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115 terms

ecosystems

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biotic factors
all of organisms in the area
abiotic factors
make up nonliving components and include chemical and physical factors
habitat
specific environment an organism lives in, including biotic and abiotic factors
four ecology levels
organismal ecology, population ecology, community ecology, ecosystem ecology
organismal ecology
concerned with evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organisms to meet challenges posed by abiotic environments
what is the distribution of organisms limited by?
abiotic conditions they can tolerate
population
group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area
population ecology
concentrates on factors that affect population density and growth
community
all organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species
community ecology
focus on interactions between species, such as predation and competition, affect community structure and organization
ecosystem
includes all abiotic factors in addition to the community of species in a certain area
ecosystem ecology
focuses on energy flow and cycling of chemicals along various biotic and abiotic factors
biosphere
global ecosystem; all life and where it lives
what does the ecosystem level of classification have in common with the community level of classification?
all the biotic factors of the area
what does the ecosystem level include that the community level does not?
abiotic factors
major abiotic factors
energy source, temperature, water, nutrients, other aquatic factors, other terrestrial factors
energy source
primary source of energy is the sun which is necessary for photosynthesis, heat, and light; deep sea vents also give energy; chemicals too
chemosynthesis
some bacteria can make food from the energy in chemicals
temperature
most organisms cant live below 0 or above 45 degrees celsius
water
essential to all life; terrestrial organisms need to worry about drying out; aquatic ones worry about water balance
nutrients
animals need minerals; aquatic animals need nitrogen and peroxide; plants need nitrogen and peroxide
other aquatic factors
the oxygen dissolved in water is critical; salinity, currents, tides also affect
other terrestrial factors
disturbances: earthquake, tsunami, fire
how are the fields of ecology and evolution linked?
process of evolutionary adaptation via natural selection results from the interactions of organisms with their environments
physiological responses
change in an organisms body functions
acclimation
gradual but reversible physiological adjustment in response to environmental change
physiological response example
low oxygen in oxygen --> increase in red blood cells
anatomical responses
structural changes for an organism, some are reversible and some are not
behavioral responses
organisms act in a way to help cope with the environment
biome
major terrestrial or aquatic life zone, characterized by vegetation type in terrestrial biomes or the physical environment in aquatic biomes
transpiration
water from plants to atmosphere
why do plants know when to bloom?
because of the temperature and sunlight
what is the main way that living organisms contribute to the water cycle?
plants move water from the ground to the air via transpiration
greenhouse gases
certain gases in the earth's atmosphere that are transparent to solar radiation and absorb and reflect heat; act as a blanket that trap heat in atmosphere
greenhouse effect
increase in global temperatures in the atmosphere
how much has the earth's temperature risen in the last century?
.8 degrees celsius
why are gases such as co2 and methane called greenhouse gases?
allow solar radiation to pass through atmosphere but prevent heat from reflecting back out, much like the glass of a greenhouse retains the sun's heat inside the building
what is the major source of co2 released by human activities?
burning fossil fuels
human activities that release co2 emissions
burning fossil fuels, agriculture, landfills
what effect has deforestation had on co2?
its uptake by plants has been reduced
what happens if oceans absorb too much co2?
