155 terms

Leadership Dynamics Ch 6-9

Study Material for exam 2

Terms in this set (...)

Chapter 6
Chapter 6 Contingency Theory
Contingency theory
is a leader-match theory (Fiedler & Chemers, 1974)
Tries to match leaders to appropriate situations
Leader's effectiveness
depends on how well the leader's style fits the context
Empirically grounded generalizations
Fiedler's generalizations about which styles of leadership are best and worst
Contingency Theory Approach
Effective leadership is contingent on matching a leader's style to the right setting
Contingency Theory Approach Assessment based on
Leadership Styles
Situational Variables
Leadership styles
Task-motivated (Low LPCs)
Relationship-motivated (High LPCs)
Task Motivated (Low LPCs)
Leaders are concerned primarily with reaching a goal
Relationship-motivated (High LPCs)
Leaders are concerned with developing close interpersonal relationships
Leader Style Measurement Scale (Fiedler)
High LPCs = Relationship-motivated
Low LPCs = Task-motivated
Situational Variables
Most Favorable -
Leader-Member Relations
Task Stucture
Position Power
Leader-Member Relations
- Refers to the group atmosphere and the degree of confidence, loyalty, and attraction of followers for leader
Task Stucture
The degree to which requirements of a task are clear and spelled out
Position Power
Designates the amount of authority a leader has to reward or punish followers
Atmosphere (Leader-Member Relations)
Good - high degree of subordinate trust, liking, positive relationship
Poor - little or no subordinate trust, friction exists, unfriendly
High Task Structure
requirements/rules - are clearly stated/known
path to accomplish - has few alternatives
task completion - can be clearly demonstrated
limited number - correct solutions exist
Low Task Structure
requirements/rules - not clearly stated/known
path to accomplish - has many alternatives
task completion - cannot be clearly demonstrated/verified
unlimited number - correct solutions exist
Strong Position Power
authority to hire or fire, give raises in rank or pay
Weak Position Power
no authority to hire or fire, give raises in rank or pay
3 Factors (Situational Variables)
determine the favorableness of various situations in organizations
Least Preferred Coworker
Task Oriented
Situations going smoothly
Situations out of control
Very Favorable
Very Unfavorable
Effective in Categories - 1, 2, 3, & 8
High LPC
Relationship Oriented
Situations with some degree
of certainty; not completely
in or out of leader's control
Moderately Favorable
Effective in Categories - 4, 5, 6, & 7
Reasons for leader mismatch, ineffectiveness
LPC style doesn't match a particular situation; stress and anxiety result
Under stress, leader reverts to less mature coping style learned in earlier development
Leader's less mature coping style results in poor decision making and consequently negative work outcomes
How Does the Contingency Theory Approach Work?
Focus of Contingency Theory
Contingency Theory Approach Focus
By assessing the 3 situational variables, any organizational context can be placed in one of the 8 categories represented in the Contingency Theory Model
After the nature of a situation is determined, the fit between leader's style and the situation can be evaluated
Contingency Theory Approach Overall Scope
By measuring Leader's LPC score and the 3 situational variables, it is possible to predict whether a leader will be effective in a particular setting
How Does Contingency Theory Work?
If individual's style matches appropriate category in the model, leader will be effective
If individual's style does not match appropriate category in the model, leader will not be effective
How Does Contingency Theory Work? (Example)
Situation -
Leader-Member Relation - Good
Task Structure - High
Position Power - High
Category - 1
Low LPC - (Individual who is task-oriented will be effective)
Contingency Theory Strengths
Empirical support
Broadened understanding.
Not an all-or-nothing approach.
Leadership profiles.
Empirical Support
Contingency theory has been tested by many researchers and found to be a valid and reliable approach to explaining how to achieve effective leadership.
Broadened Understanding
Contingency theory has broadened the scope of leadership understanding from a focus on a single, best type of leadership (e.g., trait approach) to emphasizing the importance of a leader's style and the demands of different situations.
Because Contingency theory is predictive, it provides relevant information regarding the type of leadership that is most likely to be effective in particular contexts.
