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unit two (part one) test review
Terms in this set (107)
a psychological theory or analytical method based on the belief that certain mental faculties and character traits are indicated by the configurations of the skull
define biological psychologists
use advanced technologies to study the links between biological (genetic, neural, hormonal) processes and psychological processes
a nerve cell; the basic building black of the nervous system
a neuron's often bushy, branching extensions that receive and integrate messages, conducting impulses toward the cell body (LISTEN)
the neuron extensions that passes messages through its branches to other neurons or to muscles or glands (SPEAK)
define myelin sheath
a fatty tissue layer segmentally encasing the axons
of some neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hope from one node to the next
define terminal branches
form junctions with other cells
define cell body
the cell's life-support center; the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. the tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft
define action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
chemical messengers that cross synaptic gaps between neurons. when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
define refractory period
in neural processing, a brief resting pause that occurs after a neuron has fired; subsequent action potentials cannot occur until the axon returns to its resting state
define all-or-nothing response
a neuron's reaction of either firing (with a full-strength response) or not firing
what is the function of acetylcholine (ACh) and what diseases are associated?
- enables muscle action, learning, and memory
what is the function of dopamine and what diseases are associated?
- influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
- oversupply = schizophrenia, undersupply = Parkinson disease
what is the function of serotonin and what diseases are associated?
- affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
- undersupply = depression
what is the function of norepinephrine and what diseases are associated?
- helps control alertness and arousal
- undersupply = depressed mood
what is the function of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and what diseases are associated?
- a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
- undersupply = tremors, seizures, and insomnia
what is the function of glutamate and what diseases are associated?
- a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
- oversupply = migraines or seizures which is why people avoid MSG in food
what is the function of endorphins and what diseases are associated?
- neurotransmitters that influence the perception of pain or pleasure
- oversupply = suppress the body's natural endorphin supply through opiate drugs
what is an agonist?
a molecule that increases a neurotransmitter's actions
what is an antagonist?
a molecule that inhibits or blocks a neurotransmitter's actions
what are nerves?
bundled axons that form neural cables connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
what are sensory neurons?
afferent neurons, neurons that carry incoming information from the body's tissues and sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
what are motor neurons?
efferent neurons, neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
what are interneurons?
neurons within the brain and spinal cord; they communicate internally and process information between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
define nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central systems
what are the two branches of the nervous system?
the peripheral and central nervous systems
define the peripheral nervous system and describe its function
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body, responsible for gathering information and for transmitting CNS decisions to other body parts
define the central nervous system and describe its function
the brain and spinal cord; the body's decision maker
what are the two branches of the peripheral nervous system?
autonomic and somatic nervous systems
define the autonomic nervous system and describe its function
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart)
define the somatic nervous system and describe its function
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
what is the somatic nervous system also called?
the skeletal nervous system
what are the two branches of the autonomic nervous system?
the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
define the sympathetic nervous system and describe its function
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy -- arousing
define the parasympathetic nervous system and describe its function
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
summarize the importance of neural networks
interconnected neural cells can, with experience, can learn new networks, as feedback strengthens or inhibit connections that produce certain results
a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
what controls general reflexes and pain reflexes? why do you think your brain does not control those?
spinal cord; much faster as it uses a single simple pathway with interneurons for a quicker response
define endocrine system
the body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of gland that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
define adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress
define pituitary gland
the endocrine system's most influential gland under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
identify four parts of the sympathetic nervous system
dilates pupils, accelerates heartbeat, inhibits digestion, and relaxes bladder
identify four parts of the parasympathetic nervous system
contracts pupils, slows heartbeat, stimulates digestion, contracts bladder
tissue destruction - a brain lesion is naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
what is an electroencephalograph (EEG) and what does it show?
- an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity sweeping across the brain's surface. these waves are measure by electrodes placed on the scalp
- brain activity
what is a computerized tomography (CT) scan and what does it show?
- a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice of the brain's structure
- brain structure/anatomy
what is a positron emission tomography (PET) scan and what does it show?
- a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
- shows brain activity
what is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and what does it show?
- a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images of soft tissue
- shows brain anatomy
what is a functional MRI (fMRI) and what does it show?
- a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function as well as structure
- show brain function as well as structure
what is the thalamus?
the brain's sensory control center, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
what is the hypothalamus?
a neural structure lying below (hypo) the thalamus; it directs serval maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (releases the growth hormone hgh), and is linked to emotion and reward
what is the medulla?
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
what is the pons?
above the medulla, helps helps coordinate movements and control sleep
basic muscle movements
what is the brainstem?
the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enter the skull; the brainstem is responsible for autonomic survival functions
what is the reticular formation?
