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Human A&P Lecture Exam 3
Terms in this set (69)
The central nervous system is composed of the _____ and the ____.
brain, spinal cord
The two components of the peripheral nervous system are ____ and ____.
Which of the following about neurons is NOT correct?
myelinated axons are covered by a lipid material called cholesterol
The white matter of nervous tissues is composed of
mostly myelinated axons
Which of the following terms and descriptions is NOT paired correctly?
somatic nervous system - maintains body homeostasis
The point where the axon leaves the cell body is called the
The length of the myelinated axon is divided into individual areas called
The chemical called myelin which insulates axons is classified as a type of
The gaps between the myelin sheath of an axon are called
nodes of Ranvier
CNS cells that make myelin and insulation neurons are called
Which type of glial cell is responsible for making cerebrospinal fluid?
Pyramidal cells are found in what part of the nervous system?
Which of the following glial cells is the primary cell found at the blood-brain barrier?
What is the purpose of the structure called the choroid plexus?
it is composed of ependyma cells that make and absorb CSF
Multiple sclerosis is a neurological disease that
causes the formation of antibodies which mark myelinated tissues for destruction
The threshold membrane voltage of a neuron
is the minimum membrane voltage needed which can initiate a nerve impulse
All sensory information from the body except for olfactory information enters the brain and first goes to the
The upper motor neurons have their origin in the
precentral gyrus of the frontal cortex
Which of the following about electrically active cell membranes is NOT correct?
Hydrophilic ions can easily move across the phospholipid bilayer membrane
The sodium, potassium ATPase pump
-is an enzyme found in many cell membranes
-requires ATP energy in order to function
-restores the correct ion distributions following a nerve impulse
Which of the following terms is NOT paired correctly?
leakage-gated: open and close based on the amount of water in the cell
During the _____ period of the action potential a new impulse cannot be initiated.
Which type of neuron has the fastest rate of nerve conduction?
The fact that a nerve impulse "jumps" from one node of Ranvier to the next node of Ranvier is called ______ conduction.
Graded potentials of neurons can be
either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing
Sensory receptor cells such as taste bud cells have a graded potential which can result in the release of neurotransmitter at the synapse. This process is called a
Summation of graded potentials in neurons
can occur over time and space
Cholinergic neuron systems are based on the chemical
Glycine, glutamate, and GABA are examples of _____ types of neurotransmitters.
Ganglia and nerves are part of the
peripheral nervous system
The embryonic development of the nervous system follows which of the following pathways?
neural plate, fold, groove, tube
The embryonic neural area called the prosencephalon is sometimes called the
Which of the following about the cerebrum is NOT correct?
The right and left hemispheres are connected by a large group of myelinated axons which form the basal nuclei
The limbic cortex mainly functions in
emotions, memory, and behavior
Which of the following brain structures does not functions correctly in Parkinson's disease?
In the brain, the gray matter is located on the _____ of the brain
The concept of Brodman's area of the brain is best explained as
different areas of the brain have somewhat specialized functions
The primary auditory cortex is located in the _____ lobe
The primary visual cortex is located in the _____ lobe
Which lobe of the brain functions in smell, somatosensation, and memory?
The primary motor cortex is located in the ____ lobe
The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus make up which of the following regions of the embryonic brain?
Nuclei that are involved in regulating body homeostasis are found in the
The tectum is composed of four small nuclei called the
The "brain stem" is composed of which of the following structures?
medulla, pons, midbrain
The pons forms most of its connections to the
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of pons?
taste and smell
The sleep and wake cycle is highly controlled by the
Which of the following is NOT a functions of the medulla oblongata?
reflex center for vomiting, coughing
Which of the following best summarizes the function of the cerebellum?
it compares information from the cerebrum with sensory feedback from the periphery through the spinal cord and decides if motor corrections are necessary
In the spinal cord, the white matter is located
on the outside of the cord
Axons enter the posterior side of the spinal cord through the
dorsal nerve root
Nerves that emerge at the posterior end of the spinal cord and form the
In the spinal cord, the posterior regions have ____ functions, while the anterior regions have ____ functions
The gray matter of the spinal forms a approximate shape of a(n)
The white columns of the spinal cord carry _____ types of myelinated axons
motor and sensory
The major source of blood to the brain is the
common carotid arteries
The surface of the brain is covered by three meninges. From the outside to the inside these meninges are
dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater
The brain ventricles
are spaces in which CSF is formed and circulates
Which of the following ventricles and their locations is NOT correctly matched?
4th ventricle - pons and medulla
The dorsal root ganglion of the spinal cord has _____ function
A cranial nerve ganglion
-is associated with a cranial nerve
-are located outside of the cranium
A row of ganglia along the vertebral column that receives central input from the lateral horn of the spinal cord is called the
sympathetic chain ganglia
The paravertebral ganglia of the PNS are located
in the cervical region
The terminal ganglia of the PNS regulate the
the parasympathetic nervous system
A nerve plexus is found in the wall of many organs such as the stomach and small intestines. A nerve plexus is
a network of nerve fibers and nerves
In the cross-section of a nerve, the outer connective tissue layer is called the
There are 31 pairs of cranial nerves. Which area of the body has 12 pairs of those nerves?
Spinal nerves always have _____ function.
both motor and sensory
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