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UTA Zoology chapter 23
Terms in this set (102)
In phylum ____________, the 4 TRADITIONAL characteristics are ...? What is an additional NON- trad. characterisitc?
Notochord - structural support
Dorsal hollow nerve chord
Pharyngeal gill slits/pouches
Postanal tail ;
Endostyle in floor of pharynx
Describe the Notochord. It becomes ___________ in vertebraes
Rodlike, semi-rigid body of fluid filled cells enclosed by fibrous sheath running length of body, usually ventral to nervous system ; Spinal column
The description makes the notochord which kind of organ? What is its primary purpose?
Hydrostatic ; Stiffen the body
What is attached to the notochord? why?
Muscles ; It can bend without shortening
What is the nerve chord like in invertebraes?
What about in vertebraes? From what does it form? What forms on what end?
Ventral and solid ; Dorsal and hollow ; Produced in embryo by infolding of ectodermal cells on the dorsal side of the body (ectodermal ridge) above the notochord. The anterior end is enlarged to form the brain.
The pharyngeal slits lead from where to where?
Pharyngeal cavity to outside
What structure/structures do they give rise to?
Various glands, sinuses, jaws and ears.
They evolved as what kind of apparatus? What came later?
Filter feeding ; gills
The postanal tail provides what? It was specifically evolved for __________ in what kind of environments?
Motility ; Propulsion ; aquatic
Where is it added to on the body?
added on the body behind digestive tract
What characteristic is exclusive to chordates? Where is it located? How old is the characteristics discovery? It evolved to aid ___________ feeding. It initially secretes _________ and later when it becomes a ___________ it secretes what?
Endostyle ; floor of pharynx ; past 10 years ; Filter ; Proteins; gland ; hormones
What is the first subphylum in phylum Chordata? what is their nickname?
S.p. Urochordata ; Sea squirts
The adults are highly ___________ and resemble what?
Specialized ; sponges
The Urochordate larvae have all what?
When are the characters lost in larvae? What happens to each?
Metamorphosis ; Tail/notochord dissapear ; dorsal nerve cord reduced to single ganglion
What are the three classes in s.p. urochordata?
Ascidiacea, Appendicularia and Thaliacea
Which of the three classes is most diverse and common?
What kind of life style can the Urochordates live?
Solitary, colony, compound
What kind of form do Adult Urochordates have?
What is the inner membrane called in sp Urochordata?
Sp Urochordata has how many siphons?
How does water flow in?
Into oral siphon, through the ciliated pharynx
How does it leave?
passes through slits to an atrial cavity then out the atrial siphon
What does the Urochordate circulatory system consist of? (3)
Ventral heart and two large lateral vessels
What is weird about blood flow?
Flows one way then reverses
The blood has a high proportion of what?
For their nerves, they have one big ________ _________ and a nerve ________ on their ____________ side of what?
nerve ganglion ; plexus ; dorsal side of pharynx
For Urochordate reproduction, the sexual parts are _________ making them _____________. The fertilization occurs where?
in one individual ; hermaphroditic ; external
The gametes shed into _________
What is the 2nd subphylum in phylum chordata? they are known as the ...
Sp Cephalochordata ; lancelets
What are they often called? What are the root words?
Amphioxus ; greek, amphi -both ends, oxys - sharp
About how many species of Cephalocordata are there?
What does the digestive system consist of?
Pharyngeal pouch with endostyle
Where does it send the food to? What happens there?
Hepatic cecum ; most absorption occurs
Where does water come in? where does water leave out?
Atrium ; atripore
In what form, does it have all of its chordate characteristics?
What kind of circulatory system does Cephalochordata have? How is the blood pumped, through what paired to what?
Closed ; peristalic contraction, through branchial arteries to paired dorsal aortas
They have no __________, so how do Cephalochordata do gas exchange?
Gills ; over surface of body
Their nervous system is located where?
About hollow nerve chord around notochord
What sense organ does it have?
A single anterior ocellus as photoreceptor
What is homologous to vertebrae brain?
Anterior nerve cord
The reproduction is the same as Urochordata EXCEPT the sexes are ______________
What is the third SP? It is also known as . .
Sp Vertebrata ; Cranatia
How many chordate characters does it have? Its integument has how many divisions? Its endoskeleton has a _________ column. What describes its pharynx? What describes the muscle segments and what are they known as? Its digestive tract is __________. Which organ system is well defined? It has well developed, divided ___________. Its _____________ are paired and glomerular. Its brain is ..., Its sexes are almost always __________ and it usually has two pairs of what?