Not an all or nothing approach
Contingency theory contends that leaders should not expect to be effective in every situation; thus companies should strive to place leaders in optimal situations according to their leadership style.
Leadership Profiles
Contingency theory supplies data on leadership styles that could be useful to organizations in developing leadership profiles for human resource planning.
Contingency Theory Criticisms
Fails to fully explain why leaders with particular leadership styles are more effective in some situations than others
Criticism of LPC scale validity as it does not correlate well with other standard leadership measures
Cumbersome to use in real-world settings
Fails to adequately explain what should be done about a leader/situation mismatch in the workplace
Contingency Theory Application
Useful in answering a multitude of questions about the leadership of individuals in various types of organizations
Helpful tool to assist upper management in making changes to lower level positions to ensure a good fit between an existing manager and a certain work context
Chapter 7
Chapter 7 Path - Goal Theory
Path - Goal Theory
Centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish designated goals
Path - Goal Theory Emphasis on relationship between
the leader's style
the characteristics of the subordinates
the work setting
Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description Perspective
Motivational Principles
Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description Perspective Goal
To enhance employee performance and satisfaction by focusing on employee motivation
Path-Goal Theory (House, 1971) Description Perspective Motivational Principles
(based on Expectancy Theory) - Subordinates will be motivated if they believe:
they are capable of performing their work
that their efforts will result in a certain outcome
that the payoffs for doing their work are worthwhile
Path-Goal Theory Challenge to Leader
Use a Leadership Style that best meets subordinates' motivational needs
choose behaviors that complement or supplement what is missing in the work setting
enhance goal attainment by providing information or rewards
provide subordinates with the elements they need to reach their goals
Path-Goal Theory Conditions of Leadership Motivation Generates when...
It increases the number and kinds of payoffs subordinates receive from their work
Makes the path to the goal clear and easy to travel through with coaching and direction
Removes obstacles and roadblocks to attaining the goal
Makes the work itself more personally satisfying
Path-Goal Leadership Basic Idea
Defines Goals
Clarifies Path
Removes Obstacles
Provides Support
Path-Goal Theory Major Components
Leader Behaviors
Subordinate Characteristics
Task Characteristics
Directive Leadership
Leader who gives subordinates task instruction including:
What is expected of them
How task is to be done
Timeline for task completion
Clear standards of performance
Clear rules & regulations
Supportive Leadership
Leader who is friendly and approachable:
Attending to well-being & human needs of subordinates'
Using supportive behavior to make work environment pleasant
Treating subordinates as equals & give them respect for their status
Participative Leadership
Leader who invites subordinates to share in the decision-making:
Consults with subordinates
Seeks their ideas & opinions
Integrates their input into group/organizational decisions
Achievement Oriented Leadership
Leader who challenges subordinates to perform work at the highest level possible:
Establishes a high standard of excellence for subordinates
Seeks continuous improvement
Demonstrates a high degree of confidence in subordinates' ability to establish & achieve challenging goals
Subordinate Characteristics
Strong need for affiliation
Preference for Structure
Desire for Control
Perception of their own ability - specific task
Strong need for affiliation
Friendly and concerned leadership is a source of satisfaction
Supportive Leadership
Preference for Structure
Dogmatic & authoritarian
Leadership provides psychological structure, task clarity & greater sense of certainty in work setting
Directive Leadership
Desire for Control Internal Locus of Control
Internal locus of control
Leadership that allows subordinates to feel in charge of their work & makes them an integral part of the decision-making process
Participative Leadership
Desire for Control External Locus of Control
Leadership that parallels subordinates feelings that outside forces control their circumstances
Directive Leadership
Perception of their own ability - specific task
As perception of ability and competence goes up, need for highly directive leadership goes down.
