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northernly of the 2 supercontinents that existed from 180 mya to 140 mya
North America, Greenland, Europe, and Parts of Asia
more southernly of the supercontinents that existed from 180 mya to 140 mya
Africa, South America, Antartica, Austrailia, New Guinea, Madgascar, and the Indian subcontinent
the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation
A radiometric dating technique that uses the decay of radioactive argon into stable argon gas. Can be used to date smaller samples and volcanic rock with greater accuracy than K/Ar dating.
a chemical analysis used to determine the age of organic materials based on their content of the radioisotope carbon-14
dates an object by measuring the light given off by electrons trapped in the soil surounding fossils and artifacts
electron-spin resonance dating
An absolute dating technique that measures the number of electrons excited to higher energy levels by natural radiation and trapped at those levels. Can be used to date tooth enamel, shells, corals, mineral cave deposits, and volcanic rock, but does not work well on bone.
TOO YOUNG FOR FOR POTASSIUM ARGON, TOO OLD FOR CARBON 14
Radiation of the angiosperm during the Cretaceous period may have played an important role in the evolution of primates
mammalian order or suborder of mammals that may be ancestral to late primates, characterized by some, not all primate traits
Bones of modern birds are light, delicate and laced with air cavities. _____ bones are strong.
olduwan tool industry
simple tools made by removing flakes form cores without any systematic shaping of core
food that is embedded in a matrix, encased in hard shell, or otherwise difficult to extract
the study of the process that affects the state of remains of an organism form the time the organism dies until it is offsilized
tool industry found at sites dated back to 1.6 mya. associated with homo ergaster. named after french village. hand axes and cleavers
feature running along midline of the of the skull shaped like a shallow upside down V. Homo erectus
stone tools made by striking large symmetrical flakes from carefully prepared stone cores using lavallois rechnique. Mousterian industry in Europe in midldle stone age industries in africa
form of archaic homosapien found in west europe from 127 kya to 30 kya. large brains, elongated skulls, large faces, robust bodies
characterized by points, side scrapers, and denticulates, neanderthals in europe
segments of DNA that move from one location to another within the genome of an individual
subs of one nucleotide for another in a DNA sequence that does not change the amino acid coded for
period from about 45 kya to about 10 kya in Europe, N. Africa, and parts of Asia. The tool kits from this period are dominated by blades
stone tool made from a flake at least twice as long as it is wide. blades dominate the tools traditions of the upper paleolithic.
a category of stone tools in which blades are common. found in some middle stone age industries in Africa and they predominate the upper paleolithic industries of Europe
DNA in mito that is particularly useful for evolutionary analyses for 2 reasons
1. they are inherited only form the mother and thus there is no recombination
2. mtDNA accumulates mutations at relatively high rates thus serving as a more accurate molecular clock for recent changes
regions within DNA sequences in which short sequences of DNA are repeated multiple times. AKA short tandem reports
upper paleolithic tool industry found in France and Spain that dates form 36 to 32 kya and is associated with Neanderthal fossil remains
later stone age
toll industry found in Africa that corresponds in age and type to upper palelithic industries in Europe
phenotypic difference between individuals that result from the fact those individuals have inherited different genes from their parents
phenotypic defferences between individuals that exist because those individuals developed in different environments
variation within groups
differences in the avg phenotype or genotype of individuals within the group
specific language impairment
faminly of language disorders in which the affected person experiences difficulty using language but it of otherwise normal intelligence. SLI = hereditary
equilibrium that occurs when the rate at which selection removes a deleterious gene is balanced by the rate at which mutation introduces that gene. (typically low)
Maintenance of two or more alleles in a population due to the selective advantage of the heterozygote
ex. sickle cell gene saves you from malaria
non-insulin dependent diabetes
form of diabetes in which cells of the body do not respond properly to the levels of insulin in the blood
enzyme produced in the small intestine that breaks down lactose in milk.
retention of the capacity to synthesize the enzyme lactase which is necessary to digest the main carbs in fresh milk after weaning
particular set of alleles at some number genetic loci that are transmitted together on the same chromosome
form of genetic drift that occurs when a small population colonizes a new habitat and subsequently greatly increases in number. random genetic changes due to the small size of the initial population are amplified by subsequent population growth.
genetic disease caused by dominant gene in which the carriers of the gene develop a severe reaction to certain anesthetics
effect on phenotypes that occurs when the environments of parents and offspring are similar. bc environmental covariation causes the phenotype of parents and offspring to be similar, is can falsely increase estimates of heritability
mono zygotic twins
result in 1 egg fertilized by 1 sperm, splitting into 2 zygotes during early development
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