5 ; 2 (epidermis/dermis) ; vertebral ; Muscular; Complex W-shaped, Myomeres ; Muscular ; Circulatory; Coelom ; Kidneys ; well divided/tripartite ; Seperate ; Appendages
What in Phylum Vertabratas body permits almost unlimited size? It is based off of what? It also serves a resevoir for . . .(2)
Endoskeleton ; Cartilage ; Calcium and phosphorous
What is on the spine for muscle attachment?
Neural spines on vertebrae
Its myomeres are what shape?
W instead of V
The structures of the skin are ____________
Its fin rays are of what origin?
since the animals are larger they require which better organ systems (4)?
Circulatory, Digestive, Respiratory, Excretory
They have muscles where to pump water? This is part of its complex ____________ system.
Pharynx ; Respiratory
The Vertebrata heart becomes increasingly _________ and ________.
Complex ; segmented
The brain becomes ____________ and ____________. Into what?
Larger ; segmented ; Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain.
What two parts help drive the evolution of a complex nervous system?
Neural crest and Ectodermal placodes
The ancestral vertebrae had which characteristics and how many?
5 chordate characteristics
It was probably __________ - like and the sister taxon of vertebraes is hypothesized to be what? Despite thinking it is sister to vertebraes it is NOT because because it has no . . (3)
Fish-like ; Haikouella ; Cranium, Ear and Forebrain
What are the two initial directions of Chordate evolution?
Sessile : Urochordata
Free swimming: everyone else
Urochordates are closer related to ________ than __________.
Vertebraes ; Cephalochordates
The ancestral chordate was probably _____ __________ and much like . . .
Free-swimming ; amphioxus
Early jawed vertebraes are usually divided into what two groups?
Superclass Gnathostomata (jaws)
Superclass Agnatha (jawless)
In regards to their taxonomy, Gnathostomes are ___________ and Agnatha are ___________
Monophyletic / paraphyletic
First and second what share similar positions (2)?
Arches and gills
Both are derived from what?
Neural crest cells
Both jaw and gill what have the same innervation?
Which of the two jawed vertebraes have appendages/fins derived from fins?
Which two classes are part of Superclass Agnatha?
Which non-amniotic classes make up Superclass Gnathostomata?
Which amniotic classes make up Sc Gnathostomata?
For class Myxini, what else are they known as? they have what shape? They also have a _____ but no vertebrae. The largest species are up to how many feet? What is their defense mechanism? Although they can live for months without _____________ they are ____________ during _________. What do they do to themselves while feeding?
Hagfish ; Eel shape ; Skull ; 4ft ; Secrete massive amounts of slime ; Food, Vigorous, Feeding. Tie themselves in a knot.
Class Petromyzontida are also known as what? The biggest are just over __________. They have no _______ but have a toothed funnel shaped sucking _________. They mostly eat __________ or weakened __________. Some feeders are ____________ and do what? The larvae have a low tolerance for ________ and are only found in what kind of regions? Some have what kind of life cycle? It is what kind of species in relation to the great lakes?
Lampreys ; 3ft ; Jaws, Mouth ; Carrion, Prey ; Parasitic, suck on blood/juice from fish ; high Temp., temperate ; anadromous ; Invasive to G. lakes
The sea lampreys are native to what area? They are parasitic to whom? It enter Lake _______ but never does well and instead spreads to which other 3 lakes? What happens there?
North atlantic ; Fish ; Eerie; Huron, Superior, Michigan ; Devastates native brook/trout populations.
Which class is Sharks, Rays, Chimaeras, Ratfish?
Subclass Holocephali are known as? When did they split off from sharks? Almost all are located where in the water? They are what kind of eaters?
Ratfish ; 400mya ; Deep ; Carnivorous
The rays are part of which order? They are part of which class? About how many species are there? Many species have evolved what that look like "wings" for what purpose? The class has the greatest diversity of which modes? Some are equipped with venomous barbed ___________.
Order Batoidea ; Elasmobranchii ; 550 ; Pectoral fins, provide lift ; Reproductive modes in males ; Spines
Which order are Sharks? The earliest fossils are from how mya, during which time period? Modern sharks appear about how many mya, during which time period? They are found in which marine habitats? How many gill slits do they have? Their pectoral fins are . . . and they are succesful __________.
Order Selachii ; 420mya, Ordovician ; 100mya, Cretaceous ; All marine habitats ; 5-7; Not fused to their head ; Predators.
Which two groups where the early sharks?
Cladoselache - 2m long pred.
Carcharadon Megalodon - 28-2mya, 14-18m (60ft)
What 3 kinds of odd sharks are there?
