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97 terms

Nutrition

final test
STUDY
PLAY
CHO,p=___ cals per gram
4
Fat= ____ cals per gram
9
___ kcal as glucose circulating through blood
40 kcal
______ kcal as TG
100,000
_____kcal as protein
25,000
BMI
normal girls around 20-25
normal guys around 15-20
25=_____ 30____
overweight , obese
Metabolic syndrome is____
syndrome X
high blood pressure
increased risk of diabetes
cvd disease
heart disease
BMI male/female averages
15
25
denser you are the _____ you are
leaner
types of measuring body composition
underwater weighing
skin fold measures
underwater weighing
lean water weight denser than fat
problem: need pool and subject
skin fold measures
fat under skin measured
estimated % from fat measurement of triceps
problem: fat on arm may not represent total fat
research methods
expensive, not widely available
easy methods of BMI measurement
Pinch test
waist >chest
positive E balance
overweight
negative E balance
thin, possibly undeweight
negative E balance lowers tolerance during _____
disease or hospitlization
Basal metabolic rate
Resting metabolic rate
breathing, heart beat
factors affecting Basal metabolic rate
Age, body comp, gender, illness
thermic effect of food= diet induced
diet induced
Energy expenditure= ___% BMR and ____% thermic effect of food and ____% exercise induced thermogenesis
70
10
30
non exercise activity thermogenesis means ____ v____ fat
brown v white fat
input and output should be balance to maintain weight T or F
true
lab methods calorimetry
direct: whole room calorimeter
indirect: back pack gas monitor
Method for calorimeter of BMR
1.0 or .9 kcal/kg/hour
and add 45%, 85%
indirect caloimetry= o2______ and CO2______
consumption
expiration
Respiratory quotient
1.0 CHO
.7 Fat
android obesity
apple shaped, more common in males, higher risk metabolic syndrome
gynoid obesity
pear shaped, more common in females, lower risk metabolic syndrome
metabolic(genetic) and behavioral(self control) are two causes of ______
obesity
behavioral causes are primary in _____ obesity
US
the theory that you will return to original weight if gain/lose weight is called _____
set point theory
if excise excess fat, it is /isnt gained back
is
liposuction
if force-overfeed, gained weight is gained/lost
lost
regulatory system monitors____
fat mass and hunger
early overeating increase # of _____
fat cells
Enzyme theory LDL says that______
high LDL -> excess fat accumulation
____ is the protein made by adipocytes
leptin
T or F: obese humans don't respond to leptin administration
true
uncoupling proteins
uncoupling of oxphons from ATP synthesis with energy released as heat
lean humans have high/low UCP
high
external cue theory
obesity/overweight respond to inappropriate environmental cues
hunger is _____ whereas appetite is _____
physiological, psychological
satiety signals to stop ____
eating
increasing incident of overweight and obesity
rapidly; in all age, gender, ethinic, socioeconomic groups
____% of adults in US overweight and _____% obese
50, 75
in children ______% obese
20
storing excess carbon as fat, glycogen is _____state
fed
mobilize glycogen_____ fast
short
mobilize fat________fast
long
____bodies synthesized in liver from fatty acids
ketone
_____ provide CNS with half its energy
ketone bodies
carbs broken down to___
glucose
fat broken down to____
fatty acids
protein broken down to ____
amino acids
long term fast is considered ____days or longer
2-3
_____ allow starvation for 30 days because they are adaptive
ketone bodies
ketone bodies made by___
Fatty acids
weight loss diet should provide____
CHO, protein, incorporate exercise, mobilize tryiglycerides
need enough CHO to block conversion of muscle proteins to____
glucose
insulin drives lipogenesis which ___
blocks glycolysis (won't allow break down of fat)
fasting causes you to lose ______ NOT ______
lose bean body, fat
ketosis develops during ____
fasting
Ketosis development breaks down to_____
glucose
Ketosis leads to rapid weight loss from______
water, not fat
day 3 of fasting is when liver is synthesizing___
ketone bodies from fat
fasting is pitched as a cleansor T or F
true
MAJOR disadvantage of fasting=
Lose body mass
low CHO diets mean high___
fat and protein
benefits of low CHO means
fast initial weight loss
suppresses hunger
ketosis
lipolysis=
fat break down
lose _____if low CHO
LBM
high N excretion from high protein can cause_____
protein problems
best way to lose weight (on diet)
Very low calorie diets
factors of Cambridge diet
500kcal/day
50-100g CHO
mineral/vitamin supplements
______ diet provides overweight people to lose 3-5 pounds a week and 1-3 pounds per week
Cambridge
gastric bypass surgery
only for morbidly obese people
surgical procedures
portion of stomach taken out
does liposuction work?
no, taken from lower half of body and redistributed to upper half of body
Negative E balance
-key to weight loss
-faster weight is lost if more negative balance
most people can reduce calories by_____ and they will be fine and lose weight
1/3
CRON
calorie restriction with optimal nutrition
CRAN
calorie resrtiction with adequate nutrition
Anorexia nervosa
starving self
deranged self image, self denial
bulimia nervosa
binge purging
induced vomiting
sugar, salt and nitries are ____agents
antimicrobial
dietary fat, xs cals, environment all linked to____
Cancer
Free radicals= ______damage
ROS
Zinc causes a high____ disease risk
Cardiovascular
_____indirect vitamins and ____direct vitamins
5,3
are ultra trace minerals essential?
no
____% energy expenditure controlled and ______% energy expenditure related to uncontrollable things
10, 80
most adipose tissue in adults is____in color
white
____ colored adipose tissue acts as heat generation
brown
brown adipose tissue color because=
more mitochondria
anerobic burns____aerobic burns
CHO, fat