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113 terms


a trace of life over 10000 years old
creation of fossils
locamotion on 2 legs
continental drift
movement of the surface of the earth
single continent of all earth's land until 125 mya
northernly of the 2 supercontinents that existed from 180 mya to 140 mya
North America, Greenland, Europe, and Parts of Asia
more southernly of the supercontinents that existed from 180 mya to 140 mya
Africa, South America, Antartica, Austrailia, New Guinea, Madgascar, and the Indian subcontinent
scientist who studies fossilized remains of plant and animal species
radiometric methods
Unstable isotope age estimations.
same protons and electrons, different neutrons
same attomic #, different mass
radioactive decay
the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation
potassium-argon dating
is useful in dating the most ancient rocks because of its long half-life.
in geology, a layer of soil or rock in a cross section of the Earth
argon-argon dating
A radiometric dating technique that uses the decay of radioactive argon into stable argon gas. Can be used to date smaller samples and volcanic rock with greater accuracy than K/Ar dating.
radiocarbon dating
a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14
thermoluminescence dating
dates an object by measuring the light given off by electrons trapped in the soil surounding fossils and artifacts
electron-spin resonance dating
An absolute dating technique that measures the number of electrons excited to higher energy levels by natural radiation and trapped at those levels. Can be used to date tooth enamel, shells, corals, mineral cave deposits, and volcanic rock, but does not work well on bone.
apatite crystals
crystaline material found in tooth enamel
group of plants the reproduce w/o flowering
Pines, red woods, and firs
flowering plants
Radiation of the angiosperm during the Cretaceous period may have played an important role in the evolution of primates
mammalian order or suborder of mammals that may be ancestral to late primates, characterized by some, not all primate traits
layer behind retina, reflects light
skeleton excluding the skull
rain shadow
area of reduced rain fall on the downwind side of a large mountain
any member of the group of early Miocene hominoids that includes the genus proconsul
zygomatic arches
a cheek bone
any member of the family hominadae, includign all species of austrapithecus and homo
twisting force that generates rotary motion
Move an appendage away from the midline of the body
one of the three bones of the pelvis
thigh bone
foramen magnum
the large opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passes
Bones of modern birds are light, delicate and laced with air cavities. _____ bones are strong.
large bone in lower leg
bone in upper part of the forelimb
endocranial volume
volume inside brain case
subnasal prognathism
face below nose is pushed out
gap between adjacent teeth
sagittal crest
runs along midline of the skull, attachment for chewing muscles
temporalis muscle
large muscle involved in chewing, side of cranium to mandible
smaller chips of stone knocked from a larger stone core
piece of stone from which smaller flakes are removed.
olduwan tool industry
simple tools made by removing flakes form cores without any systematic shaping of core
process of making stone tools
original umodified surface of a stone used to make stone tools
mode 1
olduwan tools
collected foods
type of resource such as a leaf or fruit that can be collected
extracted foods
food that is embedded in a matrix, encased in hard shell, or otherwise difficult to extract
hunted foods
live animal prey captured by human foragers or nonhuman primates
the study of the process that affects the state of remains of an organism form the time the organism dies until it is offsilized
home bade
temporary camp of a group of animals that travel, feed, rest and socialize.
occipital torus
horizontal ridge on the back of the skull in homoerectus and archaic homo sapiens
flat stone tool made by working both sides of a core
hand ax
most common biface tool, teardrop shaped
biface tool with broad flat edge
triangular bifaced tool
mode 2
category of stone tools in which cores are shaped into bifaces
acheual industry
tool industry found at sites dated back to 1.6 mya. associated with homo ergaster. named after french village. hand axes and cleavers
sagittal keel
feature running along midline of the of the skull shaped like a shallow upside down V. Homo erectus
archaic homo sapiens
older term for hominids with larger brains and mroe modern crania
homo heidelbergensis
large brains, robust skulls, mid pleistocene in africa and western eurasia
levallois technique
3 step too making process used by neanderthals.
