong to what theoryGlasser's choice theorywho coined RBTMaxie Maultsby Jrwho created Beck Depression InvetoryAaron BeckCognitive Therapy and Beck believes what about thoughtsdysfunctional ideas are too absolute and broad though not necessarily irrationalstress inoculation training related toDonald MeichenbaumTA therapists incorporate what technique into therapyGestaltPAC three ego statesParent, Adult, Childtwo functions of parent ego statenurturing parent/critical parentthe adult ego state...processes facts and does not focus on feelings.the child ego state can also be calledarchaeopsychethe child ego state manifests itself asthe natural child, the adapted child and the little professorTA asserts what about communicationhealthy transactions occur when vectors of communication run parallelgames and levels work likefirst degree is minimal harm but as level increases, harm does toounpleasant feelings after a game are calledracketslife scripts area life dramaFritz Perls createdgestalt therapyEmpathy and counselor effectiveness scales created byCarkhuff and GazdaNLP isneurolinguistic programmingplaying the projection meansacting like the person you dislikeexaggeration experiments resemble...paradox techniquegoal of gestalt is to change verbalization to...I statementsONET replaced theDOT, Dictionary of Occupational TitlesGestalt focuses on thehere and now; psychodramaRetroflectionact of doing to yourself what you really wish to do to someone else (gestalt concept)gestalt meansa form, figure, or configuration unified as a wholePerls suggested how many layers of neurosis55 layer of neurosis by Perlsphony, phobic, impasse, implosive, and explosivePerls layers must be peeled back in order to reach whatemotional stabilityunexpressed emotions in gestalt known asunfinished businessGestalt therapy emphasizesthe here and now and dream workgestalt therapy utilizes what techniquestop dog, underdog, empty chaircritics on gestalt thinkoften fails to emphasize cognitive concernspeak period of competition between schools of counseling and therapylate 1960sgolden age of developmental psychology1950sage of biofeedback, behavior mod, and crisis hotlines1970sage of licensing and professional improvement1980srelationships with gestalt therapists are ___ whereas relationships with rogerian therapists are____slower, fasterCarl Rogers technique three name changesnondirective, client-centered, person-centeredRogers approach is characterized asexistential or humanistic; "third force"Rogers viewed man asPositive when he develops in a warm, accepting, trusting environmentwhat kind of therapist would treat all clients the same regardless of diagnosisperson centeredcongruence of the counselor occurs whenexternal behaviors match internal response or stateRogers- how many conditions necessary for client change to occurthree; genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathic understandingCritics of the Rogerian approach feel thatsome degree of directiveness is needed after the initial phase of counseling & more confrontation is necessary, though Rogers did encourage caring confrontationscounselors who work as consultants...usually do not adhere to one single theoryverbal trackingattending behavior that is verbal; occurs when you give client your complete attentionareas that cause problems for counselor's self imagecompetence, power, and intimacyAllen Ivey 3 types of empathybasic, subtractive, and additivebasic empathycounselors is same as clientssubtractive empathyThe counselor's behavior does not completely convey an understanding of what has been communicated.additive empathyMost desirable since it adds to the client's understanding and awarenesswho helped create a program to help counselors learn empathytruax and carkhuffdyada unit of two functioning as a pairPrior to the 1960s most counseling took place in adyadic relationshipgroup therapy was coined byJacob Moreno; 1931which orgs were created for group therapyamerican society for group psychotherapy and psychodrama, American group psychotherapy associationwhose work influenced the group movementAdler and DAvisprimary groups arepreventative and attempt to ward off problemsa secondary groupproblem or disturbance is present but usually not severetertiary groups aredeals more with individual difficulties that are longstanding and seriousgroup therapy flourished as a result ofa shortage of therapists during WWIIgroup content meansthe material discussed in a group settinggroup process meansthe manner in which discussions and transactions occursome feel group therapy differs from counseling in therapy would last longer in duration than counselingwhen it comes to groups, what is known about structured/ unstructured technqiuesstructured are LESS effective than unstructured as structured can lead to group stages being passed overrisky shift phenomenontendency for groups to make more risky decisions than individuals; related to the more general phenomenon of group polarizationthe T is Tgroups stands fortrainingassertiveness training groups arebehavioristic and highly structuredACA and ASGW recommend ____ group membersscreeningthe most important trait for group members isthe ability to trustthree leadership