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Terms in this set (33)
learning theory approach
the theory that language acquisition follows the basic laws of reinforcement and conditioning
changes in behavior being the result between an environmental event and a response (ex. meat and bell)
differential reinforcement, and imitation (Akers)
Reinforcing only those responses within a response class that meet a specific criterion along some dimension(s) and placing all other responses in the class on extinction.
The theory as proposed by Akers is centred around the idea that "the same learningprocess in a context of social structure, interaction, and situation produces both conforming and deviant behavior.
5 techniques of neutralization
denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of the victim, condemnation of the condemners, appeal to higher loyalties
Hirschi's Social Bond Theory (4 social bonds)
Travis Hirschi's control or social bonding theory argues that those persons who have strong and. abiding attachments to conventional society (in the form of attachments, involvement, invest- ment, and belief) are less likely to deviate than persons who have weak or shallow bonds.
Godfredson and Hirschi's Theory of Low Self Control: Three Step Process
monitoring behavior, recognizing bad behavior and punishing bad behavior.
Charles Title's Control Balance Theory
Whether or not you have too much or too little power.
Life Course Criminology
The study of crime based on the belief that behavioral patterns developed in childhood can predict delinquent and criminal behavior later in life
Loud Age Graded Theory
Terry Moffet: Lifelong Offenders vs. Adolescent youthful offenders
Social Reaction Theories: Labelling Theory
The Labeling perspective is the reaction to people who violate laws by a society that makes a big deal out of the behavior
Social Reaction Theories: Conflict Theory
Diversion, decrminalization and deinsitutionalizatoin
Simple Assault vs. Aggravated Assault
Simple: disorderly persons offense (misdemeanor) in New Jersey. Aggravated: is committed when a person causes, or attempts to cause, a serious bodily injury or, with the use of a deadly weapon, a non-serious bodily injury results.
Robbery vs. Burglary
Robbery involves the threat or use of violence while burglary does not involve the threat or use of violence
the killing of four or more victims by one or a few assailants within a single event
the killing of several victims in three or more separate events
a criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
due process vs crime control model
Due Process model:
Crime Control Model:
improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial
Miranda v. Arizona (1966)
The court ruled that those subjected to in-custody interrogation be advised of their constitutional right to an attorney and their right to remain silent. Miranda rights
Terry v. Ohio
Police can search and seize with probable cause. Stop and frisk illegal.
Zero Tolerance Policing
Based on the belief that aggressive enforcement of laws directed at combating disorder will motivate residents to better care for their community, a policy that calls for the police to focus primarily on disorder, minor crime, and the appearance of crime through interventions that vigorously enforce criminal and civil laws and are conducted for the purpose of restoring order to communities.
Assigning police to neighborhoods where they walk the beat and work with churches and other community groups to reduce crime and improve relations with minorities.
What percentage of cases are settled by plea bargaining?
A period of incarceration that is fixed by a sentencing authority and cannot be reduced by judges or other corrections officials. Three strikes law,
a model of criminal punishment that encourages rehabilitation through the use of general and relatively unspecific sentences
Furman v. Georgia
This 1972 Supreme Court case struck down all state laws allowing the death penalty stating that they allowed for too much discretion on the part of the judge and jury resulting in lack of consistent administration of the penalty.
Gregg v. Georgia
The 1976 Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of the death penalty, stating, "It is an extreme sanction, suitable to the most extreme of crimes." The court did not, therefore, believe that the death sentence constitutes cruel and unusual punishment.
Suggested way to deal with criminologists?
Public Health approach, look at social structure, help families with social processing and then after the criminal justice system.
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