Collagen fibers and hydroxyapatite ground substance
Bone, the connective tissue (bony connective tissue) has a matrix composed of _____ and _____.
True or False: Bone and the connective tissue are not good at resisting twisting/torsion forces.
True or False: the matrix of bone, hydroxyapatite and collagen are stronger when combined together than when separate.
Bony connective tissue, other types of connective tissue, nervous and epithelial elements
Bone, the organ is composed primarily of _____, _____, _____ and _____.
Provides structure, support and protection, essential for locomotion and movement, site of blood cell formation, storehouse for inorganic minerals, and as an indicator of sex, age, height, weight, geographic ancestry and (to some extent) medical history
List 5 major functions of the skeletal system.
Flat bones / almost all bones
Hematopoiesis (or blood cell formation) occurs in the _____ bones of adults and _____ bones of children.
Pregnant women not making enough calcium to give to their fetus will show signs of what disease?
Head protects the soft tissue of the brain, the ribs protect the heart the vertebral column protects the nerves and spine and some tissues act as shock absorbers
List 4 ways the skeleton acts to protect the body.
Associated with areas of articulation or sites of strong muscle attachment, the _____ is the secondary center of ossification.
A thin membrane that separates the medullary cavity from the bony connective tissue in long bones.
False (once the person goes through puberty)
True or False: the epiphyseal plate is replaced with bony connective tissue by the time a child reaches the age of 5.
True or False: A thin membrane separates the medullary cavity from bony connective tissue in long bones.
Surface features that present as rounded (tubercles, protuberance, tuber/tuberosity, trochaner and malleolus).
Depressions (groove, sulcus, fossa, fovea and cavity) and passageways (foramen, canal, meatus) are examples of what type of surface feature.
Elevation / Excavation
The medial malleolus is an example of an _____ while the nasal cavity is an example of an _____.
Perforating canals connect _____ in the osteon to those in the spongy bone and medullary cavity.
The bone found underlying articular cartilage, making up facet surface is called _____ bone.
False (variation of compact bone, no passageways)
True or False: Subchondral bone is a variation of spongy bone.
Growth, development and repair
Osteoblasts tend to be most active during periods of ____, _____, and _____.
True or False: Over a 7 year period, osteoblasts replace the entire skeleton with new bony connective tissue by repairing tiny stress fractures that occur each day.
When an osteoblast becomes entirely surrounded by bony connective tissue it becomes a(n) _____.
Maintain surrounding bony connective tissue and regulate mineral content.
Osteocytes are responsible for what two functions?
Large and multinucleated cells which originate from the fusion of several monocytes are called _____.
The term used to describe the process by which osteoclasts destroy bony connective tissue is _____.
Bones at the base of the skull, all postcranial bones, parts of the clavicle
Give 3 examples of endochondral bone.
Template of hyaline cartilage forms. Cartilage disintegrates and excavates interior of the template, blood vessels invade bringing undifferentiated connective tissue cells. Connective tissue cells differentiate into osteoblasts which start forming spongy bone. Periosteum forms and osteoblasts beneath periosteum form compact bone. Further growth takes place along two different pathways.
What are the 5 steps in the ontogenetic process of endochondral bone
False (it forms at the same time)
True or False: In the ontogenetic process, the periosteum forms after connective tissue cells differentiate into osteoblasts.
True or False: In interstitial growth, the new bony connective tissue will create a longer diaphysis over time.
True or False: In early fetal development there is a mat of blood vessels. Mesenchymal tissue condenses around this mat to form the periosteum.
3, 2, 1
Put these steps of Interstitial growth in order: 1. Epiphyseal plate ossifies and growth ceases 2. Epiphyseal plate is a site of active growth 3. Blood vessels invade ends of bone which become secondary ossification centers.
New compact bone is deposited by osteoblasts just below the periosteum and osteoclasts at the inner bone surface destroy bone and enlarge the medullary cavity (if present); remodel (replace) compact/spongy bone interface.
Describe the process of appositional growth.
1, 4, 3, 2
Put the following steps of the ontogenetic process in intramembranous bone in order: 1. Membrane forms around blood vessels, 2. Remaining growth takes place via process resembling appositional growth. 3. At the same time, periosteum forms; underlying connective tissue cells differentiate into osteoblasts which start forming compact bone below the periosteum. 4. Undifferentiated connective tissue cells around blood vessels differentiate into osteoblasts, which start forming spongy bone.
Rickets / osteomalacia
A vitamin D deficiency is responsible for _____ in children and _____ in adults.
When the Parathyroid hormone is overstimulated it leads to an excess of _____ in the blood supply.
A hormonal disorder, usually developed as a result of a benign tumor, which causes swelling, skin thickening, tissue growth, and bone enlargement especially in your hands, face and feet.
A disease presenting in children, caused by a vitamin D deficiency, which causes a bowing of the legs.
In the remodeling of a hard callus, these cells remove the bony callus and reform new bone structure.
True or False: by the time a man has reached 65 his rate of osteoporosis will catch up with that of a woman's.