stylesautocratic, democratic, laissez-faireautocratic leadershipauthoritariandemocratic leadershipparticipativelaissez faire leadershipmembers do as they please without interference from leadercross purposes occur in groups whenthe leaders do not meet between sessionseffective groups have __ members5-6 or 8children groups have __ members than adult groupslesshow much time is suggested for group sessions1.5 to 2 hoursare group members allowed to leave closed groupsyes, whenever they wantstudy of group operationsgroup dynamicsdynamic vs static groups arealways changing vs. permanenta common weakness in groupsa lack of goal settinga structured group utilizesan abundance of group exercisescritics of "unstructured groups" saygroups have to have structure, just depends on levelenergizer rolestimulates enthusiasm in the groupthe scapegoat rolethe one everyone blamesgatekeeper roletries to make sure everyone is doing their part and is participating; secretly wishes they were the leaderthe interrogator roleasks inappropriate questions also known as the peeping tomtask roles in groups meanmember rolesrole conflictdiscrepancy between the way one is expected to behave and the way they actually behavewhen does group planning occurbefore the group begins and continues throughout the life of the groupdiagram that shows the dynamics between subgroups and memberscharting pictorial sociogramhorizontal interventionsworking with the group as a wholevertical interventionsworking with an individual within a groupdoes a group therapist make more or less decisions than an individual therapistmoreexperts think that group leaders will be more like ___ in the futurelife skill trainerswhy do researchers think groups are effective?they actually cannot pinpoint an answera limitation when it comes to group work leadersthey can lose control of group and members experience emotional harmresearch shows what qualities are least helpful for group leadersflexibility, enthusiasm, and common senseConyne suggested that group intervention is intended to _______ behavior.prevent, correct, or enhance behaviorbest way for leader to assess impact of grouphave outsider sit in on group sessions and rate level of behavioral changewho coined trait and factor matching theoryEG Williamsonwho coined the six personality and work environments career typologyJohn Hollandwho coined the self-concept and development stage theoryDonald Superswho coined the early childhood need-theory approachAnne Roewho coined the learning theory of career counselingJohn Krumboltzwho coined the theory of circumsciption and compromiseLinda Gottfredsonwho coined the 8 career anchors theoryEdgar Scheinwhen did lifestyle and career development begin to be emphsizedsince the beginning of counseling and guidance movementresearch shows in career development and students that...a high proportion of students in HS wanted guidance in career interestsdo students want more or less vocational guidance than they recieve?morethose with bachelors degrees make how much more a year than those with HS degrees10,000$Frank Parsons was the father ofvocational guidancewhich career theory believes there is one set career for each person and it is not developmentaltrait and factor theroyWilliamson's work on the Minnesota Viewpoint uses what scaleMinnesota Occupational Rating Scaletrait and factor theory does not take what into accountindividual change through lifespanAnne roe believed that career choice was based on...the premise that jobs satisfy an unconscious needRoe was the first to use two dimensional system of classification using...levels and fieldsan example of Anne Roes fields areservice, science, and artsan example of anne roes levels isunskilled, managerial, skilledRoe's three basic parenting stylesoverprotective, avoidant, and acceptantRoe believed parenting style meant the child would...develop personality that will gravitate it towards or away from peoplemaslows heigharchy of needslower order needs must be met before higher level needs can be fulfilledsupport for Roes theory comes fromthe Rorschach and TATRoe believed that career was influenced bygenetics, parent child interaction, unconscious motivators, and needs/ interests/ educationAnne Roe believed that career choice helpedfulfill ones needsjob refers toa given position or similar positions within an organizationoccupation refers tosimilar jobs occupied by different people in different settingswhich career theorists emphasized the unconsciousRoe and BordinBordin felt that difficulties related to job choice meantneurotic symptomstheorist, Brill, emphasized which ego defense mechanismsublimationthe most popular work in career counseling reflects which theoristJohn HollandHolland coined how many personality orientations6Hollands 6 Personality Categoriesrealistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventionalRoe, Brill, and Holland are what types of theoristspersonality/ structuralHolland approach believes that an appropriate job allows a person toexpress his or her personalityfrom Holland's categories, a MS teacher would besocialthe enterprising person...likes to sell to others or perform leadership tasksthe realistic person (Holland theory) might bea truck