acidification
freshwater biomes
lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands
lakes and ponds
found in california idaho, and nevada; have algae, snails, clams, insects; can be anywhere from 0 to 22 celsius depending on the season
rivers and streams
found in california and alaska; aquatic green plants, algae, catfish, carp; originate from springs, melted snow or lakes; end in oceans
wetlands
california, alaska, oregon, esther island; hydrophytes, ducks, pond lillies, reptiles, birds; standing water includes marshes, swamps, and bogs
marine biomes
pelagic realm, coral reef; intertidal zone; estuary
pelagic realm
found in all major zones; sponges, worms, clams, crabs; includes all open water
coral reef
found in warm tropical waters in scattered locations like the red sea; has variety of invertebrates and fish and unicellular algae; built up slowly by successive generations of coral animals
intertidal zone
found in sandy beaches and southeast alaska; algae, barnacles, mussels, worms, clams; where ocean meets land
estuary
mudflats, chesapeake bay; oysters, crabs, and many fish; transition between a river and an ocean
terrestrial biomes
tropical forests, savannas, deserts, chaparral, temperate grasslands, temperate broadleaf forests, coniferous forests, tundra, polar ice
tropical forests
on the equator; monkeys, birds, insects, snakes, bats, frogs, most diverse; 200-400 cm of rain per year with warm temperatures
savannas
africa and australia; grasses and scattered trees, poor soil and lack of moisture, grazing animals, lions, cheetahs; 30-50 cm per year with dramatic seasonal variation
deserts
west of rocky mountains; gobi desert, northern china, southern mongolia; cacti and deeply rooted shrubs, least biodiverse; low, unpredictable rainfall
chaparral
surrounds mediterranean sea; deer, fruit eating birds, shrubs; mild, rainy winters, hot, dry summers; fires caused by lightning
temperate grasslands
eastern washington state, california, ukraine, russia; perennial grasses, squirrels, prairie dogs; rich mix of grasses and has some of the world's most fertile soils
temperate broadleaf forests
southwest china, new zealand, australia; vegetation mainly consists of mast eaters; temperate and humid biome, upper canopy layer, 4 layers of trees
coniferous forests
north america and asia south of the arctic circle mountainous regions of western north americal pine, spruce, fir and hemlock trees, moose, elk, hares, bears; long, snowy winters, wet summers
tundra
covers artic between taiga and polar ice; small shrubs, grass, masses, caribou, wolves, and small rodents
polar ice
alaska, greenland, canada, norway, finland, sweden, russia; polar bear, hare, poppies, azaleas; high latitude region of planet or moon that is covered in ice
cotleydons
first leaves to emerge from a growing seedling
monocot embryo
has one seed lead
dicot embryo
has two seed leaves
eudicots
largest group of dicots
monocot leaf veins
usually parallel
eudicot leaf veins
usually branched
monocot stems
vascular bundles in scattered arrangement
eudicot stems
vascular bundles arranged in ring
monocot flowers
usually in multiples of three
eudicot flowers
usually in multiples of four or five
monocot roots
fibrous root system
eudicot roots
taproot usually present
roots
anchor a plant in the soil and absorb and transport minerals and water and store food
root hairs
tiny projections off the root which increase root surface area
shoot system
made up of stems, leaves, and structures for reproduction
stems
grow above ground and support leaves and flowers
nodes
points at which leaves are attached
internodes
portions of stem between nodes
terminal bud
has developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes
axillary buds
embryonic shoots in each of the angles formed by a lead and the stem which each remain dormant
apical dominance
where the terminal bud produces hormones that inhibit growth of axillary buds
why is branching important?
it increases the exposure of the shoot system to the environment
rhizomes
large, brownish rootlike structures near soil surface that are actually horizontal underground stems; store food and can form new plants
tubers
food is stored in the form of starch
leaves
primary sites of photosynthesis
two parts of a leaf
blade and petiole
petiole
joins leaf to stem
xylem
conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the stems and leaves
phloem
transports sugars from leaves or storage tissues to other parts of plant
tissue system
consists of one or more tissues organized into a functional unit within a plant
three tissue systems
dermal, vascular, and ground tissue systems
dermal tissue system
forms outer protective covering; plants first line of defense against physical damage and infectious organisms
cuticle
epidermal cells secrete a waxy coating which prevents water loss
vascular tissue system
provides support and long distance transport
what system are xylem and phloem part of?
vascular tissue
ground tissue system
diverse functions, including photosynthesis, storage, and support
cortex
formed by the ground tissue system; stores food and takes up water and minerals
endodermis
innermost layer of the cortex; regulates passage of substances between the cortex and vascular tissue
pith
vascular bundle location in eudicots; fills the center of the stem and is often important in food storage
stomata
tiny pores between guard cells
guard cells
two specialized cells that regulate the size of the stomata, allowing gas exchange between surrounding air and photosynthetic cells inside the leaf
mesophyll
ground tissue system of a leaf; contains mostly photosynthetic cells containing chloroplasts
vein
vascular bundle composed of xylem and phloem
asexual reproduction
creation of offspring derived from a single parent without fertilization
sexual reproduction
union of gametes from two parents to produce genetically different offspring
flower
structure for reproduction
speals
protect flower bud
petals
make flower attractive towards pollinators
stamen
reproductive organ; has stalk and anther
anther
holds sacs where meiosis and pollen grains develop
carpel
has a sticky stigma at its tip
stigma
landing platform for pollen grains
ovary
base of the carpel
ovules
in the ovary; each contain one developing egg and the cells that support it
pistil
group of carpels