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"Good Shepherd mosaic" Mausoleum of Galla Placidia

Ravenna, Italy, 425 CE.

-Greco-roman illusionism and naturalism of landscape is still used
-Christ is western type, i.e. young and beardless
-Crossed feet look forward to the Romanesque style.

Hagia Sophia

by Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletuos. Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey, 535 CE.

-The central dome is slightly less than half a circle and rests on pendentives.

Pendentive Theotokos. Hagia Sophia

by Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletuos. Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey, 535 CE.

-The central dome is slightly less than half a circle and rests on pendentives.

Virgin (Theotokos) and Child enthroned, apse mosaic, Hagia Sophia

by Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletuos. Constantinople (Istanbul), Turkey 867 CE.

-Is the model for both Byzantine art and Art of the west.
-These 12th cent images are from Auvergne: Met Madonna and Notre-Dame de Orcival.

San Vitale

Ravenna, Itlay, 547 CE.

-Has an ambulatory walk way. Octagon dome in the center.

Mosaics of Justinian & attendants. San Vitale

Ravenna, Itlay, 547 CE.

-Mosaic from the north wall of the apse.
-Notice how each mosaic curves towards the apse of the church

Theodora & attendants. San Vitale

Ravenna, Itlay, 547 CE.

-On the opposite wall from Justinian, his wife, the Empress Theodora, brings the wine to be used in these ceremonies of the Mass.
-Notice how each mosaic curves towards the apse of the church

Dome mosaic Church of the Dormition

Daphne, Greece 1100 CE.

-Icon found at St. Catherine's, Mt. Sinai, Egypt, is similar to models for middle and late Byzantine style images of Jesus; such as this one.

Old Testament Trinity (three angels)

by St Andrei Rublev icon, Russia, 1410 CE.

-The appearance of the three angels to Abraham at Mamre was a type of the Holy Trinity, not an appearance of the Holy Trinity itself.
-This type goes back to Early Christian art and has remained the most common Orthodox depiction of the Trinity.

Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship

from Suffolk, England, 625 CE.

-Hinged shoulder clasps, gold inlays of garnet and millefiori glass of cloisonne.

Book of Durrow, (Man, symbol of St. Matthew)

ink and tempera on parchment, possibly from Iona, Scotland, 660 CE.

-Notice how the checkerboad pattern repeats a motif from Sutton Hoo Burial .

Book of Kells Chi-Rho-Iota page

maybe Iona 800 CE, tempera on vellum.

-Chi and rho are the first two letters of the word Christ in Greek.
-In the Book of Kells, the Chi Rho monogram has grown to consume the entire page.
-The letter chi dominates the page with one arm swooping across the majority of the page.
-The letter rho is snuggled underneath the arms of the chi.

Book of Kells The Arrest of Christ

maybe Iona 800 CE, tempera on vellum.

-Compared to a Viking masthead from Norway . The arch has a similar pattern and ferociousness

Palatine Chapel of Charlemagne

by Odo of Metz. Aachen, Germany, 800 CE.

-Modeled after the San Vitale.
-Octagonal Dome.

Coronation Gospels (St. Matthew)

Aachen, Germany, 800 CE, ink and tempera on vellum.

-This book was done about the same time as the Book of Kells but suggest classical ideals of landscape, modeling and inspiration.

Gospel Book of Bishop Ebbo (St. Matthew)

from Hautvilliers, near Reims, France, 820 CE.

-The new gestural style of art emerges at this time. The expressive lines and colors are emphasized to express divine intervention.

Gero Crucifix

Cologne, Germany, 970 CE.

-Depth is present.
-Lines in the face and dropped jaw shows death.
-Emotional Expressionism is used.

Bronze doors, Hildesheim Cathedral

Adam and Eve, commissioned by Bishop Bernward for Saint Michael's Hildesheim, 1015 CE.

-The Stories of Adam & Eve show nudity and represent a new way of understanding human behavior.
-Immitates "Column of Trajan" (Roman).

