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Biol 180 Exam 4
Reading Quiz questions
Terms in this set (66)
What are the key differences between a parasite and a predator?
Parasites are small relative to the victim and may not consume all of it.
A harmless Viceroy butterfly shows a similar wing pattern of black stripes on an orange background as the toxic Monarch butterfly. This defense is an example of:
What's the difference between a standing defense and an induced defense?
Standing defenses are always present; induced defenses develop in response to a threat.
Can a standing defense also be an inducible defense?
Yes--the amount of a standing defense can increase in response to presence of a threat.
If predator removal experiments result in an increase in prey populations, what can you conclude?
Prey populations were reduced ("held in check") by predation.
On the question of "Why is the world green?" (or, why doesn't more plant material get eaten), what is top-down control?
When predators (species at the top of a food chain or web) control herbivore populations
What does the "bottom-up limitation" hypothesis claim?
Low levels of nitrogen and the presence of toxins in plant tissues limit herbivory.
If nitrogen limits reproductive success in herbivores, why can't they just eat more plant tissue to get more N?
It is expensive in terms of predation risk, time, and energy
The top-down control and bottom-up limitation hypotheses are not mutually exclusive. What does this mean?
They can both be correct
Parasites have been shown to change the appearance and behavior of their host. Biologists suggest that these manipulations allow the parasite to .......
Increase their chances of being transmitted to a new host
Humans have attempted to use predators and parasites as biocontrol agents for many decades. Which of the following statements is correct?
This method allows minimal use of insecticides
What does it mean to say that mutualism is a +/+ interaction?
Both species in the interaction receive a fitness benefit.
What is the nature of the fungal-plant mutualism mentioned in the text?
Fungi provide key nutrients to the plant; the plant provides photosynthetic products.
What is the nature of the bacteria-plant mutualism mentioned in the text?
The bacteria "fix" atmospheric nitrogen; the plant provides protection and sugars.
What "rewards" are typically gained by organisms as a result of mutualistic interactions?
Transportation of gametes, food, shelter/housing, & protection.
Why can mutualisms be best thought of as "reciprocal parasitism"?
Each species is under selection to maximize the fitness benefits it receives from its partner.
Why is the ant-treehopper mutualism described in the text as "dynamic"?
The fitness benefit to treehoppers changes over time because it depends on the presence of spiders (a predator).
Which type of species interaction typically leads to a reduction in the population size of both of the species involved?
In which type of species interaction is coevolution limited or non existent because at least one of the species involved does not experience significant selection as a result of the interaction?
As the number of species on an island increases, which of the following occurs?
Immigration should decline because competition for resources will be more intense, immigration should decline because individuals that arrive are more likely to represent a species that is already present, and extinction should increase because competition for resources should be more intense.
The 'high productivity' hypothesis seeks to explain the latitudinal gradient in species diversity. Which of the statements below is correct?
The hypothesis suggests that high productivity leads to increased niche differentiation.
What is biomass?
Total organic matter, usually measured as dry weight per square meter.
What is a functional group?
Species that use resources or allocate resources in a similar way.
Why would a sampling effect lead to higher productivity in an experimental plot?
If a few highly productive species are present in a community, biomass production will be a function of whether or not they are present.
In biological communities, what is "resistance?"
Degree of change during and after a disturbance.
In biological communities, what is "resilience?"
Ability to "bounce back" after a disturbance, to the pre-disturbance condition.
What is a "natural experiment?"
An unplanned/unmanipulated change in environmental conditions that can be exploited to answer a question.
"Diversity leads to stability." This slogan claims that ecosystems with a large number of species present are more stable than ecosystems with a low number of species. Which of the following lines of evidence support this claim?
As the number of plant species increases, resistance and resilience increases.
What is an autotroph?
An organism that makes its own food from inorganic sources.
Net primary productivity includes energy used to.....
Produce new tissue for growth.
Biologists identify four major components in an ecosystem: producers, consumers, decomposers, and the abiotic environment. What links them?
Flows of nutrients and energy.
What is the difference between a consumer and a decomposer?
Consumers eat living materials; decomposers eat dead materials.
What's the difference between a food chain and a food web?
