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a break or crack in the Earth's crust along which movement has occurred.

Most active faults are located at or near

plate boundaries.

When rocks are compressed horizontally, their layers may be deformed into wave-like forms called ...

folds. This commonly occurs during continental collisions.


an opening where magma is erupted onto the Earth's surface.


the process by which rocks are broken down by the action of water, air, and organisms.


the process by which earth materials are transported by moving water, ice, or wind.


the process by which Earth materials carried by wind, water, or ice settle out and are deposited.

Weathering accelerates

erosion and thus increases the rate of deposition.

The potential for erosion is

greatest in areas of high relief.

The potential for deposition is

greatest in areas of low relief, especially standing water, and particularly the ocean.

Soil is loose rock fragments and clay derived from weathered rock mixed with

organic material.

Karst topography includes features like

caves and sinkholes and forms when limestone is slowly dissolved away by slightly acidic groundwater.

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