Dome of the Rock

Jerusalem, 690 CE.

-Third most important site of Islam. Abraham sacrificed Isaac here.

Malwiya Minaret - Great Mosque of Samarra

Samarra, Iraq, 850 CE.

-Minaret is a tower to call people for prayer.
-The Minaret is influenced by the Ziggurats.

Prayer Hall, Great Mosque of Cordoba

Spain, 8th century CE.

-Contains ancient Greek key patterns for decorations. Has flying arches.

Dome in front of mihrab, Great Mosque of Cordoba

Spain, 8th Century.

-Some designs represent the tree of life.

Court of the Lions

the Alhambra, Granada, Spain 1390 CE.

-Has a Moorish or Spanish style.

Muquarnas Dome

the Alhambra, Granada, Spain 1390 CE.

-Has squinches.

Santiago da Compostela, Cathedral of St. James

Galicia, Spain, 1100CE .

-St. Sernin in Toulouse, France, resembles what the exterior of Santiago da Compostela was in Romanesque times.
-The church is based on the western cross, while the exterior clearly represents the interior areas devoted to nave, apse, transepts, narthex and aisles.

Nave Painting, St. Savin-sur- Gartempe

1100CE. "Tower of Babel". Boneless figures.

-Boneless figures
-The painters moistened the walls before painting, which allowed some absorption of pigments into the plaster, making them more permanent.

The Bayeux Embroidery

Bayeux, France, 1080 CE.

-It recounts the Norman Conquest of England, by William.

Last Judgment and capitals, Cathedral of St. Lazare

by Gislebertus. Autun, FR 1130 CE.

-Immobile concentration in the center.
-Elongated boneless figures.
-True last judgment scene.
-Beginning of theatrical play.

Porch and Portal, St. Pierre, Moissac

including the trumeau with prophet Jeremiah 1130 CE.

-Elongation, boneless figures
-movement of Jeremiah's legs crossed
-wistful expression, thoughtful about end of Day on top.
-This decorative scalloping as well as the rosettes, lions, and -ribbons reveal a knowledge of Islamic art.

Baptismal Font, Notre-Dame-des Fonts

by Ranier de Huy. Liege, Belgium, 1110 CE

-Refers to the temple of Jerusalem
-Renier's bronze sculptures demonstrate the survival of a classical and humanistic art in northern Europe.

Ambulatory of St. Denis

by Abbot Suger, north of Paris 1140 CE.

-We know that the start the Gothic style begins at a precise time and date: St.Denis, north of Paris, 1140 CE.
-The originator of the Gothic style was Abbot Suger.

West façade of Chartres Cathedral

1150 CE.

-burned in 1194, except for the West Façade. Towers built later. Early and High Gothic styles can be followed at Chartres and one moves from the west end East. Towers were finished much later.

Christ in Majesty and Jamb figures. Chatres Cathedral.

1220 CE.

-There is a consistent aesthetic of calm serene figures in the sculpture of Chartres. However we see the change in style in the jamb figures, with those at the West portal being early Gothic

Rose window, north transept, stained glass. Chatres Cathedral.

1220 CE.

-In the center of the rose window, Mary is enthroned with the Christ Child.
-In the center Lancet - Mother and baby Mary.

Old Testament queens and kings. West façade of Chartres Cathedral

1220 CE

-Jams represent Chrit's ancestors
-The biblical kings and queens support Mary and Christ in the tympana above.

Façade of Notre-Dame of Reims Cathedral

1250 CE and towers later.

-Enormous portals
-Glass Tympanum
-decorative sculpture
-Mary dominates the central portal, a reflection of the popularity of her cult.

Jamb figures. Annunciation and Visitation.

1250 CE.

-The Jamb figures on the Façade of Reims Cathedral represent a collection of stylistic currents.
-The angel on the left and Mary are Gothic.
-The figures of the Visitation, on right, represent are characteristic of a "classicising" Roman style.
-In both cases, the artists are introducing contrapposto


Paris, 1240 CE.

