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30 terms

The Cold War & Civil Rights Struggle

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Baby Boom
A significant increase in the number of children being born; one took place in the United States after World War II.
Brown vs. Board of Education
Supreme Court ruling that declared that racial segregation in public schools was illegal; overturned the separate-but-equal doctrine established in the 1896 case Plessy vs. Ferguson
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Law banning racial discrimination in the use of public facilities and in employment practices
Cold War
Power struggle between the United States and the Societ Union that lasted from 1945 to 1991
Containment
U.S. foreign policy followed during the Cold War that sought to prevent the expansion of Soviet communism
Détente
Period in the 1970s when relations between the United States and the Soviet Unions were less hostile than in the past
Domino Theory
Belief common during President Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration and beyond; stated that if one nation in Southeast Asia fell to communism, the rest of Southeast Asia would also fall
Doves
Americans who called for U.S. withdrawal from the Vietnam War
Freedom Rider
Bus trips by civil rights workers through various southern states in which protester challenged illegal segregation in bus terminals
Great Society
Legislation introduced by President Lyndon B. Johnson to create government programs to end poverty and racism
Hawks
Americans who pushed for increased military spending and involvement in the Vietnam War
ICBM
Missile, usually carrying a nuclear warhead that is capable of hitting a target about 10,000 miles away.
Iron Curtain
Figurative reference to the barrier between the democratic, capitalist countries of Western Europe and the totalitarian, communist countries of Eastern Europe
Marshall Plan
U.S. program of giving money to European countries to help them rebuild their economies after World War II.
McCarthyism
Method of making vicious accusations without offering proof; named after Senator Joseph McCarthy
Medicaid
Federal health insurance program for people with low incomes
Medicare
Federal health insurance program for people over the age of 65
Mutual Assured Destruction
The the idea that if the Soviet Union launches its missile against the U.S., the U.S. will have time to launch its missiles at the Soviet Union (and vice versa)
Nonviolent resistance
Protest strategy that calls for peaceful demonstrations and the rejection of violence, even for self-defense
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Alliance formed in 1949 by the United States, Britain , and 10 other countries to help defend each other in case of attack
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Alliance formed by major oil-producing nations in 1960 to maintain high prices by controlling the production and sale of oil
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
The treaty that pledged countries in Asia to defend each other against attacks from other countries
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Congressional act that gave President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to wage war in Vietnam
Totalitarianism
Political system in which the government controls every aspect of citizens' lives
Truman Doctrine
President Harry S Truman's policy stating that the United States would help any country fighting against communism
United Nations
International organization chartered in 1945 for settling problems between nations
Vietcong
Communist guerrilla force that functioned as the National Liberation Front's army and began fighting against Ngo Dinh Diem's government in South Vietnam in the 1950s
War Powers Act
Legislation that required the president to get congressional approval before committing U.S. troops to any armed struggle
Warsaw Pact
Military alliance formed in 1955 by the Soviet Union and its satellite states
Watergate
Scandal in which President Richard M. Nixon authorized a cover up of a break in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters; led to Nixon's resignation in 1974