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195 terms

Psychology Chapter 11-16

STUDY
PLAY
MOTIVATION
A NEED OR DESIRE THAT ENERGIZES AND DIRECTS BEHAVIOR.
INSTINCT
A COMPLEX BEHAVIOR THAT IS RIGIDLY PATTERNED THROUGHOUT A SPECIES AND IS UNLEARNED.
DRIVE-REDUCTION THEORY
THE IDEA THAT A PHYSIOLOGICAL NEED CREATES AN AROUSED TENSION STATE (A DRIVE) THAT MOTIVATES AN ORGANISM TO SATISFY THE NEED.
HOMEOSTASIS
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
INCENTIVE
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
GLUCOSE
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
SET POINT
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
BASAL METABOLIC RATE
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
ANOREXIA NERVOSA
an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
BULIMIA NERVOSA
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
BINGE-EATING DISORDER
significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting, or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa.
SEXUAL RESPONSE CYCLE
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson-excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
REFRACTORY PERIOD
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
SEXUAL DISORDER
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
ESTROGENS
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females that by males. In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promotion sexual receptivity.
TESTOSTERONE
the most important of the male sex hormones. Both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)
FLOW
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with dimi, a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces
PERSONNEL PSYCHOLOGY
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
TASK LEADERSHIP
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
SOCIAL LEADERSHIP
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
EMOTION
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
JAMES-LANGE THEORY
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
CANNON-BARD THEORY
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
TWO-FACTOR THEORY
Schachter's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
POLYGRAPH
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspiration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
CATHARIS
emotional release the catharis hypothesis maintains that releasing agressive energy relieves agressive urges
FEEL-GOOD, DO-GOOD PHENOMENON
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well-being (for example, physical and economic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
ADAPTATION-LEVEL PHENOMENON
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience
RELATIVE DEPRIVATION
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease
HEALTH PSYCHOLOGY
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
STRESS
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages--alarm, resistance, exhaustion
CORONARY HEART DISEASE
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries
TYPE A
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people
TYPE B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ILLNESS
Literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
PSYCHONEUROLMMUNOLOGY (PNI)
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
LYMPHOCYTES
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
COPING
alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods
PROBLEM-FOCUSED COPING
Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
EMOTION-FOCUSED COPING
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
AEROBIC EXERCISE
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety
BIOFEEDBACK
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE(CAM)
as yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement (complement) or serve as alternatives to conventional medicine, and which typically are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies. When research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice.
PERSONALITY
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
FREE ASSOCIATION
a thought process in which ideas (words or images) suggest other ideas in a sequence
PSYCHOANALYSIS
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
UNCONSCIOUS
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
ID
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
EGO
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
SUPEREGO
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
OEDIPUS COMPLEX
according to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
IDENTIFICATION
the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos
FIXATION
according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved
DEFENSE MECHANISMS
in psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
REPRESSION
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
REGRESSION
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
REACTION FORMATION
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
PROJECTION
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
RATIONALIZATION
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
DISPLACEMENT
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
DENIAL
defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
PROJECTIVE TEST
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
THEMATIC APPRECEPTION TEST (TAT)
a projective test in which prople express their inner feelings and interests throught hte stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
RORSCHACH UNKBLOT TEST
the most widely used projective test, a set of of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
TERROR-MANAGEMENT THEORY
a theory of death-related anxiety; explores people's emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death
SELF-ACTUALIZATION
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
SELF-CONCEPT
all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"
TRAIT
a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
PERSONALITY INVENTORY
a questionnaire (often with true-false or agree-disagree items) on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits.
MINNESOTA MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY INVENTORY (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes.
EMPIRICALLY DERIVED TEST
a test (such as the MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups
SOCIAL-COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context
RECIPROCAL DETERMINISM
the interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environment
PERSONAL CONTROL
the extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helpness.
EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate.
INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL
the perception that one controls one's own fate
LEARNED HELPLESSNESS
the hoplessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
SELF
in contemporary psychology, assumed to be the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
SPOTLIGHT EFFECT
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)
SELF-ESTEEM
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
SELF-SERVING BIAS
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDER
deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
ATTENTION-DEFICIT HYOERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)
a psychological disorder marked by the appearence by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
MEDICAL MODEL
the concept that diseases, in this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital
DSM-IV-TR
the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, with an updated "text revision"; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
ANXIETY DISORDERS
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
PANIC DISORDER
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
PHOBIA
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder that involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event; characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal; jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
POST-TRAUMATIC GROWTH
positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
SOMATOFORM DISORDER
psychological disorder in whish the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.
CONVERSION DISORDER
a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found
HYPOCHONDRIASIS
a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.
MOOD DISORDER
psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
a mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities
MANIA
a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
BIPOLAR DISORDER
a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
SCHIZOPHRENIA
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
DELUSIONS
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
PERSONALITY DISORDER
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER
a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members; may be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
ECLECTIC APPROACH
an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
PSYCHOTHERAPY
treatment, involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
PSYCHOANALYSIS
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
RESISTANCE
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
INTERPRETATION
in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight
TRANSFERENCE
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPY
therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
INSIGHT THERAPIES
a variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client's awareness of underlying motives and defenses
CLIENT-CENTERED THERAPY
a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Also called person-centered therapy.)
ACTIVE LISTENING
Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.
UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD
a caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed to be conducive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance.
BEHAVIOR THERAPY
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
COUNTERCONDITIONING
a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. Includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning.
EXPOSURE THERAPIES
behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION
a type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli; commonly used to treat phobias
VIRTUAL REALITY EXPOSURE THERAPY
an anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
AVERSIVE CONDITIONING
a type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
TOKEN ECONOMY
an operant conditioning procedure in which , an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats.
COGNITIVE THERAPY
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR THERAPY
a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
FAMILY THERAPY
therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
REGRESSION TOWARD THE MEAN
The tendency for extremes of unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average.
META-ANALYSIS
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE
clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
BIOMEDICAL THERAPY
prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system
PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
the study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUGS
drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
TARDIVE DYSKINESIA
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
ANTIANXIETY DRUGS
drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
ANTIDEPRESSANT DRUGS
drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety; different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
REPETITIVE TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION (rTMS)
the application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
PSYCHOSURGERY
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
LOBOTOMY
a now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. the procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
ATTRIBUTION THEORY
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR
the tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
ATTITUDE
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
CENTRAL ROUTE TO PERSUASION
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
PERIPHERAL ROUTE TO PERSUASION
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness
FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR PHENOMENON
the tendancy for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
ROLE
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY
the theory that we act to refd, the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
CONFORMITY
adjusting behavior to meet a group's standard
NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE
influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
SOCIAL FACILITATION
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
SOCIAL LOAFING
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
DEINDIVIDUATION
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
GROUP POLARIZATION
the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group
GROUPTHINK
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
PREJUDICE
an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
STEREOTYPE
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
DISCRIMINATION
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members
INGROUP
"Us"-people with whom we share a common identity
OUTGROUP
"Them"- those preceived as different or apart from our ingroup
INGROUP BIAS
the tendency to favor our own group
SCAPEGOAT THEORY
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
OTHER-RACE EFFECT
the tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accuracy than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
JUST-WORLD PHENOMENON
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
AGGRESSION
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
FRUSTRATION-AGGRESSION PRINCIPLE
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression
MERE EXPOSURE EFFECT
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
PASSIONATE LOVE
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
COMPANIONATE LOVE
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
EQUITY
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
SELF-DISCLOSURE
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
ALTRUISM
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
BYSTANDER EFFECT
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
RECIPROCITY NORM
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
SOCIAL-RESPONSIBILITY NORM
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
CONFLICT
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
SOCIAL TRAP
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
MIRROR-IMAGE PERCEPTIONS
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
SUPERORDINATE GOALS
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
GRIT
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction, strategy designed to decrease international tensions.