Final Review Questions
The nervous system has three overlapping functions. Which of the following represents a logical sequence of these three functions?
Sensory input, integration, motor output
While studying for an exam, you reach for a beverage. To extend your arm, your ___ nervous system is activated
The door slams shut loudly and you flinch. After a few seconds, you realize that your heart is beating very rapidly and forcefully. This response is the result of your ___ nervous system.
Complete the following analogy: Electrical wire is to electrical tape as peripheral neurons are to ___
Each neuron in our bodies has a life span of ___
An average human life span
"Nerves" are found in the ___ while "tracts" are found in the ___.
The portion of an axon that communicates with its target cell is the ___.
The basis for differentiation between grey matter and white matter in the CNS is the presence of ___ in white matter.
___ are the most common structural type of neuron in humans.
When considering the relationship between a structural classification and a functional classification of neurons, it can be said that ___.
Essentially all bipolar neurons are sensory neurons
In a living neuron, which component provides resistance to current flow?
The outer cortex of gray matter present in the cerebellum is composed primarily of ___.
Neuron cell bodies
The brain contains ___ ventricles.
The ___ of the brain is the location of our conscious mind.
Random electrical stimulation of the precentral gyrus would be more likely to cause muscle contractions of the ___.
Face and hands
Sensory stimulation of which body area would be most likely to activate brain activity?
Lips and fingertips
The phrases "left brain" and "right brain" indicate that the two cerebral hemispheres display a phenomenon called ___.
Cerebral white matter in each hemisphere is important for ___.
Communication between the two hemispheres
Damaged basal nuclei, as in Parkinson's disease, result in ___.
The inability to monitor the intensity of movements
Which of the following brain regions is a major convergence area for most sensory input before it is sent on to the cerebral cortex?
Of the following brain regions, which, if severely damaged, would result in death?
Professional ballet dancers have a particularly efficient ___.
Why is the blood-brain barrier ineffective against alcohol?
Alcohol is lipid soluble
___ are stimulates when sound waves vibrate hair cells in the inner ear.
Which of the following pairs of receptors appear to play complementary roles in hair and hairless skin?
Meissner's corpuscle and hair follicle receptors
At which level of the somatosensory system are conscious decisions made about low-grade touch stimuli?
When you first enter a movie theater, the smell of popcorn overwhelms you. Once the movie has ended, however, you don't notice the popcorn smell. You have experienced ___.
An intensely painful stimulus is distinguished from a mildly painful one by:
A higher frequency of action potentials initiated.
A physician can determine the approximate location of a spinal injury simply by testing areas of the skin for numbness. These skin areas are referred to as ___.
For conscious muscle movements, activity of the ___ is required.
Quickly lifting your foot and leg after stepping on a rock is an example of a(n) ___.
The length of a muscle is communicated to the brain via a ___.
A Golgi tendon reflex involves ___.
Muscle relaxation and lengthening
The crossed-extensor reflex is important when:
You step barefoot on a sharp object
A synonym for the autonomic nervous system reflects its major function. The synonym is ___.
The involuntary nervous system
All somatic neurons and all ___ release acetylcholine.
Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system
How it is possible that norepinephrine can cause vasoconstriction in one location but vasodilation in another?
Receptor types differ in these tissues
The majority of preganglionic parasympathetic fibers are housed within which cranial nerve?
Predict the outcome of an experiment in which adrenal medulla cells are treated with nicotine.
Blood levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine decrease
Asthma patients suffer from attacks in which bronchiole smooth muscle constricts, making it hard to breath. Albuterol, a common asthma medication, works through which of the following steps?
Binds to β2-adrenergic receptors to enhance vasodilation
Which area of the body receives no innervation by the parasympathetic nervous system?
The sympathetic division is involved in which of the following processes?
Regulating blood pressure, increasing glucose metabolism and decreasing urinary output
At the top of the autonomic nervous system hierarchy, the ___ controls most of the autonomic nervous system functions.