driver, auto mechanic, or plumberthe investigtive personality typelike to think his or her way through a problem; chemist, scientistthe conventional personality type values...conformity, structure, rules, and subordinate roleswhat did holland believe about an individuals modal orientationpeople are not purely their personality type, and often can be described by multiple not just oneHoppock's theory is based on the work of ______ and is a personality approach like Holland's.Henry MurrayHenry Murray created what appraochneed press theory and the TATdevelopmental career theoristsGinzberg, Ginsberg, Axelrad, and HermaGinzberg and colleagues now believe development of career choice is three things:process of choosing career does not end at age 20; career decisions are made throughout life; career choice is reversibleGinzberg and colleagues initially believed in what three stages of career developmentfantasy, tentative, and realisticmost popular developmental theoristDonald SuperSuper emphasized whatthe self concepthow many life stages did Super theory emphasize5Super's life span theory includes the life career ___.rainbowSuper believed that the roles of the career rainbow were played out intheaters of home, community and school/ workwho worked on research of career/ vocational maturityJohn Crites; Career Maturity Inventorydecision making theory refers toPeriods of anticipation and implementationWho proposed the decision making theoryDavid Tiedeman and Robert OHaraKrumboltz's Social Learning Theory was based on the work ofAlbert BanduraKrumboltz model isa behavioristic model of career developmentGelatt Decision Model was created byHarry Gelattthe Gelatt model was organized into three systems:predictive(possible alternatives), value (ones preferences) and decision (rules and criteria for outcome)Linda Gottfredson theory focuses oncircumscription (people restrict choices) and compromise (when they do, they often sacrifice field ofwork before they sacrifice sex-type behavior)how do most adults in Us secure jobsinformation in ads in newspaperOOH meansoccupational outlook handbookthe DOT listed20k job titlesin the DOT, each job was given...9 digit codethe first 3 numbers in the DOT codes arethe occupational groupbest place to find stats on average wages in each stateBureau of Labor Statstrends in the job market can be found in theOOHthe SOC codes jobs based onsimilar worker functionthe SIC classifies jobs based ontype of activity they are engaging inmen are often overrep in ___ positions while women often have___.labor and executive; pink collar jobsunderemployment occurs whena worker engages in a position which is below his or her skill levelthe average person will have __ jobs in their lifetime10-15self efficacy theory is based on work ofBandura; belief or expectation of being successful in occupation causes individual to gravitate toward particular occupationSystem of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI) iscomputer assisted career guidance systems (CACG)spillover occurs whenindividuals work spills over into free time offwork interface isthe connection between family and worksegmentation iswhen work and family are kept separatecompensatory effect sugggestsworkers compensate for thing he or she cant do on jobthe recency effectoccurs when raters judgment of employee reflects primarily his or her most recent performanceleniency/ strictness biasoccurs when a rater tends to give employees very high/lenient or very low/strict ratings while avoiding the middle or so-called average rangethe National Vocational Guidance Association became theAPGA in 1952the strong interest inventory (SCII) is based on the work ofHollandthe SCII measuresinterests not abilitiesthe self directed search (SDS) isbased on work of holland; self administered; self scored and self interpretedsedentary work meansmax lifting 10 lbslight work impliedmaximum lifting 20 lbshidden job market impliesmost jobs are not advertisedthe SDS score revealsthe individuals 3 highest scores based on Holland personality typehexagon displays are associated withHollandKuder Career Planning System is best forK-12, post secondary and even adultsthe ONET profiler grew from which career theorytrait and factor movementreentry women refers towomen who go from working within the home to working outside of the homecareer anchor theory coined byScheinThe in-basket technique would be best whenyou are on a hiring committee and assessing candidates for a managerial positionthe in basket technique isa simulation where a basket is given to a candidate that has memos, emails, phone calls, requests, and complaints that a manager would have to handle after being off work for a period of timejob clubs by Azrin et al isbehavioristicwho believes that we choose a job to meet our needsHoppockappraisals arethe process of assessing or estimating attributessubjective meansopinionobjective measnfact; scores are an example; think "opposite of opinion"the NCE and CPCE are examples of what kind of testforced choice/ responsewhat kind of index indicates the percentage of people who answer each item correctlydifficultyin normative format testseach item is independent of all others; can be compared to others