Bottom dwellers - angel sharks, wobbegongs
Filter feeders - giant, basking sharks, whale sharks
Odd predators/scavengers - sleeper sharks, goblin sharks, cookiecutter sharks
Which sharks are the ones we know as sharks?
Hammerheads use __________________ as an enhanced photoreceptor, for better __________ vision and to protect ____________ from ray spines.
Cephalofoil; lateral ; eyes
Which kind of shark is one of the fastest?
Which two kinds of sharks are largest bulk feeding predators?
White and tiger sharks
Which class has the bony, ray finned fishes? They are what in regard to taxonomy?They have what kind of dominance on the vertebraes? They are named for their . . . . also known as ______ . They range in size from ______ to ______ . How old is their fossil history into what time period?
Actinoptegyrii ; monophyletic ; Numbers dominant ; Lepidotrichia, fin rays ; 1mc to 10m ; 420mya, Silurian
What two groups make up Class Actinoptegyrii?
Chondrostei - paraphyletic/polyphyletic
Neoptegyrii - modern fish (teleosts) monophyletic
The chondrostei include which species? They typically lack what? They share many characteristics with who? They have some minor ____ development in few groups.
Sturgeon, paddlefish, bichirs ; Scales ; Sharks ; Bone
The Bichirs species are known as the ? They are from where? how many species? they are sister group to who?
Reedfish, Africa, 12, all other ray finned species
Which species is native to TX? They are protected where but fished where? What kind of feeders are they? They use their paddle for what?
Paddlefish ; Texas, Oklahoma ; Filter feeders ; Electroreception
Which species has a holoartic distribution? Majority of species are what?
Sturgeon ; Endangered
What is the second group in Actinoptegyrii?
They contain which two fish? They have what kind of taxonomic relationship? They have many representatives in which state?
Gar and Bowfish ; Paraphyletic ; Texas
Which group has seven species in two genera? What kind of scales do they have and what do they do? They are which kind of feeders? Which type within this species is now a sportsfish?
Gar, Ganoid scales that interlock, Predatory, Alligator Gar
What is the next class of Superclass Gnathostomata? They are known as the ________ finned fishes
Sarcoptegyrii ; Lobe
What is the last non-amniotic class in Superclass Gnathostomata?
They are what kind of temp. regulators? And they are ____pods. They are found ________ but strictly in which kind of habitats? They require at least which kind of habitats for reproduction? When where the first good fossils during what time period? THey are called the _______ that crawled out of _________
Ectothermic ; Tetrapods ; Moist ; 370mya, Devonian; Fish, water
What are the three orders?
Frogs - Order Anura
Caecilians - Order Gymnophiona
Salamanders - Order Caudata
Frogs have what kind of locomotion? They have what kind of skin? They usually have what kind of life cycle? About what percent of species endanger? what two causes endanger them?
Saltatory ; Glandular, porous skin ; Biphasic; 35%; 1. Habitat destroy/infectious disease
Which is the smallest group of amphibians? what is their order? they have poor what sensory? they also have extensive _______ care.
Caecillians ; Gymnophiona ; vision ; parental
The last group of amphibians are? They are order? They are very similar to first terrestrial __________ . NA is the center of what for salamanders? They have a large amount of what in life history traits? They can do what for many years if needed?
Salamanders ; Order Caudata ; Tetrapod ; Diversity ; Variation ; Estivate
What is the first of the two amniotic classes in Superclass Gnathostomata?
Their eggs are what? meaning it is not tied to ________ . They are found in which kind of habitats? Their ______ _______ skin can be modified into what? Some are extremely ________.
Amniotes ; water ; All habitat; Dry, scaly, feathers ; Intelligent
Which group are the turtles? What is their upper shell called? Lower shell called? Their eggs are usually what? What 3 reasons endanger them?
Anapsida ; Carapace ; plastron ;Calcified, Hard eggs ; 1. Food market 2. Pet trade 3. habitat destroyed
Which group are the ruling reptiles? They extensive __________ care. Their fossil history is long, since the late _______.
Archosauromorpha ; Parental ; Cambrian
What is the last class of non-amniotic gnathostomata? They have all habitats except what? They are very _______. They which two groups? The second one has which 2 subgroups? Theyhave been around since how many mya from what time period? They have many __________ but are named for?
Mammalia; Deep ocean ; Diverse; 1.Prototheria 2. Theria (Marsupialia & Placentalia) ; 100mya, Jurrasic; Production of milk from mammary gland
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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UTA Zoology Chapter 9 (Roelke)
UTA Zoology Chapter 15 (Roelke)
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