The conducting zone does NOT act to - clean air of debris - conduct air into the lungs - add water to air - warm air - all of the above
add water to air
Which structure prevents food or water form entering the trachea?
The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called ____
Describe the direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs
oxygen into blood, carbond dioxide out of blood
What is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen? - pH of blood - partial pressure of the oxygen - amount of oxygen available - temperature - respiratory rate
amount of oxygen available (?)
What is not a major function of the kidney? - regulation of blood ionic composition - regulation of blood cell size - regulation of blood volume - regulation of blood pressure - regulation of blood pH
regulation of blood cell size
Which of the following is not a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on? - partial pressure difference of the gases - surface area for gas exchange - diffusion distance - molecular weight and solubility of the gases - force of contraction of the diaphragm
force of contraction of the diaphragm
What is the flow of filtrate?
glomerular capsule, PCT, loop of Henle, DCT, collecting duct
Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?
What term means entry of substances into the body from the filtrate?
What occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles?
This is when a substance passes form the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apicalmembrane then across the cytosol into the interstitial fluid
How does angiotensin II affect the kidneys?
reabsorption of Na+,Cl- (also decrease GFR)
Increased secretion of hydrogen ions into the blood would result in ______ of blood ______
Increased secretion of aldosterone would result in a _______ of blood ______
Water accounts for what percentage of the total volume of urine?
What is a test to measure kidney function?
How much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?
80% of the extracellular fluid is _____
What occurs when water loss is greater than water gain?
What is the main factor that determines body fluid volume?
urinary salt loss
What hormone promotes Na+ reabsorption by the kidneys?
What hormone promotes water reabsorption by the kidneys
Water intoxication results from what?
decrease in the osmolarity of interstitial fluids
Which of the following is a function of an electrolyte in the body? - controlling osmosis between compartments - maintaining acid-base balance - carry electrical currents - serve as cofactors - all of the above
all of the above
What is the must abundant cation in extracellular fluid?
Buffer systems, exhaling carbon dioxide and excretion by the kidneys are all - ways t balance interstitial fluid - means of balancing blood volume - ways to eliminate H+ from the body - ways to make ions - ways to increase blood volume
ways to eliminate H+ from the body
Which law declares that each gas exerts its own pressure as if no other gas were present
Which law declares that the quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility
Which law declares that the pressure of gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container?
The partial pressure of oxygen is _____ atop Mt. Everist
Which of the following hormones regulate fluid loss? (1) ADH (2) aldosterone (3) Atrial natriuretic peptide (4) Thyroxine (5) cortisol
What is the major anion in the intracellular fluid?
What are the three main functions of the lymphatic system?
fluid balance, lipid absorption, defense
What are two examples of secondary lymphatic organs?
spleen, lymph nodes
What does GALT stand for?
gut associated lymphatic tissue
Why is GALT important?
comes into contact with foreign things
How is specific resistance different that non-specific resistance?
Why is the secondary response to a pathogen (after the second exposure) so much faster than the initial exposure?
What causes the Bohr graph to shift to the right?
Identify intertitial space, movement of water, impermeable area, solutes leaving, dilute/concentrate
loop of henle figure
Enuresis, or bedwetting, may be caused by psychological, anatomical, or physiological factors. In the latter case, vasopressin is often prescribed and is a very effective treatment. What is vasopressin? How can it prevent enuresis?
Describe, in detail, how the protein buffer mechanism aids in controlling and maintaining a homeostatic range of pH in the body. Include how it can act like a weak base and a weak acid
Discuss the importance of the countercurrent flow to the functining of the nephron
Describe the steps in antigen processing and presentation
Describe alveolar pressure changes during inspiration and expiration