that took the testin ipsative measurestraits are compared within the same individual; they do not compare a peopleachievement tests measuremaximum performance or present level of skillpersonality tests or interest inventories measuretypical performancein a cyclical test you have...sections that are spiral in nature; each section goes from easy to harda test battery is considereda horizontal testin test battery approach...several meaures are used to produce results that could be more accurate than those derived from a single sourcetwo test versions, or forms of the test that are interchangeable, can be calledparallel forms or equivalent formsThe most critical factors in test selection arevalidity and reliabilitywhich is more important: validity or reliability?validityvalidity measureswhether the test really measures what you should measurereliability measureshow consistent the measures area test can be _____ but not _______reliable but not valid____ measures are more reliable than ___ measures.physical ; psychologicalconstruct validity refers tothe extent that a test measures an abstract trait or psychological notion; think social constructcriterion validity meanshow well your test stacks up against other tests that measure the same thingscriterion validity can also be calledconcurrent or predictive validitya valid test is alwaysreliablesplit half correlation methodTaking the entire test as a whole and then the test is divided into halves even #s on one half and odd #s on 2nd half). The correlation between the half scores yields a reliability coefficient.Interrater (interobserver) reliabilityseveral people rate/ score the same performance; think having multiple professors read your essay to average gradewhat reliability coe. is perfect with no error1.00what realiability coefficient is excellent but not perfect.90a reliability coefficient of .70 means70% of the score is accurate/ was measured accurately while 30% is inaccuratean acceptable reliability coefficient for psychological tests is.70an acceptable reliability coefficient for admissions/ jobs is.80coefficient of determinationr^2; if the RC is .70, then .70x.70= .49 = 49%coefficient of determination is also called thevarianceIQ meansintelligence quotientwho concluded that IQ was normally distrubted and primarily geneticGaltonwho believed that intelligence was a unitary factorGaltonwho is known for thoughts on convergent and divergent thinkingJP GuilfordKuder Richardson coefficients of equivalence is used formeasuring internal consistency without splitting the test in halfcross validation occurs whenna researcher tests criterion validity by testing a new samplefirst intelligence test administered byBinet and Simonthe Stanford Binet IQ test is what type of measurestandardizedIQ is measured by what formulaMA/CA x 100how are tasks defined on the BINET intelligence testage related; one in which 50% of those in that age can answer correctlywhat was the Stanford Binet test made fordiscriminating children without an intelligence disability from those with onethe Stanford Binet can be used on those what age to what age2 yrs to adulthoodthe Stanford Binet now uses what formula for intelligenceSAS- standard age scorethe Wechsler IQ test is better than the Stanford Binet in thatthe Stanford Binet isnt best for testing adultsthe WPPSI is best for what ages2 yrs 6 months to 7 yrs 7 months; think "P" = preschoolthe WAIS-IV is best for what ages16-90; think "A" = adultthe WISC-IV is best for what ages6-16the mean and SD of the Stanford Binet are100 and 16group tests in school are beneficial because...they are quick to administerthe group IQ movement began during what eventWW1 with Army Alphaa culture fair test means thatitems are known to the subject regardless of their cultureBlack vs White IQ controversy was spakred by an article written byArthur Jensenthe MMPI is what form of teststandardized personality test; minnesota multiphasic personality inventorypsychometric meansany form of mental testingin a projective test, the client is shownneural stimulithe 16 PF reflects the work ofRaymond B CattellMyers-Briggs Type Indicator reflects the work ofCarl Jungcounselors that favor projective measures are aligned aspsychodynamic cliniciansaptitude is to ____ as achievement is to ____.potential; what can still be learnedthe TAT uses...picturesthe Rorschach uses..10 inkblot cardsthe bender visual motor gestalt test isan expressive projective measure; can discern whether brain damage is evident or notinterest inventories are best with what agethose in HS or olderwhat is one criticism of interest inventoriesthey minimize blue collar jobsAARC stands forAssociation for Assessment and Research in Counseling, created in 1965the NCE is anacheivement testwhat are examples of aptitude testsONET and MCATSocial disirability biasa person tried to answer questions on a test in a socially acceptable mannerwhat is an example of a test that could be both an aptitude and an achievement testGREstandard error of measurement tellsshow accurate or inaccurate a test score ishow is a reliability coefficient affected by test lengthincreasing length of test raises reliability; shortening it lowers reliabilitypsychological