Terms in this set (43)
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to regulate trade to increase a nation's wealth
A lawyer who defended (usually for free) merchants accused of smuggling. Argued against the writs of assistance and the Stamp Act. "No Taxation without representation"
lawyer and politician from Pennsylvania &Delaware. Wrote the Olive Branch Petition. PA rep to 1st and 2nd CC. Officer during the American Revolution.
beginning of colonial self-government; Townshend Acts restricted NY assemblies.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses, tarred and feathered stamp collectors, caused Boston Tea Party. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
1767- Taxes placed on glass, tea, silk, paper, lead. 1770, taxes were dropped but tea tax remained.
King George III
1760-1820 ruler of Great Britain. He was a hero in Great Britain but in the colonies he was an evil tyrant.
Lexington and Concord
April 18, 1775: Gage leads 700 soldiers to confiscate colonial weapons and arrest Adam, and Hancock; April 19, 1775: 70 armed militia face British at Lexington (shot heard around the world); British retreat to Boston, suffer nearly 300 casualties along the way (concord). 1st Battle of Revolutionary War
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
A delegate from Pennsylvania and proposed the "Albany Plan of the Union" as a way to strengthen colonies. Signed Olive Branch & Declaration of Independence.
Washington attacked Cornwallis. Colonists won.
gen Washington and him surrounded Cornwallis at Yorktown, VA, helped secure help from France
British general appointed by King George III to crush the rebel forces; 1777, subordinate of Howe, lead invading force down Hudson from Canada to Alabany; was present at the Battle of Saratoga and Battle of Yorktown
..., Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. Relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
To effect mercantilist goals, King and Parliament legislated a series of Navigation Acts (1651, 1660,1663, 1673, 1696) that established England as the central hub of trade in its emerging empire. Various rules of trade, as embodied in the Navigation Acts, made it clear that England's colonies in the Americas existed first and foremost to serve the parent nation's economic interests, regardless of what was best for the colonists.
The French and Indian War
(1754-1763) Seven Years' War. Britain v France and Indians. resulted in land gains Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida.
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
Sons of Liberty protested about the british presence in Boston: taxes, writs; colonists threw rocks and snowballs at British troops; 5 people died; Paul Revere engraving propaganda
(4.1) passed by Parliament in 1774 in reaction to the Boston Tea Party. Passed series of measures: shutting down Boston Harbor; restricted assemblies in Boston
Second Continental Congress
Met in Philadelphia beginning in 1775; wrote Declaration of Independence.
The Olive Branch Petition
Petition passed by 2nd continental congress pledging its loyalty to england and asking for a peaceful end to the conflict. King George the III rejects it and orders British ships to blockade all shipping to the colonies.
The Declaration of Independence
An act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were "Free and Independent States" and that "all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved."
Site of the Continental Army's winter camp in 1778-1779; troops faced shortage of supplies, severe weather and low morale.
1783 - 1805, British military and political leader. Was a member of Parliament and even opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution. Led British forces during the American Revolution. The British defeat ended with Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown. in 1781.
A colonial soldier of the American Revolution whose troops helped capture Fort Ticonderoga in Saratoga from the British (1738-1789).
1781; last battle of the revolution; Benedict Arnold, Cornwallis and Washington; colonists won because British were surrounded and they surrended
Writs of Assistance
Allowed England to search colonists' ships and other private property without an individual warrant
lawyer who defended the British after Boston Massacre; Founding Father from MA, delegate to the CC's; chose TJefferson to write the Declaration of Independence; 1st Vice President. 2nd President
1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation in Britain.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
(1766) Stated that the British Parliament had the same power to tax in the colonies as it did in Great Britain. (na na na na-na) After the repeal of the Stamp Act.
Boston Tea Party
A 1773 protest against British tea tax. Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.
First Continental Congress
Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence
(June 17, 1775) Site of a battle early in the Revolutionary War. This battle contested control of two hills (Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill) overlooking Boston Harbor. The British captured the hills after the Americans ran-out of ammunition. "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!" Battle implied that Americans could fight the British if they had sufficient supplies.
architect of Monticello, author of Declaration of Independence, governor of VA. 2nd VP of the US. Third president of the United States. Founded the University of Virginia.
A battle of the Revolutionary War following a surprise attack of Continental troops under the command of George Washington on British and Hessian troops at Trenton, New Jersey. Washington and his men crossed the icy Delaware River on Christmas Day, 1776, and attacked the next day, completely surprising the British. It was the first American victory of the war, and helped to restore American morale.
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
British general who chose to enjoy himself in New York and Philadelphia rather than vigorously pursue the American enemy
Agreement between US and France to have French support in the Revolutionary War; followed Battle of Saratoga
Treaty of Paris
1763. Ends the Revolutionary War. Britain gains ALL of France's North American land from Appalachian Mts to the MS RIVER.