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US Chapter 12

Industry and the North
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Lowell
City north of Boston, Massachusetts, that became the largest of the mill towns in the manufacture of textiles during te American Industrial Revolution. Female laborers.
Womens' Labor
Unheard of but necessary.
Large factories became common when?
1880s
Patriarchy
Man's power in society reflected in the family unit.
Fixed places in social order (agriculturally)
1. Large landowners/planters
2. Yeoman farmers
3. Tenant famers/laborers
transportation revolution
1800-40. Encouraged Americans to look beyond their local communities. encouraged an enterprising, commercial spirit. Roads, railroads, water
Roads
National Road, 1808. Tied east and west together (crosses Appalachians).
Canals and Steamboats
National Road was not commercially compatible. water was cheaper to use for commercial purposes and more efficient. Eerie Canal. Robert Fulton: steamboat.
Railroads
modernized iron industry
built around 1830
Effects of Transportation Revolution
made distant markets available. Risk-taking mentality. Disease moved with people. Reoriented Americans away from Atlantic and toward the mainland
Pride and identity
Market grew, capitalism
Market Revolution: 3 Parts and definition
1. Transportation
2. Commercialization
3. Industrialization
replacement of household self0sufficiency with production of goods for a cash market.
Moses Brown
a quaker merchant who wanted to build a spinning mill in Rhode Island; he opened a mill with Slater
Francis Cabot Lowell
Visited England and returned to the US to open a mill in Mass. that brought spining and weaving in one building in a town named after him
the Putting-out system
production of goods in private homes under the supervision of a merchant who "put out" raw materials, paid a certain sum per finished piece, and sold the completed item to a distant market. The division of labor was a new idea.
Samuel Slater
He memorized the way that the British made machines and he brought the idea to America. He made our first cotton spinning machine.
Interchangeable parts
American system.
Effects of Mills
destroyed artisanship, apprentice replaced by child labor, women and children gained power,
Factories vs. Slavery
South compared their "cradle to grave" slavery system to the North's treatment of "wage slaves"
Time, Work, and leisure
no flexibility, long time to adjust. workers viewed themselves as different than the owners.
the Cash Economy
barter to cash. no community ties.
Charles G. Finney
an avid reformer who started the Second Great Awakening
New Middle Class Family
Women had new responsibilities. Make the home a refuge for husband. cooperation between husband and wife.
Catherine Beecher
wrote "Treatise on Domestic Family"
Family Limitation
fewer children, mutual birth control, women were supposed to turn OFF their husbands
Middle Class children
a new kind of upbringing
Sentimentalism
middle class put an extraordinary importance on feeling and sincerity. Sentimentalism in womens' novels. Codes of ettiquette (funerals).
Transcendentalism
Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ideal reality transcends ordinary life. Thoreau. Margaret Fuller.