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biotic factors

all of organisms in the area

abiotic factors

make up nonliving components and include chemical and physical factors


specific environment an organism lives in, including biotic and abiotic factors

four ecology levels

organismal ecology, population ecology, community ecology, ecosystem ecology

organismal ecology

concerned with evolutionary adaptations that enable individual organisms to meet challenges posed by abiotic environments

what is the distribution of organisms limited by?

abiotic conditions they can tolerate


group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area

population ecology

concentrates on factors that affect population density and growth


all organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species

community ecology

focus on interactions between species, such as predation and competition, affect community structure and organization


includes all abiotic factors in addition to the community of species in a certain area

ecosystem ecology

focuses on energy flow and cycling of chemicals along various biotic and abiotic factors


global ecosystem; all life and where it lives

what does the ecosystem level of classification have in common with the community level of classification?

all the biotic factors of the area

what does the ecosystem level include that the community level does not?

abiotic factors

major abiotic factors

energy source, temperature, water, nutrients, other aquatic factors, other terrestrial factors

energy source

primary source of energy is the sun which is necessary for photosynthesis, heat, and light; deep sea vents also give energy; chemicals too


some bacteria can make food from the energy in chemicals


most organisms cant live below 0 or above 45 degrees celsius


essential to all life; terrestrial organisms need to worry about drying out; aquatic ones worry about water balance


animals need minerals; aquatic animals need nitrogen and peroxide; plants need nitrogen and peroxide

other aquatic factors

the oxygen dissolved in water is critical; salinity, currents, tides also affect

other terrestrial factors

disturbances: earthquake, tsunami, fire

how are the fields of ecology and evolution linked?

process of evolutionary adaptation via natural selection results from the interactions of organisms with their environments

physiological responses

change in an organisms body functions


gradual but reversible physiological adjustment in response to environmental change

physiological response example

low oxygen in oxygen --> increase in red blood cells

anatomical responses

structural changes for an organism, some are reversible and some are not

behavioral responses

organisms act in a way to help cope with the environment


major terrestrial or aquatic life zone, characterized by vegetation type in terrestrial biomes or the physical environment in aquatic biomes


water from plants to atmosphere

why do plants know when to bloom?

because of the temperature and sunlight

what is the main way that living organisms contribute to the water cycle?

plants move water from the ground to the air via transpiration

greenhouse gases

certain gases in the earth's atmosphere that are transparent to solar radiation and absorb and reflect heat; act as a blanket that trap heat in atmosphere

greenhouse effect

increase in global temperatures in the atmosphere

how much has the earth's temperature risen in the last century?

.8 degrees celsius

why are gases such as co2 and methane called greenhouse gases?

allow solar radiation to pass through atmosphere but prevent heat from reflecting back out, much like the glass of a greenhouse retains the sun's heat inside the building

what is the major source of co2 released by human activities?

burning fossil fuels

human activities that release co2 emissions

burning fossil fuels, agriculture, landfills

what effect has deforestation had on co2?

its uptake by plants has been reduced

what happens if oceans absorb too much co2?


freshwater biomes

lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, wetlands

lakes and ponds

found in california idaho, and nevada; have algae, snails, clams, insects; can be anywhere from 0 to 22 celsius depending on the season

rivers and streams

found in california and alaska; aquatic green plants, algae, catfish, carp; originate from springs, melted snow or lakes; end in oceans


california, alaska, oregon, esther island; hydrophytes, ducks, pond lillies, reptiles, birds; standing water includes marshes, swamps, and bogs

marine biomes

pelagic realm, coral reef; intertidal zone; estuary

pelagic realm

found in all major zones; sponges, worms, clams, crabs; includes all open water

coral reef

found in warm tropical waters in scattered locations like the red sea; has variety of invertebrates and fish and unicellular algae; built up slowly by successive generations of coral animals

intertidal zone

found in sandy beaches and southeast alaska; algae, barnacles, mussels, worms, clams; where ocean meets land


mudflats, chesapeake bay; oysters, crabs, and many fish; transition between a river and an ocean

terrestrial biomes

tropical forests, savannas, deserts, chaparral, temperate grasslands, temperate broadleaf forests, coniferous forests, tundra, polar ice

