55 terms

2.3 test

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what is polymerization
process of making polymers from monomers(smaller units)
what is condensation reaction
a reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger molecule, producing small molecule such as H2O as a byproduct.
Also called dehydration synthesis
What is dehydration synthesis
taking the water out in order to put them together
to reverse its called Hydrolosis
What forms proteins (what is the monomer)?
Amino acids form proteins.
How does an enzyme speed up a reaction?
They lower the activation energy
what are enzymes affected by?
temp and pH
What type of organic compound is a monosaccharide(simple sugar)c6h12o6?
glucose
fructose
galactose
What is RNA made up (what monomer)?
Nucleotides
What compound contains C and covalently bonds to other elements?
Carbohydrates
How many valence electrons are in C?
four
What is the main source of energy for living things?
The Sun
What is the stored excess sugar in a polysaccharide?
glucose
fructose
galactose
What is cellulose?
polysaccharide that is the major complex carbohydrate in plant cell walls
What helps maintain a protein's shape?
ionic and covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds
What are the functions of proteins?
They serve as enzymatic catalysts, they are used to transport molecules and store molecules(genetic code). They are also need more immune protection.
They carry things through the body
Build structures like hair and nails.
What are some uses of CHO?
-Energy for muscles
prevent protein from being used for energy
Store them as fats
main structure of plant cell walls
What are some examples of monosaccharides?
glucose
fructose
galactose
How to living things use fats?
They provide energy for cells, fat is also part of cell membranes.
Store energy & hormones
What are the two types of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
What is a polypeptide?
polymer of many amino acids linked by peptide bonds
a lot of peptides make an amino acid
What are polysaccharides
are chains of glucose molecules or (monosaccharides) molecules
How do plants use cellulose?
They help build their cell walls
What does the term saturated mean?
maximum # of hydrogen possible, carbon is hooked to all the hydrogens possible
Why are lipids important in cells
They are part of biological membranes, make up our cell wall, used to store energy, send signals to the cells
What elements make up nucleic acids?
Hydrogen,Carbon,Nitrogen, and Phosphorus
What makes up a triglyceride?
glycerol and three fatty acid chains
What is an amino acid?
carbohydrate with nitrogen hooked to it
What is an unsaturated fat and an example?
fatty acid molecule that has one or more double bonds between the carbons of its hydrocarbon chain; chain bears few hydrogens than the maximum number possible
-double bond in the carbon chain
-liquid at room temp
ex- plant oils
What is hydrophobic?
repels water
What is hydrophilic?
will dissolve in water
What are enzymes?
organic catalyst, usually a protein, that speeds a reaction in cells due to its particular shape
What is a polymer?
macro molecule consisting of covalently bonded monomers
Be able to identify examples of CHO, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins.
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What is cholesterol?
a compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues, including the blood and the nerves
-need it as you grow
What is glycogen?
storage polysaccharide found in animals; composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear fashion but having numerous branches
-complex carbohydrate
-animal starch
What is cellulose?
polysaccharide that is the major complex carbohydrate in plant cell walls
What is a hydrocarbon?
an organic molecule that is composed of only C and H
What is a functional group?
-influences the properties of the molecules they compose, structural building block that determines what the compound is
-ex. OH, alcohol NH,Amine Carboxyl= complex carbohydrate
What is starch?
complex carbohydrate that plants store
What are the common categories of lipids?
fatty acids,waxes, and steriods
What are the four organic compounds in living things?
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
Nucleic Acids
What are the components or functional groups of amino acids?
central carbon atom, single hydrogen atom, carboxyl group,amino group, r group
What are the parts of a nucleotide?
5-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group
Be sure to review your coloring sheet s and you are able to identify each of the organic compounds and all of the examples that fall into each of the four categories.
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Where do the molecules of life come from?
Carbon
What is different in every amino acids?
side chains
What are hydrocarbons?
carbons that are linked together with hydrogen around the outside (fatty acid)
What are the three types of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Polysaccharides
What are the the monomer of carbohydrates?
Sugar
What are the four nitrogen bases in DNA?
-Cytosine
-Guanine
-Adenine
-uracil
What are the four nitrogen bases in RNA?
Cytsosine
Guanine
-Adenine
-Thymine
What is the ratio of carbohydrates?
1:2:1
Where are glycoproteins located in a cell
Cell membrane
How many fatty acid tails do phospholipids have?
2 tails
What is the function of cholesterol
maintain the fluidity of the membrane