tests can helps secure what kind of diagnosisDSM or ICDwhere can you find out the population best suited for an assessmentthe test manual included with testa major testing trend iscomputer assisted or computer interpretationsthe Wechsler mean and SD100; 15a word association test is an example of what kind of testprojectiveInfant IQ tests are....more unreliable than those given later in life.item difficulty ranges from0.0-1.0....the higher the difficulty (.75) the more people who will get items right (75% will get right)Lewing Terman was responsible foramericanizing the Binet assessmentthe most valuable type of researchthe experiment, used to discover cause-and-effect relationshipsexperiments are parsimonous, which meansthey interpret results in the simplest wayanother term for parsimony isOccams Razornondirective is synonymous withperson centeredhypothesis testing is related most toRA Fisherin order to compare a control group to the experimental group you needa test of significanecA test of significance is intended to assessthe evidence provided by data against the null hypothesis in favor of the alternative hypothesisp in a test of sig meansprobabilityan accepted probability level is.05 or higher (.01)the best sig level to rule out chance factors is.001type 1 error happens whenyou reject the null and the null is true (alpha)type 2 error occurs whenyou accept the null when the null is false (beta)the null hypothesis meansthe IV had no impact on the DVwhat happens to type 1 and 2 errors when sample size is changedraising sample size helps reduce risk of errors to occurwht happens to type 1 and 2 errors when sig level changes from .05 to .001 (strengthens)alpha (1) decrease, beta (2) increasewhat kind of stat test tests for differences between two groupst testif more than two groups are being assessed, which stat assessment is usedANOVAone was ANOVA is used for testingone independent IV of multiple samplesa two way ANOVA is used for testingtwo independent variables with multiple samplesto complete a t test you consult a table oft valuesto complete an ANOVE test, you consult a table ofF valuecorrelation studies result inrelationshipspositive correlation occurs when both variables...change in same directionnegative correlations occur when variableschange in oppositive directionsN=1 is what type of design?intensive experimental designthe first step in an experimental design is totake a baseline measurementin a basic curve, the point of maximum concentration is called themmodethe most useful measure of central tendencymeanin a factorial experiment...Several experimental variables are investigated and interactions can be noted. Factorial designs include 2 or more IVs.the ___ is always the highest point of a distributionmodepositively skewed distribution, the tail isto the rightnegatively skewed distribution, the tail isto the lefta bar graph is also calleda histogramthe horizontal line under a distribution is calledthe x axisthe x axis could also be calledabscissathe y axis could also be calledordinatewhat happens to range with sample sizeit increaseswhat is the 68% rule with stats68% of the scores fall between -1 and +1 SD from the meanz scores are the same asSDPlatykurtic distributionFlatter and more spread out than a normal curve. (Memory: 'Plat' sounds like 'flat')Leptokurtic distributionDistribution curve is very tall, thin and peaked. (Memory: Leptokurtic leaps tall buildings in a single bound.)stanine scoresdivides the distribution into 9 equal intervals. Stanine 1 = the lowest ninth of the distribution. Stanine 9 = the highest ninth of the distribution. Stanines have a mean of 5 and a standard deviation of about 2the DSM is what kind of measurement scalenominalordinal scalea scale of measurement in which the measurement categories form a rank order along a continuumratio scalemeasurement that has a natural, or absolute, zero and therefore allows the comparison of absolute magnitudes of the numbersinterval scalea scale of measurement in which the intervals between numbers on the scale are all equal in sizepsychological attributes cannot be measured using what scaleratiothe simplest form of descriptive researchsurveythe return/ completion rate of the survey is50-75%Hawthorne effectif the subjects know they are part of an experiment, or given attention as part of the experiment, their performance can increasethe Rosenthal effectexperimenter belief about the individual may cause the individual to be treated in a special way so the individual begins to fulfill the expectancythe Halo effectwhen a trait which is not being evaluated influences a researcher's rating on another traita causal comparative experimentaims to find the cause and effect relationship between two groupsregression predicts thatvery high and very low scores will move towards the mean if a test if administered againin a longitudinal studythe same people are studied over timedemand characteristicscues in an experiment that tell the participant what behavior is expectedwhat test can you rely on to test sig differences between groups in ANOVADuncan, Tukey or Scheffescounterbalancing in a studyswitching the order in which stimuli are presented in a studyERIC isa database