Directive leadership may become redundant, possibly excessively controlling
Task Characteristics
Design of subordinates' task
Organization's formal authority system
Primary work group of subordinates
Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement
Unclear and ambiguous
Highly repetitive
Weak formal authority
Nonsupportive/weak group norms
Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement
Unclear and Ambiguous
Leader needs to provide structure
Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement
Highly Repetitive
Leader needs to provide support to maintain subordinate motivation
Task Situations Requiring Leader Involvement
Weak formal authority
If formal authority system is weak, the leader needs to assist subordinates by making rules and work requirements clear
Nonsupportive / Weak group norms
Leader needs to help build cohesiveness and role responsibility
Task Characteristics Obstacles
Anything in the work setting that gets in the way of subordinates
They create excessive uncertainties, frustrations, or threats for subordinates
Leader's responsibility is to help subordinates by -
Removing the obstacles
Helping subordinates around them
Assisting with obstacles will increase
Subordinates' expectations to complete the task
Their sense of job satisfaction
How Does the Path-Goal Theory Approach Work?
Focus of Path-Goal Theory
How Does the Path-Goal Theory Approach Work? Cont.
The leader's job is to help subordinates reach their goals by directing, guiding, and coaching them along the way
Leaders must evaluate task and subordinate characteristics and adapt leadership style to these
The theory suggests which style is most appropriate for specific characteristics
Path-Goal Theory Approach Focus
Path-goal theory is a complex but also pragmatic approach
Leaders should choose a leadership style that best fits the needs of subordinates and their work
Path-Goal Theory Approach Overall Scope
Path-goal theory provides a set of assumptions about how different leadership styles will interact with subordinate characteristics and the work situation to affect employee motivation
Directive Leadership Group Members and Task Characteristics
Unclear Rules
Supportive Leadership Group Members and Task Characteristics
Need Affiliation
Need Human touch
Mundane and Mechanical
Participative Leadership Group Members and Task Characteristics
Need for Control
Need for Clarity
Achievement Leadership Group Members and Task Characteristics
High expectations
Need to excel
Path-Goal Theory Strengths
Useful theoretical framework
Integrates motivation
Practical Model
Useful theoretical framework (Path-Goal Theory Strengths)
Path-goal theory is a useful theoretical framework for understanding how various leadership behaviors affect the satisfaction of subordinates and their work performance.
Integrates Motivation (Path-Goal Theory Strengths)
Path-goal theory attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectancy theory into a theory of leadership.
Practice Model (Path-Goal Theory Strengths)
Path-goal theory provides a practical model that underscores and highlights the important ways leaders help subordinates.
Path-Goal Theory Criticisms
Interpreting the meaning of the theory can be confusing because it is so complex and incorporates so many different aspects of leadership; consequently, it is difficult to implement.
Empirical research studies have demonstrated only partial support for path-goal theory.
It fails to adequately explain the relationship between leadership behavior and worker motivation.
The path-goal theory approach treats leadership as a one-way event in which the leader affects the subordinate.
Path-Goal Theory Applications
PGT offers valuable insights that can be applied in ongoing settings to improve one's leadership.
Informs leaders about when to be directive, supportive, participative, or achievement oriented.
The principles of PGT can be employed by leaders at all organizational levels and for all types of tasks.
Chapter 8
Chapter 8 Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
conceptualizes leadership as a process
that is centered on the interactions between a leader and subordinates
Some theories focus on leaders
trait approach, skills approach and style approach
Other theories focus on the follower and the context (LMX)
situational leadership, contingency theory, and path-goal theory.
Dimensions of Leadership
LMX theory makes the dyadic relationship between leaders and followers the focal point of the leadership process
LMX Theory Description Perpective Development
LMX theory first described by Dansereau, Graen, & Haga (1975), Graen & Cashman (1975), and Graen (1976)
LMX Theory Description Perpective Revisions
Theory has undergone a number of revisions since its inception and continues to interest researchers
LMX Theory Description Perpective Assumption
LMX theory challenges the assumption that leaders treat followers in a collective way, as a group.
