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Western Civ: The Rise of Islam
Terms in this set (45)
____________ had become the dominant faith of the Mediterranean and it's message was quickly spreading to other regions of the world via the major trade routes of the era.
_____________ may have played a role in the flow of goods and ideas between the trade systems of the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean.
_____________ would be heavily influenced by the traditions of Christianity and Judaism.
In 613 AD, _____________ began declaring that he was receiving messages from God, and that he was a prophet in the same line of prophets as Jesus and Moses.
were willing to make room for another religious belief system in their society.
Pagan deities; Pagan Arabs
Muhammed began insulting the traditional ___________ and insisting that the _____________ and their ancestors would burn in hell for eternity for worshipping false gods and they began to regard Muhammed and his followers with disdain.
______________ placed a trade embargo on them
welcomed by the local Pagan and Jewish tribes there
Muhammad and his followers fled from Mecca to Medina in 622 AD, where they were _____________________
Muhammad sent his followers out to raid the merchant caravans of the ___________________
Battle of Badr
_____________________ was the first major battle in the Muslim conquest of Arabia.
next few years ________________expanded his territorial control over the area to the north of Medina and waged war with a number of both Pagan and Jewish Arab tribes.
eternal paradise in the afterlife if they fought for his cause
Muhammad promised his followers ________________.
Banu Qaynuqa; Banu Nadir
Muhammad solved this by expelling the first 2 tribes from Medina; the _________________ in 624 AD and the _________________ in 625 AD.
He then massacred the final tribe: the _________________ in 627 AD.
refused to accept their surrender until they agreed to convert to his new religion
Muhammad demolished the Pagan temples of his defeated enemies and ___________________
was to continue Muhammad's aggressive territorial expansion.
The policy of the Rashidun Caliphs ___________________.
the Wars of Apostasy.
Abu Bakr's first task was to suppress a rebellion in the Arabia; suppression of these rebellions are known as _________________.
Byzantine Empire, Sassanid Empire
Abu-Bakr began the invasion of the two major super powers of the region, the _________________ of the Mediterranean, and the ________________ of Persia.
the Byzantine Empire and the Sassanid Empire
Both of these empires were in a weak state having been in almost continuous war with each other for an entire century and were unable to mount much effective resistance.
conquered almost the entire Middle East
During the Caliphate of Umar, Muslim armies __________
anything to do with Islam on any of their inscriptions or coinage.
none of the so-called "Rashidun" Caliphs ever mentioned the name of Muhammad or _______________
that much of Islamic belief may have been constructed in later periods
scholars suggest that the first Arab Caliphs were not nearly as pious as later Islamic historians made them out to be or _______________
rulers to preserve political and economic stability in the conquered territories
the lack of Islamic messages on inscriptions was an attempt by the early Islamic _______________________
The Rashidun Caliphate
_________________ came to an end in a civil war.
A new dynasty emerged from this civil war known as the _________________
they were met with stiff resistance
When the Muslim armies reached the Maghreb, what Arabs call Northwest Africa, ___________________
The ______________ controlled the coastal area around the city of Carthage
native Berber peoples
The __________________controlled the interior and the coastal area of Morocco
city of Carthage
The ______________________ fell quite easily to the Muslims.
The Berber resistance was lead by __________________, who led a number of successful battles against the Muslims
The ____________ destroyed Carthage for the second time in it's history, just as the Romans had done in 146 BC
Battle of Tabarka.
in 702 AD, the Muslims defeated Kahina once and for all at the ________________
Battle of Tours
Visigothic Spain was easily overrun in just a few years, but the Arabs were stopped by the Franks at the _______________ in 733 AD.
Thus most of Europe was saved from _______________ and would to this day remain Christian.
The ______________ had become the largest empire the world had yet known, controlling some of the most important centers of civilization
3 of them now fell under Islamic rule
Of the 5 Christian Patriarchates, _________________.
Jerusalem, Alexandria, and Antioch
__________________ were under Islamis rule
Rome and Constantinople
_________________ remained under Christian rule.
the ________________ holding the north side of the Mediterranean
the ____________ held the south side
Spain, Jerusalem, Constantinople, and the islands caught in the middle
The battlegrounds were to be __________________
to dominate, intimidate, and suppress other religions
Christians had sufficient power ____________
by conquest, and their main churches and temples were usually converted to mosques
Towns were brought under Islamic rule ______________
a special tax that Jews and Christians had to pay the Islamic state in order to practice their religion
Christians and Jews would be tolerated (because they were considered Abrahamic Faiths) as long as they paid the Jizya _____________
there were still considerable economic and social pressures to convert to the ruling religion
although there is no evidence of forced conversion of Christians or Jews to Islamic faith ______________
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