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Cumulative Exam Review Geo. Sem. 2
Terms in this set (24)
Which of the following statements about working in the informal employment sector is false?
Informal sectors include illegal employment.
People who work in the informal sector face a higher risk of discrimination and poor treatment.
There is little government oversight to ensure that workplaces are safe and all labor laws are followed.
People working in the informal sector do not have to pay income taxes on their wages.
D. People working in the informal sector do not have to pay income taxes on their wages.
The United Nations consistently ranks __________ as having the most equal society.
the United States
Why is a lack of property rights for women so problematic?
Women who own property always have equal rights in most societies.
The lack of property rights makes it difficult to accumulate wealth and hampers a woman's decision-making abilities.
Women who own property have lower literacy rates.
Women without property are more likely to graduate from high school and college.
B. The lack of property rights makes it difficult to accumulate wealth and hampers a woman's decision-making abilities.
Which of the following statements best illustrates how comparative advantage influences specialization?
A Mexican company builds several computer manufacturing facilities in Mexico City, even though few residents of this city are trained in computer manufacturing.
Brazil's climate is especially favorable for growing coffee, and Brazil is the world's leading producer of coffee.
A movie director chooses to film his new movie in Phoenix, AZ.
Although Cuba's climate is good for growing tobacco, many Cubans have decided to grow corn instead because of the demand for biofuels.
B. Brazil's climate is especially favorable for growing coffee, and Brazil is the world's leading producer of coffee.
The Grameen Bank of Bangladesh __________.
is a vocational training site for women in the developed world
has been cited by the United Nations as being discriminatory against women
started the practice and concept of microloans
provides loans to men in female-dominated societies
C. started the practice and concept of microloans
John loves to sleep late in the morning. He also knows that school is important. This morning, John chose to wake up and get to school on time. In doing this, he gave up the opportunity to sleep in. The opportunity cost of John's choice to go to school is two or three hours of sleep.
Ana loves to go camping with her family and is looking forward to their trip next weekend. Ana learns that her good friend is having a sleepover birthday party the same Saturday as the trip.
For Ana, what would be the opportunity cost of going to her friend's party? Why?
For Ana, the opportunity cost of going to her friend's party is the chance to go on a camping trip with her family. This is the opportunity cost of her choice because going camping is her next best alternative for the coming weekend.
Using complete sentences, give at least three reasons why tracking the informal sector of an economy is difficult.
Tracking the informal sector of an economy is difficult because governments have a hard time tracking things they don't regulate. Informal jobs are often temporary, seasonal, and unstable. Additionally, people in the informal sector often don't want to talk about what they do to make money. Sometimes, the informal sector involves black markets or work that is culturally unacceptable. Other times, people involved in the informal sector may be avoiding taxes or government regulation.
Which of the following groups is the least likely to work in the informal sector of the economy?
Using complete sentences, give at least two reasons why many women throughout the world work in the informal, rather than the formal, economic sector.
Women may not seek or be able to obtain formal sector jobs because of cultural beliefs that discourage or prohibit women from working. Women also face more workplace discrimination than men. Many women caring for young children desire only part-time work. It is often easier to find part-time, cash-only jobs in the informal sector than in the formal sector. For example, the majority of childcare workers are women. Often, childcare work is paid for in cash, unregulated by the government, and not taxed.
Who or what manages the economy and determines production in a planned economy?
a tribal leader
the forces of supply and demand
an elected committee of experts
D. the government
Jobs that involve creating something out of raw materials, like constructing new homes, are part of the __________ sector of the economy.
Using complete sentences, analyze the causes for gender disparity in developing nations and explain the challenges women face in these countries.
Women in the developing world are more likely to be poor than their male counterparts. They are also more likely to be at risk for hunger and face a higher risk for abuse. Women in developing countries face discrimination in education, health care, and employment. Furthermore, they rarely have access to financial assets or own land. Two-thirds of the world's illiterate people are women. In many countries, families can only send one child to school, and that child is almost always male. Girls must sacrifice schooling in order to work. The work women do is more vulnerable to market fluctuations; therefore, women are more likely to lose their jobs in an economic downturn. Many women are in low-paying jobs, and some are even enslaved. They are more likely to work in harsh conditions and to be abused.
Explain why no modern nations have a purely free-market economy.
There is no government intervention in a pure market economy; what happens in the market is completely the result of the interaction between producers and consumers. In all modern nations, the government intervenes in the market in some way. Government involvement may include government work projects, income taxes, minimum wage laws, safety regulations, and child labor laws.
Unregulated businesses, undocumented cash payments, coerced labor, and bartering are part of the __________ sector.
According to the lecture, 75% of US jobs are focused on providing services. This means they are in the __________ sector of the economy.
Two-thirds of all illiterate adults worldwide are men.
Why might an economist think that some jobs categorized as quaternary-sector jobs could be included in the tertiary sector?
The tertiary sector is comprised of service jobs. Many of the knowledge- or information-based jobs in the quaternary sector, such as those in education, research, and information technology, also have service as a major focus. Therefore, they could be included in the tertiary sector.
In the United States, women earn cents for each dollar that a man earns. Can this be explained? What are the reasons?
In the United States, women earn 77 cents to the dollar that a man earns. One reason for this is that women are more likely to leave the workforce to take care of children. Another reason is that women are more likely to work in lower-paying fields like education, social services, and the humanities. However, this only explains the discrepancy to a degree. Less than 1% of CEOs are women; less than 15% of corporate board positions are held by women.
Why does the United Nations consistently rank Sweden as the country with the most equal society?
The United Nations consistently rank Sweden as the country with the most equal society because of the government's support of education and antidiscrimination laws. Sweden has one of the world's highest rankings in education, and equality in education is a priority. Women also tend to marry later and have fewer children because they pursue academic and professional opportunities. 16 months of paid maternity leave is available for those women who do have children. Sweden's antidiscrimination laws protect women's rights in the workplace. Seventy-nine percent of women in Sweden work, and they earn 93 percent of a man's salary.
Using complete sentences, explain negative consequences associated with limiting women's property rights.
In countries where women's property rights are limited by social norms or legislation, women are more vulnerable to poverty, violence, and illness. Women's ability to overcome poverty is hampered, making them more vulnerable to domestic abuse and disease and during external conflict. Furthermore, their involvement in household decision-making is limited.
Worldwide, households headed by females are less likely to live in poverty.
Women are more likely to lose their jobs during an economic downturn because __________.
many work in the informal sector
maternity leave does not secure their positions
most countries require companies to lay off women before men
many are part of the unpaid labor force
A. many work in the informal sector
Which of the following statements about working mothers in the United States is false?
Working mothers are given 16 months maternity leave.
About 26% of US children are raised by a single parent.
Working mothers are less likely to be promoted.
In low-income households, more than 30% of income is spent on child care.
A. Working mothers are given 16 months maternity leave.
Using complete sentences, explain the concept of gender-responsive budgeting and give an example of where it has been successful.
Gender-responsive budgeting is government planning specifically aimed at creating equal opportunities for women and advancing women's rights. Morocco is one place where this has been successful. To increase the number of women receiving education, the government has expanded school lunch policies, extended medical services in schools, and provided transportation for students living in remote areas. The government is also providing vocational training, increasing access to microcredit loans, and establishing family planning clinics.
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