for primary and seconday resourcesstratified samplingwhen you want specific characteristicscluster samplinga sampling technique in which clusters of participants that represent the population are usedan operational definitionoutlines the procedureExample of nonparametric testMann Whitney U test; Wilcoxon, Solomaninductive reasoninggoes from specific to generaldeductive reasoninggoing from general to specificstandard error of measurementwhat will most likely occur if the same individual took the same test againautonomynotion that person has the right to control his or her own lifemaleficencecounselor never uses strategies that could cause harmbeneficenceDoing good or causing good to be done; kindly actionjusticeall should be treated fairly and there is equalityveracityhelper is truthfulwhich group opposed counselor licensurepsychologiststhe AACD focus on credentialing led to what group formationNBCCwho published the first code of ethicsAPAstandards of conduct (ethics) are imposed byACA and NBCCState laws govern title usage and practice, however, they do not govern ______.accreditationprivileged communicationis a legal concept that protects clients, not counselorsprivileged communication is decided byeach stateprivileged communication is qualified meansexceptions exist (neglect, abuse, etc.)if you state does not support privileged communication...your client does not have the right to say NO if information is requestedthe tarasoff case implies that you shouldwarn the intended victimwhat is the exception to releasing clients tests or assessments when court orderedif they show they are in imminent dangerwhat is one differences in the psychologist/ counselor movementspsychologists are working to eliminate those with less than a doctorate degreewhich APGA division was the most instrumental in pushing for licensing wasAmerican counselor education and supervisiona CRC isCertified Rehabilitation Counselora registry isa list of providersa malpractice company will not support you ifyou are sexually involved with a clientCAC meansComputer assisted counseling; counseling assistant do the counseling for youCMC meanscomputer managed counseling; tasks like bookkeeping and schedulingNBCC code of ethics regarding research studies impacting gradesparticipating or not cannot impact a students gradebartering is ethical if...the client suggests it, and a contract is written up for ita collection agencyis in charge of receiving payments from clients for sessionswhich type of counseling causes the most ethical concernsbehavioraldiagnostic codes have how many numbers4-5a single diagnostic code can represent how many diagnosesmultiple; thats why we list the name of the disorder after itmental health treatment service type is coded byAMAs Current Procedural Terminologywho proposed the most popular paradigm in mental health consultationCaplandoctor patient consultation model associated withScheinthe first counselors in the US were calleddeans and advisorsthe first psychology lab was set up byWilhelm Wundtcounseling became popular after the publication ofWorkbook in Vocations by William Proctormajor trend that impacted counseling in 1980cretification and licensingwith 1950s led to great strides in whcih areadevelopmental psychologywhich movement began in the late 1960agroupthe book, the counselor in a changing world, emphasized that counselors shouldlook at developmental concerns rather than merely focusing on crisis and curing emotional illnessa primary problem in the 1960s was thatwrongly emphasized intrapsychic processesthe new DSM isnonaxialthe fastest growing clientele for counselors are thosexperiencing marriage and family problemscircular/ reciprocal causality also meansdynamics of family memberscyberneticssuggests family has feedback loops to self correct family systemcybernetics is associated withnorbert wieneradaptability means the family can balance...stability and change, morphostasis and morphogenesisaspirational ethicsideal or optimal practice; wanting to do probono work for family that cant afford sessionsexperiential conjoint family therapy related tovirginia satirconjoint family therapytwo or more family members are in therapy sessionSatir 4 basic patterns prevented good communication under stressplacating, blaming, being overly reasonable, and being irrelevantplacating meanstrying to please others out of fear of rejectionthe one who is overly reasonableis likely to engage in the defence mechanisms of intellectualizationone that displays the irrelevant stylewill distract the family from the problem by constantly talking about irrelevant topicswho is called the dean of experiential family therapycarl whitakercarl whitakers approach with the family looks likejoining the family and experiencing it as if he were a members of ita cotherapist is helpful according toCarl Whitakerpsychotherapy of the absurd is primarily related toCarl WhitakerDavid Premack's principle or lawsuggests that a family member must complete an unpleasant task before he or she is allowed to engage in pleasant taskreciprocacy in marriageasserts that in most cases two people will reinforce each other at about the same level over time; when this doesnt happen, discord may result (divorce)family sculpting was coined byVirginia Satirfamily sculpting isexpressive/ experiential technique in which a family member places other family members in positions that symbolize their relationships with other family membersis remarriage common today?yeshow many parents remarry after divorce30% remarry within 12 months of divorceAckerman was concerned withinternal feelings and thoughts of each individual as well as the dynamics between themwhich theorist is associated with psychodynamic family counselingNathan Ackermanin psychdynamic therapy, object meansa significant other with whom a child wishes to bondintrojects meansa person unconsciously internalized the positive and negative characteristics of the objects within themselvessplitting as a psychoanalytic concept meansa client sees an object as either all good or all badsecond order change ismore desirable than first order; involves change in family structure that alters undesriable behavioral patternsfirst order changesuperficial changeswho are the 3 famous psychoanalytic family therapistsAckerman, Framo and SkynnerMadanes and Haley are associated withstrategic school of family counselingJay Haley's first degree was inthe arts and communication field rather than helping professionsa directive or prescription is whenwhen the therapist tells a client or family what to doa double bind concept using Haleys strategic therapyno win situation characterized by contradictory messages such as never smoking again and then smoke as much as you wanta paradoxical directiveA technique in strategic family therapy whereby the therapist directs family members to continue their symptomatic behavior. Change occurs through defying the directive.a paradoxical strategy exampleprescribing the symptomreframingwhen you redefine a situation in a positive contextstrategic therapy ispragmatic and often focuses on abating symptomsIncongruous Hierarchya family relationship in which a minor figure controls the family dynamic.Madanes pretend techniquesfamily enacts a make-believe scenario of the problema therapist using restraininghelps overcome resistance by suggesting that it might be best if the family does not changepositioning occurs whena helper accepts the clients predicament and exaggerates the conditionwhat are three paradoxical techniquesrestraining, positioning, and prescribingcultural encapsulation occurs whena counselor is imposing goals from his or her own culture on people from another cultureAA families:fewer are getting married; are less concerned about gender roleswhich approaches are best for an AA family in therapyBowens, Minuchins, or Haleys; solution focused/ problem focused and multigenerationalwhich approach is best for Asian American familiessolution focused/ problem focused modalitiesOlson, Sprenkle and Russell suggested what about familiesfamily functioning can be described in 2 dimensions: cohesion and adapatbilityadaptability refers tohow rigid, structured, flexible the family iswhat is true about American Indiansthey have a problem with alcoholism and suicidewho coined triangulationMurray Bowentriangulation meanswhen there are two individuals (dyad) under stress,a third person is recruited to help stablizie difficultiy between original 2Primary goal of Bowens intergenerational family therapydifferentiationdifferentiationthe extent that one can separate one's intellect from one's emotional selfwho popularized genogramsBowenwho created structural family therapySalvador Minuchinenactmentstrategy that allows counselor to see an instant replay of what genuinely transpires in the familyboundariesphysical and psychological entities that separate individuals and subsystems from others in the familyIn Minuchin's structural approach, clear boundaries areideal- firm yet flexiblerigid boundariesindividuals or subsystems being disengageddiffuse boundariesenmeshmentmimesisimitation; Minuchin therapyBowen and ____ are intergenerational therapistsIvan B-Nagydisengaged family memberemotionally distantthe pervasive trianglea situation when two members who are at different levels of the family hierarchy team up against another family memberwho was a pioneer in the early history or family therapyAlfred Adlerwhich theorist was atheoreticalCarl Whitakersolutions oriented therapy focuses primarily onthe futurenarrative therapy is associated with the work ofmichael white, Cheryl white, and david epstonnarrative therapy fit into new category calledpost modern or constructivismconstructivism or social constructivism assertsthat a client constructs or invents the way he or she percieves the worldTom anderson used radical approaches based ona one way mirror and a reflecting treatment teamPostmodernismAssumes that there are no fixed truths in the world, only people's individual perception of what constitutes reality or the truthConstructivismStresses that therapy should be less hierarchy's; a helper does not treat a client, but the client and the helper have a conversation to be collaborativeThe term skeleton keys belongs to which theorist and theorySteve de shakers and brief solution focused therapySkeleton keys indicatesA standard or stock intervention that will work for numerous problemsWhat is