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a trace of life over 10000 years old


creation of fossils


locamotion on 2 legs

continental drift

movement of the surface of the earth


single continent of all earth's land until 125 mya


northernly of the 2 supercontinents that existed from 180 mya to 140 mya
North America, Greenland, Europe, and Parts of Asia


more southernly of the supercontinents that existed from 180 mya to 140 mya
Africa, South America, Antartica, Austrailia, New Guinea, Madgascar, and the Indian subcontinent


scientist who studies fossilized remains of plant and animal species

radiometric methods

Unstable isotope age estimations.


same protons and electrons, different neutrons
same attomic #, different mass

radioactive decay

the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation

potassium-argon dating

is useful in dating the most ancient rocks because of its long half-life.


in geology, a layer of soil or rock in a cross section of the Earth

argon-argon dating

A radiometric dating technique that uses the decay of radioactive argon into stable argon gas. Can be used to date smaller samples and volcanic rock with greater accuracy than K/Ar dating.

radiocarbon dating

a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14

thermoluminescence dating

dates an object by measuring the light given off by electrons trapped in the soil surounding fossils and artifacts

electron-spin resonance dating

An absolute dating technique that measures the number of electrons excited to higher energy levels by natural radiation and trapped at those levels. Can be used to date tooth enamel, shells, corals, mineral cave deposits, and volcanic rock, but does not work well on bone.

apatite crystals

crystaline material found in tooth enamel


group of plants the reproduce w/o flowering
Pines, red woods, and firs


flowering plants
Radiation of the angiosperm during the Cretaceous period may have played an important role in the evolution of primates


mammalian order or suborder of mammals that may be ancestral to late primates, characterized by some, not all primate traits


layer behind retina, reflects light


skeleton excluding the skull

rain shadow

area of reduced rain fall on the downwind side of a large mountain


any member of the group of early Miocene hominoids that includes the genus proconsul

zygomatic arches

a cheek bone


any member of the family hominadae, includign all species of austrapithecus and homo


twisting force that generates rotary motion


Move an appendage away from the midline of the body


one of the three bones of the pelvis


thigh bone

foramen magnum

the large opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes


Bones of modern birds are light, delicate and laced with air cavities. _____ bones are strong.


large bone in lower leg


bone in upper part of the forelimb

endocranial volume

volume inside brain case

subnasal prognathism

face below nose is pushed out


gap between adjacent teeth

sagittal crest

runs along midline of the skull, attachment for chewing muscles

temporalis muscle

large muscle involved in chewing, side of cranium to mandible


smaller chips of stone knocked from a larger stone core


piece of stone from which smaller flakes are removed.

olduwan tool industry

simple tools made by removing flakes form cores without any systematic shaping of core


process of making stone tools


original umodified surface of a stone used to make stone tools

mode 1

olduwan tools

collected foods

type of resource such as a leaf or fruit that can be collected

extracted foods

food that is embedded in a matrix, encased in hard shell, or otherwise difficult to extract

hunted foods

live animal prey captured by human foragers or nonhuman primates


the study of the process that affects the state of remains of an organism form the time the organism dies until it is offsilized

home bade

temporary camp of a group of animals that travel, feed, rest and socialize.

occipital torus

horizontal ridge on the back of the skull in homoerectus and archaic homo sapiens


flat stone tool made by working both sides of a core

hand ax

most common biface tool, teardrop shaped


biface tool with broad flat edge


triangular bifaced tool

mode 2

category of stone tools in which cores are shaped into bifaces

acheual industry

tool industry found at sites dated back to 1.6 mya. associated with homo ergaster. named after french village. hand axes and cleavers

sagittal keel

feature running along midline of the of the skull shaped like a shallow upside down V. Homo erectus

archaic homo sapiens

older term for hominids with larger brains and mroe modern crania

homo heidelbergensis

large brains, robust skulls, mid pleistocene in africa and western eurasia

levallois technique

3 step too making process used by neanderthals.