LMX - Directed attention to the differences that might exist between the leader and each of his/her followers
Early Studies LMX Called
Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL)
Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL)
Focus on the vertical linkages leaders formed with each of their followers
Leader's relationship to a work unit viewed as a series of vertical dyads
Early Studies LMX View
Leader's work unit as a whole was viewed as a series of vertical dyads; leader forms unique relationship with each subordinate
Early Studies LMX Linkages (Or relationships)
Researchers found two general types of linkages (or relationships) - those based on
Expanded/negotiated role responsibilities (extra-roles) = in-group
Formal employment contract (defined-roles) = out-group
Early Studies LMX Linkages
Expanded/negotiated role responsibilities (extra-roles) = in-group
Relationships marked by mutual trust, respect, liking, and reciprocal influence
Receive more information, influence, confidence, and concern than out-group members
Early Studies LMX Linkages
Formal employment contract (defined-roles) = out-group
Relationships marked by formal communication based on job descriptions
Early Studies LMX In-group/out-group status based on
How well subordinate works with the leader and how well the leader works with the subordinate
Whether subordinates involve themselves in expanding their role responsibilities with the leader
Whether subordinates negotiate to perform activities beyond the formal job description
In-Group Subordinates
more information, influence, confidence & concern from Leader
more dependable, highly involved & communicative than out-group
Out-Group Subordinates
less compatible with Leader
usually just come to work, do their job & go home
Later Studies LMX (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995)
Initial research primarily addressed differences between in-groups and out-groups; later research addressed how LMX theory was related to organizational effectiveness
Later research focus on the quality of leader-member exchanges resulting in positive outcomes for:
Organizations in general
Later Studies (Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) Results
Researchers found that high-quality leader-member exchanges resulted in:
Less employee turnover
More positive performance evaluations
Higher frequency of promotions
Greater organizational commitment
More desirable work assignments
Better job attitudes
More attention and support from the leader
Greater participation
Faster career progress
Later Studies LMX, cont.
Atwater & Carmeli, 2009
Harris et al., 2009
Atwater & Carmeli, 2009
Perceived high-quality leader-member exchange is positively related to feelings of energy in employees.
Harris et al., 2009
High-quality leader member exchange appears to compensate for the drawbacks of not being empowered.
Leadership Making LMX Uhl-Bien
A prescriptive approach to leadership that emphasizes that a leader should develop high-quality exchanges with all of her or his subordinates, rather than just a few.
Leadership Making Phases LMX Uhl-Bien
Develops over time
(a) stranger phase
(b) acquaintance phase
(c) mature partnership phase
Phases in Leadership Making Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995) Roles
P1 Scripted
P2 Tested
P3 Negotiated
Phases in Leadership Making Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995) Influences
P1 One Way
P2 Mixed
P3 Reciprocal
Phases in Leadership Making Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995) Exchanges
P1 Low quality
P2 Medium quality
P3 High quality
Phases in Leadership Making Graen & Uhl-Bien (1995) Interests
P1 Self
P2 Self and Other
P3 group
Leadership Making Phase 1 Stranger
Interactions within the leader-subordinate dyad are generally rule bound
Rely on contractual relationships
Relate to each other within prescribed organizational roles
Experience lower quality exchanges
Motives of subordinate directed toward self-interest rather than good of the group
Leadership Making Phase 2
Begins with an "offer" by leader/subordinate for improved career-oriented social exchanges
Testing period for both, assessing whether
the subordinate is interested in taking on new roles
leader is willing to provide new challenges
Shift in dyad from formalized interactions to new ways of relating
Quality of exchanges improve along with greater trust & respect
Less focus on self-interest, more on goals of the group
Leadership Making Phase 3
Mature Partnership
Marked by high-quality leader-member exchanges
Experience high degree of mutual trust, respect, and obligation toward each other
Tested relationship and found it dependable
High degree of reciprocity between leaders and subordinates
May depend on each other for favors and special assistance
Highly developed patterns of relating that produce positive
outcomes for both themselves & the organization
Partnerships are transformational
moving beyond self-interest to accomplish greater good of the team & organization
LMX Outcomes for Employees (Harris, Wheeler & Kacmar, 2009)
Benefits of High LMX
Disadvantages of Low LMX
Benefits of High LMX
preferential treatment
increased job-related communication
ample access to supervisors
increased performance-related feedback
Disadvantages of Low LMX
limited trust and support from supervisors
few benefits outside the employment contract
How Does the LMX Theory Approach Work?
