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Psychology Chapter 6
Terms in this set (74)
encoding, the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory; storage, the process of maintaining information in memory over time; and retrieval, the process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored
What are the 3 key functions of memory
Memories are _______, no recorded
require participants to think about the meaning of words
require the participants to think about the sound of the words
required people to think about the appearance of the words. the occipital lobe is active.
the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory
Those participants who had made ______ judgments had much better memory for the words than did participants who had thought about how the word looked or sounded
visual imagery encoding
the process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures
the process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items.
What type of encoding yields the best memory: survival, moving, or pleasantness?
A type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less.
a fast-decaying store of visual information
fast-decaying store of auditory information
holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
the process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
Most people can keep approximately ___ items in short-term memory
combining small pieces of information into larger clusters
active maintenance of information in short-term storage
Working memory includes _______ that store and manipulate visual images or verbal information, as well as a central executive that coordinates the subsystems
long- term memory
holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years
Does long-term memory have capacity limits
the inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store
inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation
a process by which memories become stable in the brain
Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again.
experiments with rats showing that when animals are cued to retrieve a new memory that was acquired a day earlier, giving the animal a drug (or an electrical shock) that prevents initial consolidation will cause forgetting
What is the evidence of reconsolidation
long-term potentiation (LTP)
a process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier.
influences the flow of information between neurons by controlling the initiation of LTP in most hippocampal pathways
external information that is associated with stored information and helps bring it to mind
encoding specificity principle
theory that states a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded
do external contexts make powerful retrieval cues
the tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval
memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match
state of the memory system in important ways
Retrieval doesn't merely provide a readout of what is in memory; it also changes the ______________
a process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items
is there reason to believe that trying to recall an incident and successfully recalling one are fundamentally different processes that occur in different parts of the brain
successfully remembering a past experience tends to be accompanied by activity in the _______
trying to remembering a past experience tends to be accompanied by activity in the _______
Is there only 1 type of memory
when people consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences
past experiences influence later behavior and performance, even though people are not trying to recollect them and are not aware that they are remembering them
type of implicit memory; refers to the gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice, or "knowing how" to do things
an enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus
Is priming an example of explicit or implicit memory
make it easier
Priming seems to ________ for the parts of the cortex that are involved in perceiving a word or object to identify the item after a recent exposure to it
memory of meanings, understandings, and other concept-based knowledge, and underlies the conscious recollection of factual information and general knowledge about the world
the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated
What is the only form of memory that allows us to engage in "mental time travel," projecting ourselves into the past and revisiting events that have happened to us
Is the hippocampus necessary for acquiring new semantic memories
we rely heavily on ________ memory to envision the future
forgetting what occurs with the passage of time
during the storage phase of memory, after an experience has been encoded and before it is retrieved
When does transience occur?
later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier
earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later
a lack of attention
What makes people absentminded?
a form of memory that involves remembering to perform a planned action or intention at the appropriate time
a failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it (tip of the tongue)
their links to related concepts and knowledge are weaker than those for common terms
Why is blocking more common for names of people and places?
Name blocking usually results from damage to parts of the ___ temporal lobe
assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source
recall of when, where, and how information was acquired
the ability to remember information one has conveyed to others
Patients with damage to the ______ lobes are especially prone to memory misattribution errors because this lobe plays a significant role in effortful retrieval processes
a feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before
The persistent feelings that people get that they have lived the present moment before; seen in neuropsychological patients.
tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollection
We do not store all the details of our experiences in memory, making us vulnerable to accepting suggestions about what might have happened or should have happened
Why do people develop false memories?
the tendency to exaggerate differences between what we feel or believe now and what we felt or believed in the past
the intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget
detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events
What part of the brain is involved in persistence?
based on evolutionary theories of natural selection, memory mechanisms that help us survive should be passed down
similar to survival encoding, lack thoughts of survival, just arrangement
bias to reconstruct the past to fit the present
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GMAT - Math
Devise a plan of behavior modification (such as teaching your dog not to bark indoors or stopping your friend from knuckle cracking) by applying learning principles.
As you look down the road, the lines of the road seem to come together in the distance, even though you know they do not. Which depth cue explains this phenomenon? a. Relative motion. b. Retinal disparity. c. Interposition. d. Light and shadow. e. Linear perspective.
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