mode 3
stone tools made by striking large symmetrical flakes from carefully prepared stone cores using lavallois rechnique. Mousterian industry in Europe in midldle stone age industries in africa
too attach a spear point, ax head, or similar implement to a handle
form of archaic homosapien found in west europe from 127 kya to 30 kya. large brains, elongated skulls, large faces, robust bodies
taurodont tools
single broad tooth root in molars from the fusion of 3 roots, neanderthals
shoulder blade
crural index
ratio of the length of the shin bone to the thigh bons (tib/fem)
base or underside of the crania
mousterian industry
characterized by points, side scrapers, and denticulates, neanderthals in europe
rock shelters
sheltered by overhang of a rock
wavy joints between bones that mesh together
all genetic information carried by an organism
transposable elements
segments of DNA that move from one location to another within the genome of an individual
synonmyous substitutions
subs of one nucleotide for another in a DNA sequence that does not change the amino acid coded for
positively selected
selection that favors novel genotypes and thus leads to genetic change
negatively selected
selection against novel mutants that preserve the existing genotypes
upper paleolithic
period from about 45 kya to about 10 kya in Europe, N. Africa, and parts of Asia. The tool kits from this period are dominated by blades
stone tool made from a flake at least twice as long as it is wide. blades dominate the tools traditions of the upper paleolithic.
mode 4
a category of stone tools in which blades are common. found in some middle stone age industries in Africa and they predominate the upper paleolithic industries of Europe
cellular organelle that is involved in basic energy processing
mitochondrial DNA
DNA in mito that is particularly useful for evolutionary analyses for 2 reasons
1. they are inherited only form the mother and thus there is no recombination
2. mtDNA accumulates mutations at relatively high rates thus serving as a more accurate molecular clock for recent changes
microsatellite loci
regions within DNA sequences in which short sequences of DNA are repeated multiple times. AKA short tandem reports
gene trees
phylogenic tree tracing the pattern of decent for a particular gene
upper paleolithic tool industry found in France and Spain that dates form 36 to 32 kya and is associated with Neanderthal fossil remains
middle stone age
stone tool industries of SSA and southern and east asia that existed 250 to 40 kya
later stone age
toll industry found in Africa that corresponds in age and type to upper palelithic industries in Europe
very small stone flake. made spears or axes
mode 5
stone tools in which microliths are common. African later stone age
computed tomography
xray technique that generates 3D images
genetic variation
phenotypic difference between individuals that result from the fact those individuals have inherited different genes from their parents
environmental variation
phenotypic defferences between individuals that exist because those individuals developed in different environments
variation within groups
differences in the avg phenotype or genotype of individuals within the group
variation among groups
differences in the avg phenotype or genotype between different groups
specific language impairment
faminly of language disorders in which the affected person experiences difficulty using language but it of otherwise normal intelligence. SLI = hereditary
selection-mutation balance
equilibrium that occurs when the rate at which selection removes a deleterious gene is balanced by the rate at which mutation introduces that gene. (typically low)
balanced polymorphism
Maintenance of two or more alleles in a population due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote
ex. sickle cell gene saves you from malaria
non-insulin dependent diabetes
form of diabetes in which cells of the body do not respond properly to the levels of insulin in the blood
created by pancreas, regulates blood sugar
sugar present in milk
lactase-phlozorin hydrolase
enzyme produced in the small intestine that breaks down lactose in milk.
lactase persistence
retention of the capacity to synthesize the enzyme lactase which is necessary to digest the main carbs in fresh milk after weaning
structural gene that codes for lactase-phlorizin hydrolase
people who make their living herding livestock
selective sweep
process in which one allele increases in a population due to positive selection
particular set of alleles at some number genetic loci that are transmitted together on the same chromosome
founder effect
form of genetic drift that occurs when a small population colonizes a new habitat and subsequently greatly increases in number. random genetic changes due to the small size of the initial population are amplified by subsequent population growth.
porphyria variegata
genetic disease caused by dominant gene in which the carriers of the gene develop a severe reaction to certain anesthetics
region in the south pacific that includes Polynesia, melanesia, and micronesia
fraction of the phenotypic variation that is a result of variation
environmental covariaton
effect on phenotypes that occurs when the environments of parents and offspring are similar. bc environmental covariation causes the phenotype of parents and offspring to be similar, is can falsely increase estimates of heritability
mono zygotic twins
result in 1 egg fertilized by 1 sperm, splitting into 2 zygotes during early development
dizygotic twins
result from the separate fertilization of 2 eggs by 2 sperm, regular siblings