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concerned with evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organisms to meet challenges posed by abiotic environments
all organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species
focus on interactions between species, such as predation and competition, affect community structure and organization
focuses on energy flow and cycling of chemicals along various biotic and abiotic factors
what does the ecosystem level of classification have in common with the community level of classification?
all the biotic factors of the area
major abiotic factors
energy source, temperature, water, nutrients, other aquatic factors, other terrestrial factors
primary source of energy is the sun which is necessary for photosynthesis, heat, and light; deep sea vents also give energy; chemicals too
essential to all life; terrestrial organisms need to worry about drying out; aquatic ones worry about water balance
animals need minerals; aquatic animals need nitrogen and peroxide; plants need nitrogen and peroxide
other aquatic factors
the oxygen dissolved in water is critical; salinity, currents, tides also affect
how are the fields of ecology and evolution linked?
process of evolutionary adaptation via natural selection results from the interactions of organisms with their environments
major terrestrial or aquatic life zone, characterized by vegetation type in terrestrial biomes or the physical environment in aquatic biomes
what is the main way that living organisms contribute to the water cycle?
plants move water from the ground to the air via transpiration
certain gases in the earth's atmosphere that are transparent to solar radiation and absorb and reflect heat; act as a blanket that trap heat in atmosphere
why are gases such as co2 and methane called greenhouse gases?
allow solar radiation to pass through atmosphere but prevent heat from reflecting back out, much like the glass of a greenhouse retains the sun's heat inside the building
lakes and ponds
found in california idaho, and nevada; have algae, snails, clams, insects; can be anywhere from 0 to 22 celsius depending on the season
rivers and streams
found in california and alaska; aquatic green plants, algae, catfish, carp; originate from springs, melted snow or lakes; end in oceans
california, alaska, oregon, esther island; hydrophytes, ducks, pond lillies, reptiles, birds; standing water includes marshes, swamps, and bogs
found in warm tropical waters in scattered locations like the red sea; has variety of invertebrates and fish and unicellular algae; built up slowly by successive generations of coral animals
found in sandy beaches and southeast alaska; algae, barnacles, mussels, worms, clams; where ocean meets land
mudflats, chesapeake bay; oysters, crabs, and many fish; transition between a river and an ocean
tropical forests, savannas, deserts, chaparral, temperate grasslands, temperate broadleaf forests, coniferous forests, tundra, polar ice
on the equator; monkeys, birds, insects, snakes, bats, frogs, most diverse; 200-400 cm of rain per year with warm temperatures
africa and australia; grasses and scattered trees, poor soil and lack of moisture, grazing animals, lions, cheetahs; 30-50 cm per year with dramatic seasonal variation
west of rocky mountains; gobi desert, northern china, southern mongolia; cacti and deeply rooted shrubs, least biodiverse; low, unpredictable rainfall
surrounds mediterranean sea; deer, fruit eating birds, shrubs; mild, rainy winters, hot, dry summers; fires caused by lightning
eastern washington state, california, ukraine, russia; perennial grasses, squirrels, prairie dogs; rich mix of grasses and has some of the world's most fertile soils
temperate broadleaf forests
southwest china, new zealand, australia; vegetation mainly consists of mast eaters; temperate and humid biome, upper canopy layer, 4 layers of trees
north america and asia south of the arctic circle mountainous regions of western north americal pine, spruce, fir and hemlock trees, moose, elk, hares, bears; long, snowy winters, wet summers
covers artic between taiga and polar ice; small shrubs, grass, masses, caribou, wolves, and small rodents
alaska, greenland, canada, norway, finland, sweden, russia; polar bear, hare, poppies, azaleas; high latitude region of planet or moon that is covered in ice
embryonic shoots in each of the angles formed by a lead and the stem which each remain dormant
large, brownish rootlike structures near soil surface that are actually horizontal underground stems; store food and can form new plants
dermal tissue system
forms outer protective covering; plants first line of defense against physical damage and infectious organisms
innermost layer of the cortex; regulates passage of substances between the cortex and vascular tissue
vascular bundle location in eudicots; fills the center of the stem and is often important in food storage
two specialized cells that regulate the size of the stomata, allowing gas exchange between surrounding air and photosynthetic cells inside the leaf
ground tissue system of a leaf; contains mostly photosynthetic cells containing chloroplasts
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