Chapter 4 History
First Age of Empires
Terms in this set (58)
a group of nomadic invaders from Southwest Asia who ruled Egypt from 1640 to 1570 B.C.
the period of ancient Egyptian history that followed the overthrow of of the Hykos rulers, lasting from bout 1570 to 1075 B.C.
declared herself pharaoh around 1472 B.C.; took over her stepson's position; spent her reign encouraging trade rather than waging war
Hatshepsut's stepson; warlike ruler; led a number of victorious invasions eastward into Palestine, Nubia, and Syria
a region of Africa that surrounded the upper Nile River
Egyptians and Hittites clashed at Kadesh around 1285 b.C.; this pharaoh and a Hittite king made a treaty that promised "peace and brotherhood between us forever"
an ancient Nubian kingdom whose rulers controlled Egypt between 2000 and 1000 B.C.; trade corridor that linked Egypt and the Mediterranean world to the interior of Africa and to the Red Sea
Kushite king who overthrew the Libyan dynasty that had ruled Egypt for over 200 years; united the entire Nile Valley from the delta in the north to Napata in the south; became Egypt's 25th Dynasty; built a monument in his homeland of Kush
center of the Kush dynasty from about 250 b.C. to A.D. 150; known for its manufacture of iron weapons and tools
Which empire was invaded more often? Why?
How did the New Kingdom of Egypt become so powerful and wealthy?
Iron weapons and advanced military. They traded and formed alliances. They became empire builders, so they conquered other lands.
What cultural aspect of Egyptian civilization did the Kushites adopt? Why?
They adopted religion, temple/pyramid building, food, and clothing because Egyptian culture had developed for a longer period of time and they adopted what was already there.
Why was Kush able to thrive after losing Egypt to the Assyrians?
What role did geography play in Egypt's rise and fall?
How did trade help both Egypt and Nubia maintain their dominance in the Nile Region
located in modern-day Iraq
capital of the Assyrian Iraq
ruthless Assyrian king; built a library consisting of 20,000 clay tablets
a group of people who helped conquer the Assyrian Empire by bringing down the capitol
A group of people who teamed up with Medes to conquer the Assyrian Empire; later changed the capitol of the Assyrian Empire from Nineveh to Babylon
A Chaldean king who built the hanging gardens
Why did the Assyrians develop into a great military power? Why did their power decline?
What methods did the Assyrians use when they attacked enemy cities?
They dug under the walls to make them fall. They attacked using guerilla warfare (advanced tactics)
What contributions to government administration and culture did the Assyrians make?
They created road systems, placed governors and government officials in the places they conquered, and created a postal system.
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In what ways were King Ashurbanipal and King Nebuchadnezzar similar?
They both built large structures. Ash built the world's largest library in the ancient word (Assyrian). Neb built the hanging gardens.
Respected the people he conquered; honored their local customs and religions (cultural acceptance)
created the Royal Road; he created 20 provinces and placed a governor in each province; his downfall was losing the Battle of Marathon
governor of the provinces
A road that stretched through the middle of the empire from the Persian capitol through Anatolia; made communication easier within the empire (trade); used by traders, government officials, military, etc.
; his religion influenced Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Which of the differences between Cyrus and Darius do you consider most important? Why?
Darius's reign was very organized and efficient wile Cyrus's reign mostly included tolerance and honoring cultures. I think this difference is most important because it shows how leaders can rule differently but still rule successfully.
how did Cyrus treat the peoples he conquered?
He treated them with kindness which revealed a wise and tolerant view of empire.
What methods and tools did Darius use to hold together his empire?
Darius used provinces, satraps, roads, and coinage to keep his empire together. Because of these things, trade became popular and held together his empire.
What did Zoroaster teach?
He taught things like life is a battleground between good and evil, or one god will judge us by how well we fight for good
What do the words that appeared on Cyrus's tomb suggest about his character?
The words suggest that he was proud of what he accomplished and thought that no one should disrespect him/his tomb because he was so successful and powerful.
How did the Royal Road help Darius maintain control over his people?
The excellent system of roads allowed Darius to communicate quickly with the most distant parts of the empire. The Royal Road ran from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia.
What events led to the development of Zoroastrianism?
By the time of Darius's rule, about 2500 years had passed since the first Sumerian city-states had been build. People of the Fertile Crescent had endured war, conquest, and famine. These events gave rise to a basic question: why should much suffering and chaos exist in the world?
believed in the idea of relationships to maintain order; stressed 5 relationships: king and subjects, father and son, husband and wife, brothers and brothers, friends and friends
term for the relationships; benefits of building relationships: unity, communication; government officials should be highly educated--have to pass a standardized test
group of people who are part of official representatives/employees of the government
started by Laozi, a student of Confucius; ethical system (behavior) vs. religion (belief in god); yin and yang--harmony/balance (called "Dao"); after warring states period
government system; idea that laws and punishment should be very strict and should be handed down by the emperor or king; maintaining order
a Chinese book of oracles; consulted to answer ethical and practical problems
Yin and yang
light and dark sides of harmony (balance); white-good, black-bad (good in bad, bad in good)
Enforced the legalist style of governing
united china; emperor of Qin Dynasty; built the Great Wall of China (separated Huns)
a sole person or ruler should have complete power and enforce laws anyway he wants
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