Rocks and the Rock Cycle
Terms in this set (50)
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma.
the formation and growth of a crystalline solid from a liquid or gas
The process by which sediment settles out of the water or wind that is carrying it.
fine-grained igneous rock that forms when magma cools quickly at or near Earth's surface
condition in which the earth's surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands.Typically layered minerals.
the size of the grains that make up a rock, which helps to classify the type of rock
rocks formed by the cooling of molten rock (either magma or lava)
a type of igneous rock that generally contains large crystals and forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth's surface.
molten rock beneath the earth's surface
formed from preexisting rock subjected to heat and pressure (rock is solid, but minerals break down, form, change shape)
the process by which rocks and minerals change in response to changes in temperature, pressure, chemical compositions, and/or deformation
Mineral grains are NOT arranged in bands or planes, Made of one or a few minerals. (metamorphic)
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area. Rocks are deep underground.
sequence of events in which rocks are formed, destroyed, altered, and reformed by geological processes
form when 1. sediments become pressed or cemented together or 2. when sediments precipitate out of a solution
The process in which soil particles and decaying organic matter acumulate in layers on the ground or at the bottom of large bodies of water, contributing to the formation of sedimentary rock.
Weathering is the process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock.
Igneous rock that is light in color, not very dense, and silica rich.
Igneous rock that is dark in color, very dense, and iron rich.
sedimentary rock that forms when rock fragments (clasts) are cemeted together
Made from mineral solutions (dissolved minerals and water) that crystallize
Made from the remains of plant and animal life.
What are the three types of sedimentary rocks?
Clastic, Chemical, and Organic.
What are the two ways metamorphic rocks form?
Regional and Contact Metamorphism.
What is Missouri's state rock?
What is Missouri's state mineral?
Explain the events that occur during the rock cycle.
Starts with magma. Magma cools and forms igenous rock. Weathering, transportation, and deposition change that rock into sediments. Those sediments get cemented and compacted into sedimentary rocks, which through heat and pressure can alter into a metamorphic rock. When a metamorphic rock melts it can turn back into magma. (Igneous rocks can experience pressure turning them ito metamorphic rocks) (Metamorphic/Sedimentary rocks through weathering, transportation and deposition can turn into sediments)
Explain the difference for Intrusive and Extrusive Igneous rocks.
Extrusive rocks are found on or near the surface and are externally formed. These rocks cool very quickly (fine or no grains) and most igneous rocks are extrusive. Intrusive rocks are found under the surface and are internally found. Cools very slowly (large grains/crystals).
Give an example of weathering.
Water gets in the cracks of a rock. The water freezes and expands, which breaks the rock.
What are the three types of mineral grain sizes are found in sedimentary rock?
Medium, fine, and coarse grained.
What types of texture do metamorphic rocks have?
Foliated or Non-Foliated
What type of rock is most likely to contain fossils?
What type of rock is formed from weathering and erosion?
What is the difference from rocks that cool slowly and rocks that cool quickly?
Rocks that cool slowly are Intrusive and have large grains. Rocks that cool quickly are extrusive and have fine or no grains.
What geological process cannot change a rock that is deep underground?
Compaction, Cementation, Erosion, Weathering, Deposition, Transportation, and Stratification
What are metamorphic rocks composed of?
Composition of metamorphic rock varies due to the rocks location. Some metamorphic rocks have index minerals. These minerals indicate where the rcok went through metamorphism (change) using approximate temperature, pressure, and depth as a guide.
An individual layer of sedimentary rock.
The process in which layering occurs.
Explain the difference between Felsic and Mafic Igneous rocks?
Felsic rocks are light colored, not very dense, and silica rich. Mafic rocks are dark colored, very dense, and iron rich.
Igneous rocks forms from... ?
Sedimentary rocks forms from...?
List the Sedimentation Proess.
Weathering and erosion, deposition, compaction, and cementation.
Movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the Earth's surface.
The process by which wind, water, or ice transports soil and sediment from one location to another.
the process in which material is laid down
a naturally occuring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter.
Heat and Pressure
Occurs and causes metamorphism
the quality of a rock based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rocks grains.
minerals that make-up the rock.