The conducting zone does NOT act to
- clean air of debris
- conduct air into the lungs
- add water to air
- warm air
- all of the above
add water to air
The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called ____
Describe the direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs
oxygen into blood, carbond dioxide out of blood
What is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobin's affinity for oxygen?
- pH of blood
- partial pressure of the oxygen
- amount of oxygen available
- respiratory rate
amount of oxygen available (?)
What is not a major function of the kidney?
- regulation of blood ionic composition
- regulation of blood cell size
- regulation of blood volume
- regulation of blood pressure
- regulation of blood pH
regulation of blood cell size
Which of the following is not a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on?
- partial pressure difference of the gases
- surface area for gas exchange
- diffusion distance
- molecular weight and solubility of the gases
- force of contraction of the diaphragm
force of contraction of the diaphragm
What occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles?
This is when a substance passes form the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apicalmembrane then across the cytosol into the interstitial fluid
Increased secretion of hydrogen ions into the blood would result in ______ of blood ______
Which of the following is a function of an electrolyte in the body?
- controlling osmosis between compartments
- maintaining acid-base balance
- carry electrical currents
- serve as cofactors
- all of the above
all of the above
Buffer systems, exhaling carbon dioxide and excretion by the kidneys are all
- ways t balance interstitial fluid
- means of balancing blood volume
- ways to eliminate H+ from the body
- ways to make ions
- ways to increase blood volume
ways to eliminate H+ from the body
Which law declares that the quantity of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas and its solubility
Which law declares that the pressure of gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to the volume of the container?
Which of the following hormones regulate fluid loss?
(3) Atrial natriuretic peptide
Why is the secondary response to a pathogen (after the second exposure) so much faster than the initial exposure?
Identify intertitial space, movement of water, impermeable area, solutes leaving, dilute/concentrate
loop of henle figure
Enuresis, or bedwetting, may be caused by psychological, anatomical, or physiological factors. In the latter case, vasopressin is often prescribed and is a very effective treatment. What is vasopressin? How can it prevent enuresis?
Describe, in detail, how the protein buffer mechanism aids in controlling and maintaining a homeostatic range of pH in the body. Include how it can act like a weak base and a weak acid