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Plessy v. Ferguson

1896. "Separate but equal" facilities are legal

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

1954. "Separate but equal" doctrine is unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy.
A second Brown v. Board case a year later (1955) determined that desegregation should occur with "all due process and deliberate speed" in response to southern states' refusal to integrate.

Heart of Atlanta Hotel v. United States

1964. Places of "public accommodation" like a hotel may not discriminate, per the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Katzenbach v. McClung

1964. The Commerce Clause giving Congress the power to regulate interstate trade makes the Civil Rights Act (1964) apply to almost all private businesses.

Regents of California v. Bakke

1978. Quotas for racial minority acceptance in to colleges violate the Fourteenth Amendment and constitute reverse discrimination. However, taking race in to account is constitutional.

Grutter v. Bollinger and Gratz v. Bollinger

2003. Generally upheld Bakke. Similar cases involving a scoring system for acceptance in to the University of Michigan. Determined that a point-based system was too similar to using quotas, but that, again, race could be one of many factors.

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