tropical forests

on the equator; monkeys, birds, insects, snakes, bats, frogs, most diverse; 200-400 cm of rain per year with warm temperatures


africa and australia; grasses and scattered trees, poor soil and lack of moisture, grazing animals, lions, cheetahs; 30-50 cm per year with dramatic seasonal variation


west of rocky mountains; gobi desert, northern china, southern mongolia; cacti and deeply rooted shrubs, least biodiverse; low, unpredictable rainfall


surrounds mediterranean sea; deer, fruit eating birds, shrubs; mild, rainy winters, hot, dry summers; fires caused by lightning

temperate grasslands

eastern washington state, california, ukraine, russia; perennial grasses, squirrels, prairie dogs; rich mix of grasses and has some of the world's most fertile soils

temperate broadleaf forests

southwest china, new zealand, australia; vegetation mainly consists of mast eaters; temperate and humid biome, upper canopy layer, 4 layers of trees

coniferous forests

north america and asia south of the arctic circle mountainous regions of western north americal pine, spruce, fir and hemlock trees, moose, elk, hares, bears; long, snowy winters, wet summers


covers artic between taiga and polar ice; small shrubs, grass, masses, caribou, wolves, and small rodents

polar ice

alaska, greenland, canada, norway, finland, sweden, russia; polar bear, hare, poppies, azaleas; high latitude region of planet or moon that is covered in ice


first leaves to emerge from a growing seedling

monocot embryo

has one seed lead

dicot embryo

has two seed leaves


largest group of dicots

monocot leaf veins

usually parallel

eudicot leaf veins

usually branched

monocot stems

vascular bundles in scattered arrangement

eudicot stems

vascular bundles arranged in ring

monocot flowers

usually in multiples of three

eudicot flowers

usually in multiples of four or five

monocot roots

fibrous root system

eudicot roots

taproot usually present


anchor a plant in the soil and absorb and transport minerals and water and store food

root hairs

tiny projections off the root which increase root surface area

shoot system

made up of stems, leaves, and structures for reproduction


grow above ground and support leaves and flowers


points at which leaves are attached


portions of stem between nodes

terminal bud

has developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes

axillary buds

embryonic shoots in each of the angles formed by a lead and the stem which each remain dormant

apical dominance

where the terminal bud produces hormones that inhibit growth of axillary buds

why is branching important?

it increases the exposure of the shoot system to the environment


large, brownish rootlike structures near soil surface that are actually horizontal underground stems; store food and can form new plants


food is stored in the form of starch


primary sites of photosynthesis

two parts of a leaf

blade and petiole


joins leaf to stem


conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the stems and leaves


transports sugars from leaves or storage tissues to other parts of plant

tissue system

consists of one or more tissues organized into a functional unit within a plant

three tissue systems

dermal, vascular, and ground tissue systems

dermal tissue system

forms outer protective covering; plants first line of defense against physical damage and infectious organisms


epidermal cells secrete a waxy coating which prevents water loss

vascular tissue system

provides support and long distance transport

what system are xylem and phloem part of?

vascular tissue

ground tissue system

diverse functions, including photosynthesis, storage, and support


formed by the ground tissue system; stores food and takes up water and minerals


innermost layer of the cortex; regulates passage of substances between the cortex and vascular tissue


vascular bundle location in eudicots; fills the center of the stem and is often important in food storage


tiny pores between guard cells

guard cells

two specialized cells that regulate the size of the stomata, allowing gas exchange between surrounding air and photosynthetic cells inside the leaf


ground tissue system of a leaf; contains mostly photosynthetic cells containing chloroplasts


vascular bundle composed of xylem and phloem

asexual reproduction

creation of offspring derived from a single parent without fertilization

sexual reproduction

union of gametes from two parents to produce genetically different offspring


structure for reproduction


protect flower bud


make flower attractive towards pollinators


reproductive organ; has stalk and anther


holds sacs where meiosis and pollen grains develop


has a sticky stigma at its tip


landing platform for pollen grains


base of the carpel


in the ovary; each contain one developing egg and the cells that support it


group of carpels

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