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Unit 4 - Nationalism, Sectionalism, & the Age of Jackson
Terms in this set (77)
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
A KY politician. He developed the American System as well as negotiated numerous compromises.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Supreme court under one Federalist Chief Justice; established the power of the federal government over the states; supremacy clause
Fletcher v. Peck
Supreme Court case which protected property rights and asserted the right to declare state laws unconstitutional
Martin v. Hunter's Lessee
case involved VA law denying loyalist their property; Established the supremacy of federal courts over state courts and the federal court's power to review decisions made by the states
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
New Hampshire legislature tried to make a private school a public institution by revoking its charter;
Reaffirmed the sanctity of private contracts
McCulloch v. Maryland
Supreme Court upheld the creation of the national bank justified by the elastic clause and confirmed supremacy of the national government by denying states the right to tax federal institutions
Cohens v. Virginia
case involved illegal sale of lottery tickets; case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government
Gibbons v. Ogden
case involved a NY monopoly given to a steamboat company; Supreme Court reasserts that regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
Objectives of the Western Politicians
cheap land, easy credit, support in Native American conflicts
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in territories; to maintain Senate balance, one state entered as a free state and one entered as a slave state and the 36th parallel determined slave status of the remaining Louisiana Territory
Sought to forbid the further introduction of slaves into Missouri and mandated that all children of slave parents born in the state after its admission should be free at the age of 25; failed to pass the Senate
agreement that limited American and British naval forces on the Great Lakes
Treaty of 1818
Treaty between Britain and America, it allowed the Americans to share the Newfoundland fisheries with Canada, established northern border of LA Territory, and joint occupation of the Oregon Territory for the next 10 years
First Seminole War
Jackson marched into Florida to capture Seminole raiders; Jackson took over Spain's important military posts, and overthrew the governor of Florida - all without direct orders
Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
Lancaster Turnpike, Cumberland Road, Erie Canal, Railroads
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat
Invented the cotton gin
"Father of the Factory System" in America; escaped Britain with the memorized plans for the textile machinery; put into operation the first spinning cotton thread in 1791
textile mills in Massachusetts; workers were mostly single young farm women, who worked for a few years living in factory dormitories and then returned home to be housewives
Association of trade workers formed to gain higher wages and better working conditions
Commonwealth v. Hunt
(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions
McCormick Reaper & steel plow
(1831) Mechanized the harvest of grains, such as wheat, allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots. The introduction of the reaper in the 1830s fueled the establishment of large-scale commercial agriculture in the Midwest.
Came to the U.S. because of the Irish Potato Famine. Many worked in factories in harsh conditions for little pay
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants; often manifests as discrimination
Political party of the 1850s that was anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant
Expression used by Southern authors and orators before Civil War to indicate economic dominance of Southern industry and that North needed South's cotton. Coined by James Hammond
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America; resulted in stricter slave codes and southern state laws that stifled anti-slavery movements
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson
first major increase in American suffrage;. franchise (right to vote) extended to all white men (not just rich white men); Achieved by state legislation
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends
Tariff of Abominations
1828 law that significantly raised tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods; opposed in the South
small group of Jackson's friends and advisers who were especially influential in the first years of his presidency; Jackson conferred with them instead of his regular cabinet
political conflict over Jackson's appointment of John Eaton as secretary of war; Eaton was married to a woman of allegedly questionable character, and the wives of many prominent Washington politicians organized a campaign to snub her.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Court ruled that it lacked jurisdiction to hear the claims of an Indian nation against the state in which it resided. Accordingly, the Court dismissed the case.
Worcester v. Georgia
Supreme Court Decision - Cherokee Indians were entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments which would infringe on the tribe's sovereignty - Jackson ignored it
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled 800 miles to the assigned Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson when the state of South Carolina attempted to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828
John C. Calhoun
Jackson's VP & a South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
Debate in the Senate (MA vs. SC) that focused on sectionalism and nullification; Massachusetts Senator stated, "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable"
authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on tariffs; nullified by SC; never invoked
Proclamation to the People of South Carolina
President Andrew Jackson's edict stating nullification and disunion were treason
proposed as a resolution to the nullification crisis; gradually reduced tariff by 10% over a period of 8 years
Jackson's 1832 veto of the proposed charter renewal for the Second Bank of the United States. The veto marked the beginning of Jackson's five-year battle against the national bank.
Political Party led by Henry Clay; mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists; favored the BUS and the American System; generally upper class; against "King Andrew I" and took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
A United States executive order that was issued by President Andrew Jackson in 1836. This required that government land be paid for in gold and silver.
Panic of 1837
Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress; result of Jackson policies and wild speculation
Critical name for John Tyler, the first Vice President to succeed to the Presidency after the death of his predecessor; Whigs were disappointed that he did not adhere to their party doctrine
53 captive West Africans revolted at sea and seized control of the slave ship L'Amistad; US Navy captured ship & put freedom on trial; US Supreme Court ruled that the Amistad captives had been illegally enslaved & released them (against the opinion of President Van Buren)
2nd Great Awakening
Series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on methodism and baptism, stressed philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for protestants, therefore leading to reform movements
Charles G. Finney
This Presbyterian minister appealed to his audience's sense of emotion rather than their reason; "fire and brimstone" sermons became commonplace in upstate New York, where listeners were instilled with the fear of Satan and an eternity in Hell. He insisted that parishioners could save themselves through good works and a steadfast faith in God
Popular name for Western New York, a region particularly swept up in the religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening.
Prophet who founded Mormonism in New York in 1830 with the guidance of an angel; translated the Book of Mormon and died a martyr
A Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846; built a prosperous frontier theocracy and a cooperative commonwealth
A nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.
Emerson and Thoreau
transcendentalist authors; stressed self-reliance, self-improvement, anti-slavery, and freedom.
"On Civil Disobedience"
written after Thoreau was jailed for refusing to pay taxes that would support the Mexican War, as it would expand slavery; standing up to unjust laws
Brook Farm; George Ripley
experimental utopian commune in Massachusetts in 1841; created to provide a place where people could have full opportunity for self-realization; idealist and short-lived
groups of people who tried to form a perfect societies
Hudson River School
American artistic movement that produced romantic renditions of local landscapes.
campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
A reformer and pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill; responsible for improving conditions in jails, poorhouses and insane asylums throughout the U.S.
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education; "Father of the public school system"
Cult of Domesticity
social customs that restricted women to caring for the house; the ideal woman was a self-less, tender, caregiver for children, refuge for husbands, and a teacher of morality
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights
Seneca Falls Convention
(1848) the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
American Colonization Society
Reflecting the focus of early abolitionists on transporting freed blacks back to Africa, the organization established Liberia, a West-African settlement intended as a haven for emancipated slaves
Mott, Stanton, Anthony
Women's Suffrage; advocated equality for women and desired the right to vote because then they could more easily promote change
William Lloyd Garrison
Prominent abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer; published a biography and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women; famous for speech "Ain't I a Woman?"
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
AP Human Geography Chapter 1
Age of Jackson & Reform
Growth & Division (Nationalism & Sectionalism)
APUSH Unit 3: Articles of Confederation