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NURSING RESEARCH

STUDY
PLAY
Research
*systematic, logical, and empirical inquiry into the possible relationship among particular phenomena
*scientific method for gathering, analyzing, and disseminating new information
*links nursing theory, education, and practice
*is developed from practice and must be validated by research to be useful
Three types of research
*Descriptive
*Explanatory
*Predictive
Descriptive research
*obtains accurate information about the phenomenon under investigation; the investigator observes, describes, and classifies
Explanatory research
*attempts to understand the relationship among the phenomenon under investigation; investigator explains observed events and their relationship to each other and to outside influences
Predictive research
*uses statistical measures to forecast the relationships among phenomena
Types of nursing research
*quantitative
*qualitative
Quantitative nursing research
*involves systematic collection of data in numerical format, under strict researcher control, and analysis of that data to describe, explain, or predict a particular phenomenon
Qualitative nursing research
*involves systematic collection and analysis of subjective information -with attempts to minimize researcher-imposed control in the absence of statistical methodology- in order to understand the depth of a particular phenomenon
Research questions are complex
*some researchers believe that neither qualitative nor quantitative method of research alone is enough
Phases of nursing research
*gathering data
*manipulating data
*reporting data
Gathering data- first phase of nursing research
Requires 8 steps
*consider research ethics and rights of human subjects
*select a nursing problem
*identify the research question
*state the research problem
*review the literature
*develop a theory -theoretical framework
*develop a hypothesis
*build the research design
Manipulating data- second phase of nursing research
*involves measurement and analysis of quantitative and qualitative information
Reporting data- final phase of nursing research
*uses descriptive or inferential statistical methods to reveal the results of the study
Role of nurse in nursing research
*use of research findings enables the nurse to provide the best possible nursing care
*nurses can participate in research and document the unique role nursing plays in health care system
*through participation in research studies, nurse contributes toward construction of a scientific knowledge base for nursing practice
*nurse can implement research findings that demonstrate strategies to decrease health care costs
Use of research findings in nursing practice
*nurse evaluates relevance of research findings and can apply that knowledge in practice
*because nurse is aware of significant number of studies with common sample characteristics, nurse can implement a similar study in own clinical setting or environment
*information from studies can be reviewed by nurse for applicability to specific client populations; further studies to validate application of research info.
*consistent finding in nursing practice can warrant changes to current standards of clinical practice
Variables in research projects
*properties that differ from one subject to another
Dependent variables
*concepts that researcher wants to explain or predict; referred to as the "consequence"; assumed to vary with changes in the independent variables
Independent -antecedent- variables
*affect the dependent variable; researcher typically manipulates these variables in experimental study
Review of literature
*researcher conducts thorough review before collecting data to identify potential gaps in literature and examine approaches others have taken in studying problem
Data-based review of literature
*addresses the problem of interest
Conceptual review of literature
*addresses underlying theories of problem
Review of literature
*should encompass statistics, research findings, methods and procedures, opinions, beliefs, and clinical impressions and situations relevant to the study
Primary sources of research
*articles written by the investigator who conducted the research or proposed the theory
Secondary sources of research
*reviews of primary sources; should not be substituted for primary sources; they provide less detail and may expose to second author's bias
Theory
*a statement that attempts to describe, explain, or predict some phenomenon
*it guides the researcher in separating critical and necessary factors or relationships from accidental ones
*consists of abstract concepts being studied and a set of propositions that depict the relationship among concepts
Hypothesis
*derived from the theory and serves a predication or preliminary explanation of the relationship among variables
*written as a declarative statement, delineates relationship between at least 2 variables, one dependent, one independent
Simple hypothesis
*expresses an expected relationship between one dependent and one independent variable
Complex hypothesis
*expresses a relationship between two or more independent and two or more dependent variables
Directionally formulated hypothesis
*researcher predicts nature as well as existence of relationship
Nondirectionally formulated hypothesis
*researcher predicts the existence of a relationship only
Research hypothesis
*expresses a relationship between the independent and dependent variable
Statistical -or null- hypothesis
*states that no relationship exists between the independent and dependent variable
Validity of research tool
*the extent that it measures what it claims to measure
Three types of validity
criterion content *construct
Reliability
*the extent that an instrument yields the same results on repeated trials
Statistical techniques
*enable researcher to analyze numerical data
Four methods to evaluate instruments reliability
*retest
*split-half
*alternative form
*coefficient alpha
Sampling
*process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire group
Types of probability sampling
simple sampling stratified random sampling cluster sampling systematic sampling
Descriptive statistics
*organize, summarize, and present information coherently -ex.measurement of mean, median, mode and standard deviation
Inferential statistics
*make inferences about populations based on samples taken, using logic that chance is the only thing that produces variations in the study
Types of inferential statistics
*t-tests, F tests, chi-square, ANOVA, and regression analysis
Role of nurse in nursing research
*use of research findings enables nurse to provide best possible nursing care
*nurse can participate in research and document unique role nursing plays in health care system
*through participation in research studies, nurse contributes toward construction of scientific knowledge base for nursing process
*nurse can implement research findings that demonstrate strategies to decrease health care costs
Use of research findings in nursing practice
*nurse evaluates relevance of research finding and can apply that knowledge in practice
*nurse can implement a similar study in nurse's own clinical setting or environment
*information from research studies can be reviewed by nurse for its applicability to specific client populations; further studies can be generated to validate the application of research information
*consistent findings in nursing research can warrant changes to current standards of clinical practice