Food chains have just one species per trophic level; food webs may have many species per trophic level.
Which of the following statements about grazing versus decomposer food chains is true?
The degree to which primary consumption versus decomposition dominates an ecosystem can vary with conditions.
Which of the following statements about biomass and food chains is false?
Endotherms (warm-blooded animals) are more efficient at biomass production than ectotherms (cold-blooded animals).
Top down control refers to the fact that:
Population size is limited by consumers.
What is a biogeochemical cycle?
The path that an element takes as it moves from abiotic systems, through the food chain and back again.
Which of the following factors speeds up the decomposition of detritus?
High nitrogen content.
Nutrients are lost from an ecosystem through which of the following processes?
Erosion of exposed soil by the wind.
In the water cycle, evaporation exceeds precipitation over the ocean. This water is replaced by....
The net movement of groundwater and runoff from the land to the ocean.
When grasslands and forests are converted to fields or covered over by asphalt and concrete, the effect(s) on the water cycle is:
Decrease in water table levels.
What is an "inactive reservoir" for carbon--also known as a carbon sink?
A location that stores carbon atoms over long periods.
Why is "greenhouse gas" an accurate way to describe CO2's behavior in the atmosphere?
It absorbs (i.e. "traps") energy from infrared radiation reflected from the Earth's surface.
Which country is responsible for the greatest per-capita CO2 emissions and greatest per-capita oil consumption?
In the past 100 years, average global temperature has increased about 0.8oC. Assuming continued intensive fossil fuel use by humans and rapid population growth, what is the maximum that average global temperature is expected to increase between now and 2100?
6.4 degrees C
With respect to climate change, what is the difference between positive feedback and negative feedback?
Positive feedback increases CO2 levels in the atmosphere and ocean; negative feedback reduces CO2 levels in the atmosphere and ocean.
All the organisms listed below are considered particularly vulnerable to extinction as a result of climate change EXCEPT....
Southern species of copepods
Which marine organisms are most affected by ocean acidification?
Organisms that build calcium carbonate skeletons
In response to recent climate change, how is NPP changing in the oceans?
NPP is decreasing due to a lack of nutrients reaching the water surface
When temperatures were increased experimentally in study plots in arctic tundra ecosystems, which of the following patterns were observed:
Growth of grasses and shrubs increased
Scientists predict that stable Amazon forest will transition.....
Rapidly to stable grassland with dramatic effects on biodiversity
How do current rates of extinction compare to normal or "background" rates of extinction calculated from data in the fossil record?
100-1000 times greater
What is an endangered species?
A species likely to go extinct because its numbers have declined so much
The type of habitat destruction that typically leads to the greatest loss of biodiversity is...
The destruction of primary forests
What is habitat fragmentation?
Division of large, continuous habitat into many small patches
Stochastic processes are random and/or unpredictable. Which of the following represents a stochastic process that can have a disproportionately large impact on small populations?
Catastrophic storms or disease/pests outbreaks
Which of the following is NOT a reason why habitat quality deteriorates when fragmentation occurs?
Large predators prefer to hunt in fragmented habitats
What is an exotic species?
A nonnative species introduced into an area
What is bioprospecting?
The search for compounds produced by organisms that can have medical or commercial value
Which of the following is/are examples of benefits provided by biodiversity and ecosystems?
Climate moderation, recreation and tourism, pollination of crops
What is Net Primary Productivity?
The amount of energy invested in new tissues/the biomass generated by primary producers.
Invasive mussels outcompete native species. However, sometimes strong waves rip the mussels away and allows for native species to grow again for a short time. What is this called?
Thinks climate and biotic interactions are most important in determining structure of a community. Following a disturbance, he would expect to see the same communities evolve in the same habitats
Thinks chance and history are most important in determining structure of a community. Following a disturbance, he would expect to see communities to show differences in species composition.
What is a greenhouse gas?
A gas that absorbs infrared radiation/traps heat in the atmosphere and which contributes to global warming
What is the mechanism of a greenhouse gas?
Solar radiation warms the earth --> the earth emits heat/infrared radiation --> greenhouse gas reflects heat back toward the earth
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