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event that has no real informational or issue meaning; it exists merely to attract media attention.

viral marketing

PR strategy that relies on targeting specific Internet users with a given communication and relying on them to spread the word

Integrated Marketing Communications

combining public relations, marketing, advertising and promotion into a seamless communication campaign


the erosion of traditional distinctions among media

unique selling propositions

the aspect of an advertised product that sets it apart from other brands in the same product category


the little lie or exaggeration that makes advertising more entertaining that it might otherwise be

Cost Per Thousand

in advertising the cost of reaching 1000 audience members, computed by the cost of an ad's placement divided by the number of thousands of consumers it reaches.

psychographics segmentation

advertisers appeal to consumer groups of carrying lifestyles, attitudes, values and behavior patterns.

demographic segmentation

advertisers appeal to audiences composed of varying personal and social characteristics such as race, gender and economic level

Ambient Advertising

advertising content appearing in nontraditional venues


online advertising messages akin to billboards

Social Cognitive theory

idea that people learn through observation

cultivation analysis

idea that television "cultivates" or constructs a reality of the world that, although possibly inaccurate, becomes the accepted reality simply because we as a culture believe it to be the reality

Hypodermic Needle theory

idea that the media are a dangerous drug that can directly enter a persons system

Limited Effects Theory

medias influence is limited by peoples individual differences, social categories and personal relationships

Dissonance theory

argues that people when confronted by new information experience a kind of mental discomfort, a dissonance; as a result, they consciously and sub consciously work to limit or reduce that discomfort through the selective processes


the idea that viewers become more accepting of real world violence because because of its constant presence in television fare

Agenda Setting

the theory that media may not tell us what to think but do tell us what to think about


the false and malicious publication of material that damages a persons reputation (typically print media)


oral or spoken defamation of a persons character (typically applies to broadcasting)


rules and behaviors or moral principles that guide actions in given situations

Shield Laws

legislation that expressly protects reporters rights to maintain sources confidentiality in courts of law

Social Responsibility Theory

normative theory or model asserting that media must remain free from government control but, in exchange, must serve the public

First Amendment

congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speak or of the press; or the right of the people peacefully to assemble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievance

P.T Barnum

"theres a sucker born every minute" ;used newspapers and magazine to serve their cause; abolitionist?

Ivy Lee

issued declaration of Principles, arguing PR practitioners should be providers of information

Andrew Jackson

hired frist presidential press secretary

Henry Ford

began using staged events [races] to promote his cars, heavy use of image advertising

Edward Bernays

PR pioneer began emphasizing the value of assessing the publics feelings toward an organization

Volney Palmer

Advertising copy writer; expanding who reads your paper

FW Ayer

oldest, full service advertising agency started in 1869

Parity Products

advertisers were often forced to create a products unique selling propositions

complaints about advertising

Advertising is intrusive, advertising is deceptive, advertising exploits children , advertising demeans and corrupts culture

Defenses of Advertising

supports economic system, people use it for information, makes free mass media possible, increases national productivity


to persuade consumers attract ATTENTION, create INTERESTS, stimulate DESIRE, and promote ACTION

Direct Market Advertising

product or service advertising aimed at likely buyers rather than at all consumers is called direct market advertising.

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