-King Louis IX's private chapel (Saint Louis) is an example of flamboyant Gothic

Pulpit at Baptistery

by Nicolas Pisano. Pisa, Italy, 1260 CE.

-The panels illustrate New Testament subjects, each framed as an independent composition.

Floor Plan of Old St. Peter's

Rome, begun 319 CE
-Please know the apse, nave, aisles, transepts, narthex, atrium

Floor Plan of Great Mosque

Kairouan, Tunisia, 860 CE.

-Parts to identify: Hypostyle Hall (Prayer Hall), Qibla, Mihrab, Minbar Minaret.

Floor Plan of central plan churches such as San Vitale

-What are the dates? 550 CE
-Which church is copying the other? Palatine is copying San Vitale.
- What is different? Apse is smaller and entrance is different. Transepts are different as well.

Floor Plan of central plan churches such as Palatine Chapel

-What are the dates? 800 CE
-Which church is copying the other? Palatine is copying San Vitale.
- What is different? Apse is longer and entrance is different. Transepts are different as well.

Floor Plan of Saint Sernin, Toulouse

Floor Plan of Chartres Cathedral

Know the Nave, Choir, Absidial Chapels, Ambulatory, Transepts, Narthex, Aisles Where is the West End?

Plan of a Romanesque doorway

Diagrams of Groin Vaults with and without Ribs


is a piece of construction used for filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a proper base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome.


A concave, triangular section of a hemisphere, four of which provide the transition from a square area to the circular base of a covering dome. Although pendentives appear to be hanging (pendant) from the dome, they in fact support it.


is the Greek title of Mary, the mother of Jesus used especially in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches. Its literal English translations include God-bearer and the one who gives birth to God. Less literal translations include Mother of God.


the art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials. It may be a technique of decorative art, an aspect of interior decoration, or of cultural and spiritual significance as in a cathedral. Small pieces, normally roughly cubic, of stone or glass of different colors, known as tesserae, (diminutive tessellae), are used to create a pattern or picture.


The most common translation of Pantocrator is "Almighty" or "All-powerful". In this understanding, Pantokrator is a compound word formed from the Greek words for "all" and the noun "strength" (κρατος). This is often understood in terms of potential power; i.e., ability to do anything, omnipotence.


a conventional religious painting in oil on a small wooden panel. An image; a symbol; a representation of a holy person, esp. in the Orthodox Christian churches


A decorative metalwork technique employing cloisons; allows more pictorial images to be produced, mostly used for religious images and jewellery.


the tower attached to a mosque from which the muezzin, or crier, calls the faithful to prayer five times a day


(Islam) a niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the direction of Mecca


pillar or central post supporting a lintel in a doorway


either of the vertical sides of a doorway, arch, window, or other opening. either of two stones, timbers, etc., forming the sidepieces for the frame of an opening.

Abbot Suger

Head of church at St-Denis wanted to show support for Louis VI, by making St-Denis the most important religious site in Europe. Built first Gothic Cathedral.

Rose Window

is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style and being divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. Usually found on the west facade or transept.

Stained Glass

term used for windows or other display pieces composed of small pieces of dyed and painted glass joined with pieces of lead and mounted in metal framework. Gothic architecture.

Saint Louis (Louis IX)

French King, 1226-1270, generous, religious, noble and just.

Villard d'Honnecourt

was a 13th-century artist from Picardy in northern France. The traditional view, since the discovery of his portfolio in the mid-19th century, is that Villard was an itinerant architect/mason/builder, but there is no evidence of him ever working as an architect or in any other identifiable profession. Villard's vast diversity in his sketchbook has caused him to be compared to such great minds as Leonardo Da Vinci, who also specialized in many different categories of art and science.

Rib Vault

The intersection of two or three barrel vaults produces a rib vault or ribbed vault. a vault in which the diagonal and transverse ribs compose a structural skeleton that partially supports the masonry web between them.

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