one criticism of cog behavioral methods like REBT with familiesCognitive disputing could go against cultural messagesExperts predict in 21st century counseling willBe more integrative, eclecticBrief solution oriented therapy sometimes usesA one way mirror but is it not requiredIn a within subjects designEach subject acts as his or her own controlIn research, X symbolizesThe treatmentIn research, O symbolizesThe observation or DVIn research, E is forExperiemntalIn reserach, C is forControl groupIn research, R is forRandom samplingIn research NR is forNo random samplingA time series designa research design where patterns of scores over time are compared from before a treatment is implemented and after a treatment is implementedA quasi experimental designAn experiment that does not require random assignment to conditions.In a Solomon 4 group...One control group receives a protest and one experimental group receives a protest; the other control group and experimental group do notWhat is the newest career theoryContructivist and cognitive approachedPEC in career counseling stands forPerson environment correspondenceExperts believe what about multigenerational habitationIt will increase with timeSCCT stands forSocial Cognitive Career TheoryCareer counseling refer to job shadowing and volunteering asInteractive activitiesCareer counselings refer to reading the job hunting book asNoninteractive activitiesUrie Bronfenbrenner proposed what theoryAn ecological systems theoriAn average IQ is100EQ stands firEmotional intelligenemetaanalysisa procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studiesthe barnum effectthe tendency to accept certain information as true, such as character assessments or horoscopes, even when the information is so vague as to be worthless.tryptophanrelated to serotonin in the brainwhich side of the brain is dominant in most peoplleft hemispheremultiple personality disorder is now calleddissociative identity disorderbulimia is more prevalent inwomen than menwhat is true of gay men and womenthey have basically the same range of gender roles as heterosexual men and womenparametric stats are used when the distribution isnormal and random sampling has been utilizedwhat notes are required by lawprogress notestraining in what area is not condoned by the aCAreparative or conversion therapyNPI meansNational provider Identifier, issued by Medicare & Medicaidwhen records are transferred to another clinician, what should happen when records are recievedthe other clinician should contact clients when they receive their recordsIS PATH WARM is a memory device for whatsuicidechild centered play therapy coined byVirginia Axlinegroup career counseling works best in what formstructured formwhat form of counseling is an international phenomenon used in China with college studentsgroup career counselingthe main purpose of group career counseling is toprovide information to participantsIn Bolles new book, What color is your parachute...he champions the idea of securing a network of persons who can help you with your job searchNathan Azrin's job club groups were based onbehaviorism based somewhat on positive reinforcementthe best activities used in structured career groups areactivities like gamesfetal origins hypothesisNutritional and other environmental insults that occur during gestation can affect the health of the offspring throughout life.program evaluations helps ____ answer questions posed by ___programs; stafffee splitting is believed to be...controversial as it appears to be similar to accepting a referral feeOARS core skills is part of whatmotivational interviewing by William Miller and Stephen Rollnickmotivational interviewing used what 4 steps:engaging, focusing, evoking, and planningIrvin Yalom believes most therapists are afraid oftheir own death and avoid the topicthere is recognition that those that are diagnosed with cancerwill have impacts on their mental healthwilderness therapy uses what paradigmmiltary and occurs effectively with a boot camp modelFERPA could also be calledthe Buckley Amendmentthose working at schools that do not receive federal fundingare exempt from FERPA guidelinesaccidental reinforcementA coincidence between a performance and a reinforcer.dispositional attributeswhen we credit a person's behavior due to their personal charactersituational or external attributionbelief that one's behavior is due to events in the current environment or events that cannot be controlled by the individual.fundamental attribution errorwhen a person attempts to look at somebody's negative behavior, failture, etc and come up with an explanationwhat theory is most aligned with telephone coachingDBT, Marsha Linehanfirst wave CBT treatments based onoperant and classical conditioningsecond wave CBT treatment focuses oncognitions depicted by work of Ellis and BeckThird wave CBT treatments useDBT, motivational interviewing, and ACTthe downward arrow techniquehelps to ferret out what the client is truly upset about and make the client aware of the issueclassical conditioning is based onpaired learnignoperant conditioning is based onrewards or punishmentteleologicalfuture event is responsible for the clients current behavior