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22 terms

Neuron Structures and Functions

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sensory neuron
The stimulus is a change in the internal or external environment
interneuron
The stimulus is a neurotransmitter (chemical) released from a sensory neuron or another interneuron. Found in brain and spinal cord.
motor neuron
The stimulus is a neurotransmitter released from an interneuron. These neurons send messages to muscles or glands. *Glands need a message from the (word) before they can carry out their function.
dendrites
Neuron parts that detect the stimulus
cell body
Neuron part that contains most of the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
synapse
Space between two neurons or between a neuron and an effector. This is where neurotransmitters get released.
axon
Neuron part that sends an action potential(nerve impulse) away from the cell body
axon endings
Ends of axons that contain vesicles with NTs (neurotransmitter)
myelin sheath
Layer of lipid rich(fatty rich) cells wrapped around the axon to prevent electrolyte (Na+, K+) loss
effector
A muscle or a gland (respond to stimulus) that receives a message from a motor neuron
nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in myelin
3
# of sodium ions
2
# of potassium ions
action potential
nerve impulses
nerve
a bundle of sensory and/or motor neurons, side by side
neuron
nerve cell
Dendrites
short branches of a neuron that receives stimuli and conduct impulses to the cell body.
Cell Body
the center of metabolic activity in a neuron, it is where the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm are located.
Axon
the long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body
Sensory Neurons
carry impulses from outside and inside the body to the brain and spinal cord
Motor Neurons
carry response impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles or glands
interneurons
connect sensory neurons and motor neurons and carry impulses between them. They are concentrated in the brain and spinal cord