mode 3

stone tools made by striking large symmetrical flakes from carefully prepared stone cores using lavallois rechnique. Mousterian industry in Europe in midldle stone age industries in africa


too attach a spear point, ax head, or similar implement to a handle


form of archaic homosapien found in west europe from 127 kya to 30 kya. large brains, elongated skulls, large faces, robust bodies

taurodont tools

single broad tooth root in molars from the fusion of 3 roots, neanderthals


shoulder blade

crural index

ratio of the length of the shin bone to the thigh bons (tib/fem)


base or underside of the crania

mousterian industry

characterized by points, side scrapers, and denticulates, neanderthals in europe

rock shelters

sheltered by overhang of a rock


wavy joints between bones that mesh together


all genetic information carried by an organism

transposable elements

segments of DNA that move from one location to another within the genome of an individual

synonmyous substitutions

subs of one nucleotide for another in a DNA sequence that does not change the amino acid coded for

positively selected

selection that favors novel genotypes and thus leads to genetic change

negatively selected

selection against novel mutants that preserve the existing genotypes

upper paleolithic

period from about 45 kya to about 10 kya in Europe, N. Africa, and parts of Asia. The tool kits from this period are dominated by blades


stone tool made from a flake at least twice as long as it is wide. blades dominate the tools traditions of the upper paleolithic.

mode 4

a category of stone tools in which blades are common. found in some middle stone age industries in Africa and they predominate the upper paleolithic industries of Europe


cellular organelle that is involved in basic energy processing

mitochondrial DNA

DNA in mito that is particularly useful for evolutionary analyses for 2 reasons
1. they are inherited only form the mother and thus there is no recombination
2. mtDNA accumulates mutations at relatively high rates thus serving as a more accurate molecular clock for recent changes

microsatellite loci

regions within DNA sequences in which short sequences of DNA are repeated multiple times. AKA short tandem reports

gene trees

phylogenic tree tracing the pattern of decent for a particular gene


upper paleolithic tool industry found in France and Spain that dates form 36 to 32 kya and is associated with Neanderthal fossil remains

middle stone age

stone tool industries of SSA and southern and east asia that existed 250 to 40 kya

later stone age

toll industry found in Africa that corresponds in age and type to upper palelithic industries in Europe


very small stone flake. made spears or axes

mode 5

stone tools in which microliths are common. African later stone age

computed tomography

xray technique that generates 3D images

genetic variation

phenotypic difference between individuals that result from the fact those individuals have inherited different genes from their parents

environmental variation

phenotypic defferences between individuals that exist because those individuals developed in different environments

variation within groups

differences in the avg phenotype or genotype of individuals within the group

variation among groups

differences in the avg phenotype or genotype between different groups

specific language impairment

faminly of language disorders in which the affected person experiences difficulty using language but it of otherwise normal intelligence. SLI = hereditary

selection-mutation balance

equilibrium that occurs when the rate at which selection removes a deleterious gene is balanced by the rate at which mutation introduces that gene. (typically low)

balanced polymorphism

Maintenance of two or more alleles in a population due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote
ex. sickle cell gene saves you from malaria

non-insulin dependent diabetes

form of diabetes in which cells of the body do not respond properly to the levels of insulin in the blood


created by pancreas, regulates blood sugar


sugar present in milk

lactase-phlozorin hydrolase

enzyme produced in the small intestine that breaks down lactose in milk.

lactase persistence

retention of the capacity to synthesize the enzyme lactase which is necessary to digest the main carbs in fresh milk after weaning


structural gene that codes for lactase-phlorizin hydrolase


people who make their living herding livestock

selective sweep

process in which one allele increases in a population due to positive selection


particular set of alleles at some number genetic loci that are transmitted together on the same chromosome

founder effect

form of genetic drift that occurs when a small population colonizes a new habitat and subsequently greatly increases in number. random genetic changes due to the small size of the initial population are amplified by subsequent population growth.

porphyria variegata

genetic disease caused by dominant gene in which the carriers of the gene develop a severe reaction to certain anesthetics


region in the south pacific that includes Polynesia, melanesia, and micronesia


fraction of the phenotypic variation that is a result of variation

environmental covariaton

effect on phenotypes that occurs when the environments of parents and offspring are similar. bc environmental covariation causes the phenotype of parents and offspring to be similar, is can falsely increase estimates of heritability

mono zygotic twins

result in 1 egg fertilized by 1 sperm, splitting into 2 zygotes during early development

dizygotic twins

result from the separate fertilization of 2 eggs by 2 sperm, regular siblings

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