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trigeminal nerve

3 main branches
-ophthalmic division (VI)
-maxillary division (V2)
-mandibular division (V3)

Maxillary Division

exists from skull through FORAMEN ROTUNDUM
divides into 5 major branches

Posterior Superior Alveolar Nerve (PSA)

emerges from the pterygopalatine fossa and travels along (posterior portion of) maxillary tuberosity
supplies maxillary buccal gingiva of PM and Molars and Mx Sinus


-comes off the maxillary division, goes through the ptergyopalatine foramen and supplies the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
-leaves nasal cavity through the incisive foramen as the nasopalatine nerve and supplies the lingual gingiva of the MX C and LI

Descending Palatine nerve

-runs off the maxillary division straight downward to posterior part of hard palate
-seperates into two branches a lesser and a greater

Lesser Palatine Nerve

-enters palatine area through lesser palatine foramen
-supplies the soft palate and tonsils

Greater Palatine Nerve

-enters palatine area through Greater Palatine Foramen
-Supplies most of the mucosa of the hard palate

Infraorbital Nerve

supplies skin of nose, lower eyelid, skin and mucosa of upper lip and MX LABIAL GINGIVAL
forward continuation of the maxillary division
runs forward in the floor of orbit
exists through infraorbital foramen
has two branches

middle superior alveolar nerve (MSA)

not always present
supplies PM and MB root of MX 1st molar and part of Maxillary Sinus

Anterior Superior Alveolar Nerve (ASA)

supplies MX anterior teeth

mandibular division

motor and sensory
leaves skull through FORAMEN OVALE
enters area of infratemporal fossa
breaks up into many divisions

auriculotemporal nerve

posterior division
sensory branch that runs backward to supply area above and in front of ear
supplies side of head and scalp, TMJ

buccal nerve

anterior division
spreads out on surface of buccinator muscle and penetrates
supplies skin and mucosa of cheek

long buccal nerve

lowest of buccal nerve that supplies buccal gingiva and MD up to mental foramen

lingual nerve

posterior division
one of the largest branches of the mandibular division
supplies sensory innervation from the floor of mouth, MD lingual gingiva, and part of tongue

inferior alveolar nerve

enters mandible through mandibular foramen and innervates MD teeth

mental nerve

exists the mandible through mental foramen
supplies labial mucosa and gingiva of the MD anteriors and the skin of lower lip and chin

facial nerve (CN VII)

exists cranial fossa through stylomastoid foramen
passes through parotid gland
separates into branches (inside parotid) and provides motor supply to muscles of facial expression

chorda tympani nerve

provides taste to anterior 2/3s of tongue as well as parasympathetic fibers to submandibular and sublingual glands

vagus nerve (CN X)

exists through jugular foramen
fibers to heart lungs, kidneys and digestive tract
small branch to tongue
2 branches to larynx

hypoglossal nerve (XII)

important because it supplies most of the muscles of the tongue

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