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free association

Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients' dreams?

had weak super egos

Karen Horney, a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud's assumption that women


Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?

empiracally derived

A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is a(n) ________ test.

reciprocal determinism

Because Greta is an extravert, she frequently goes to parties where she is encouraged to laugh and socialize with her friends. Because Jim is an introvert, he frequently spends weekends in the library where it's easy to quietly reflect and study. Greta and Jim best illustrate what is meant by

he selected people with qualities that he admired

Maslow's description of self-actualized individuals was said to reflect his own personal values because he


Which theorists have been most directly criticized for underestimating the variability of behavior from situation to situation?


According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the ________ stage.

self determination

The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of


The defense mechanism in which self-justifying explanations replace the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for actions is


Assessing an individual's standing on the Big Five today has the advantage of providing a ________ personality description.

attribution style

The best indicator of a person's level of optimism is his or her


Freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrate an incomplete

electra complex

Some psychoanalysts in Freud's era believed that girls experienced unconscious sexual desires for their father during the phallic stage. These feelings, they thought, reflected

self-serving bias

In every one of 53 countries surveyed, people typically expressed self-esteem above the midpoint of the most widely used self-esteem scale. This best illustrates the pervasiveness of

environments; trait

The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of ________ and ________ on behavior.

a dissociative disorder

William, an airplane pilot, is unable to remember anything of a bombing raid in which his plane was severely damaged and two crew members were killed. Because he himself suffered no physical injuries, psychologists suspect that William probably suffers from


Anxiety about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult is indicative of


Cecil is preoccupied with thoughts of jumping out the window of his tenth-floor apartment. To reduce his anxiety, he frequently counts his heartbeats aloud. Cecil would most likely be diagnosed as experiencing


Wilma is extremely agitated because she hears voices that tell her to sexually seduce the male nurses in her hospital ward. Wilma is most clearly suffering from

disorganized and fragmented thinking

Schizophrenia is most likely to be characterized by


Drugs that alleviate mania tend to reduce levels of the neurotransmitter

specific phobia

An immediate and irrational anxiety response to the mere sight of blood is indicative of

explain the causes of the various psychological disorders.

The DSM-IV-TR does NOT

social cognitive

A therapist suggests that Margaret is depressed because she attributes her failures to her own incompetence instead of blaming her parents and teachers for the unreasonable demands they place on her. The therapist's interpretation most clearly reflects a ________ perspective.


Psychological disorders in which people lose contact with reality and experience irrational ideas and distorted perceptions are known as ________ disorders.


Low birth weight is a known risk factor for


A disorder in which an individual is overexcited, hyperactive, and wildly optimistic is known as

led to harsh ineffective remedies

The greatest shortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations


Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from

mood disorders

A traumatic experience may trigger a lasting phobia in a child with a sensitive, high-strung temperament. The same experience, however, may have no long-term impact on a child with a more relaxed temperament. This best illustrates the role of ________ in the development of phobias.

dissasociative disorder

Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n)

increase, decrease

Obsessive thoughts typically ________ anxiety and compulsive behaviors typically ________ anxiety.


Some psychologists believe that due partly to a broader definition of trauma, mental health professionals have been overdiagnosing

N america; are increased

People born in ________ during the month of ________ are at increased risk for schizophrenia.

electroconvusive therapy

Adelle's feelings of unhappiness, low self-esteem, and hopelessness have become so extreme that she has attempted suicide. Which of the following treatments is likely to provide her with the quickest relief from her misery?

behavior therapy

Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of


D-cycloserine helps relieve the symptoms of


The healing power of insight and self-awareness is LEAST likely to be emphasized by ________ therapists.


Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult's psychological disorder by exploring that person's childhood experiences

psychotherapy works

A statistical summary of some 475 psychotherapy outcome studies led researchers in 1980 to report that


Relaxing one muscle group after another until one achieves a completely relaxed state of comfort is called ________ relaxation.


Rapidly moving one's eyes while recalling traumatic experiences is most descriptive of


One possible explanation for the delayed effect of antidepressant drugs is that the increased availability of serotonin seems to promote


Xanax and Ativan are ________ drugs.

mood stabilizing

Lithium is often an effective ________ drug.

behavior modification

Reinforcing desired behaviors and withholding reinforcement for undesired behaviors is most central to the process of


During a marriage counseling session, the therapist suggests to Mr. and Mrs. Gallo that they each restate their spouse's comments before making their own. The therapist was applying a technique most closely associated with

replace negative self-talk with more positive comments.

Stress inoculation training focuses on helping people to


Prejudice is a(n) ________; discrimination is a(n) ________.


A culture that promotes individualism is most likely to encourage

men in cultures that value individualism. 100%

Social loafing has been found to be especially noticeable among

social scripts

Culturally modeled guides for how to act in various situations are called

physical health

Whether a person exercises regularly is best predicted by his or her attitude about

equal status

Noncompetitive contact between members of two different ethnic groups is likely to reduce prejudice when the contact is between individuals with


The ill-fated decision of President John F. Kennedy and his advisors to invade Cuba best illustrates the dangers of


According to the scapegoat theory, prejudice is likely to result from

personality traits

Observing yourself on a videotape is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to

women enjoy aggresive sexual behaviors

Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that

physical atractiveness

What determined whether college freshmen who had been randomly paired for a Welcome Week dance liked each other?

bystander effect

Social psychologists have observed people's willingness to pick up dropped books and pencils in order to study the

the central route to persuasion.

Opinion change resulting from a thoughtful focus on the content of arguments illustrates

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