- a nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal
- deals with alertness, required for alertness or physical arousal
what is the amygdala?
- two lima-bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system, linked to emotion
- fear center that tells you to run or stand and flight
what is the hippocampus?
a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process for storage explicit (conscious) memories of facts and events
what is the cerebellum?
the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory
what is the corpus callosum?
axon fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
what are the cerebral hemispheres?
the left and right halves of the brain
what parts of the brain are included in the limbic system?
amygdala, hypothalamus, hippocampus
what kinds of functions are associated with the limbic system?
emotions, drives, and a series of glands
what is the cerebrum?
the cerebrum are the two cerebral hemispheres that form specialized work teams that enable our perceiving, thinking, and speaking.
what is the cerebral cortex?
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information -processing center
what are glial cells? and where are they located?
- "glue cells"; cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons; they also play a role in learning, thinking, and memory
- within the myelin sheath
what is the frontal lobe's function?
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgements
what is the parietal lobe's function?
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
what is the occipital lobe's function?
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes areas that receive information from the visual fields
what is the temporal lobe's function?
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear
what is the motor cortex's function?
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements
what is the somatosensory cortex's function?
an area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body touch and movement sensations
what are association areas? where are they found?
- areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental function such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
- cannot be neatly mapped
what does broca's area do?
- responsible for controlling the movement of the muscles of the speaking apparatus and related movements of lips, tongue, larynx, and pharynx
- within the left hemisphere more towards the front
what does wenicke's area do?
- comprehension and understanding of speech
- within the left hemisphere towards the back
what happened to phineas gage and what did it reveal about the brain?
railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that dramatically changed his personality and behavior; case played a role in the development of the understanding of the localization of brain function
what does brain plasticity mean? why is it so important?
- the brain's ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after image or by building new pathways based on experience
- can help with the "rewiring" of the brain after damage or because of disease and thus learning new skills or things in general
what is neurogenesis?
the formation of new neurons
what did roger sperry and michael gazzangia do in reference to the corpus callosum?
divided casts' and monkeys' brains down the hemispheres to study the effects of the procedure
what happens during split brain surgery and why is it performed? what does it reveal about brain functioning?
during split brain surgery the corpus callosum us severed, splitting the two hemispheres. it is often performed to lesson or stop the effects of seizures caused by abnormal activity between the two hemispheres. it reveals that the right hemispheres excels in visual perception and the recognition of emotion while the left hemisphere is more verbal .
explain the HE•ART experiment with split brain surgery patients
the experimenter flashes the word HE•ART across the visual field and the split brain patient reports seeing the word transmitted to the left portion of the brain (ART) --> verbal. while when asked to indicate the word she saw with the left hand, the patients points to the word transmitted to her right hemisphere (HE) --> comprehension
what functions are mainly controlled by the left hemisphere?
the left hemisphere is skilled at making quick, literal interpretations of language
what functions are mainly controlled by the right hemisphere?
the right hemisphere excels in making inferences, helps us modulate our speech, and helps us be self-aware
our subjective awareness of ourselves and our environment → our mind's CEO
who do evolutionary psychologists thing we have consciousness?
reproductive advantage as we perceive others and how they perceive us
define cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity limited with co ignition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)
define dual processing
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
define behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influence on behavior
every non-genetic influence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
threadlike structures made if DNA molecules that contain the genes
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up chromosomes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA capable of synthesizing proteins
the complete instructions for making an organism; consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
what is the difference between identical and fraternal twins?
identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg and are genetically identical. while fraternal twins develop from separate fertilized eggs and are genetically different
why are twins, particularly twins separated at birth, the perfect people to study to answer the nature vs. nurture question?
being identical twins eliminates any biological discrepancies and being separated at birth allows for separate environments - allowing scientists to look at the biological impact
when comparing adopted twins, are twins more like their biological parents or their adoptive parents?
biological parents --> share DNA and "flipped on" genes
define molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
the proportion of variation among individuals in a group that we can attribute to genes. the heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
define evoluntionary psychologists
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
define natural selection
the principle that inherited traits that better enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment (in competition with other trait variations) be passed on to succeeding generations
a random error in gene replication that leads to a change
due to natural selection and the fact that adaptive genes survive longer and get chosen as mates; they also allow individuals to develop better (ex: a butterfly that can turn brown when it becomes fall)
what do men find attractive in a mate? what do women find attractive in a mate?
- men like someone who looks fertile and could carry a baby
- women like men who will be protective and appear strong
- all of these lead to reproductive favorability and protection
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