LMX theory works in two ways: it describes leadership and it prescribes leadership
In both - the central concept is the dyadic relationship
How Does the LMX Theory Approach Work? (Descriptively)
It suggests that it is important to recognize the existence of in-groups & out-groups within an organization
Significant differences in how goals are accomplished using in-groups vs. out-groups
Relevant differences in in-group vs. out-group behaviors
How Does the LMX Theory Approach Work? (Perscriptively)
Best understood within the Leadership Making Model (Graen & Uhl-Bien)
Leader forms special relationships with all subordinates
Leader should offer each subordinate an opportunity for new roles/responsibilities
Leader should nurture high-quality exchanges with all subordinates
Rather than concentrating on differences, leader focuses on ways to build trust & respect with all subordinates - resulting in entire work group becoming an in-group
LMX Strengths
LMX theory validates our experience of how people within organizations relate to each other and the leader.
LMX theory is the only leadership approach that makes the dyadic relationship the centerpiece of the leadership process.
LMX theory directs our attention to the importance of communication in leadership.
Solid research foundation on how the practice of LMX theory is related to positive organizational outcomes.
LMX Criticisms
Inadvertently supports the development of privileged groups in the workplace; appears unfair and discriminatory
The basic theoretical ideas of LMX are not fully developed
How are high-quality leader-member exchanges created?
What are the means to achieve building trust, respect, and obligation? What are the guidelines?
Because of various scales and levels of analysis, measurement of leader-member exchanges is being questioned
LMX Application
Applicable to all levels of management and different types of organizations
Directs managers to assess their leadership from a relationship perspective
Sensitizes managers to how in-groups and out-groups develop within their work unit
Can be used to explain how individuals create leadership networks throughout an organization
Can be applied in different types of organizations - volunteer, business, education and government settings
Chapter 9
Chapter 9 Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership
is a process that:
changes and transforms individuals
frequently incorporates charismatic and visionary leadership
involves an exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is usually expected of them
Types of Leadership
Transactional Leadership
contractual management
Transformational Leadership
"occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality" (1978)
Pseudotransformational Leadership
Personalized Leadership
Transformational Leadership elements
is concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals
includes assessing followers' motives, satisfying their needs, and treating them as full human beings
Encompassing approach - TL
describes a wide range of leadership influence
Specific: one-to-one with followers
Broad: whole organizations or entire cultures
follower(s) and leader are inextricably bound together in the transformation process
Types of Leadership Defined Burns (1978)
Focuses on the
that occur
between leaders
and their followers
Process of
engaging with others
to create a connection that _______
motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower
Focuses on the
own interests rather than the interests of their followers
A special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader (Weber, 1947)
Charismatic Leadership Theory (House, 1976)
Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on their followers
Charismatic Leadership -
Transforms follower's ________ ; tries to link identity of followers to collective identity of the organization
_____ this link by emphasizing intrinsic rewards & de-emphasizing extrinsic rewards
Throughout process leaders
Express ____ expectations for followers
help followers gain sense of self-confidence and self-efficacy
Model of Transformational Leadership Bass (1985)
TL motivates followers to do more than the expected by:
raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and idealized goals
Transcends self-interest for the good of the team or organization
Addressing Higher Level needs
Idealized Influence
Describes leaders who act as strong role models for followers
followers identify with leaders and emulate them
Leader's have very high standards of ethical and moral conduct
followers deeply respect & trust L's
L's provide a vision and sense of mission
Inspirational Motivation
Leaders who communicate high expectations to followers
Inspiring followers through motivation to commitment and a part in shared vision of the organization

L's use symbols & emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self-interest; team spirit promoted
Intellectual Stimulation
Stimulates followers to be creative and innovative
Challenge their own beliefs and values those of leader and organization
Leader supports followers to
try new approaches
develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues
Individualized Consideration
Leaders who provide a supportive climate in which they listen carefully to the needs of followers
Leader's act as coaches and advisors encouraging self-actualization
Transactional Leaders -
Leaders do not individualize the needs of subordinates nor focus on their personal development
Exchange things of value with subordinates to further Subordinate agendas
Contingent Reward
The exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards
Management-by Exception
Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative reinforcement
Two forms
Active -
Passive -
Management-by Exception Active
Watches follower closely to identify mistakes/rule violations
Management-by Exception Passive
Intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen
Nonleadership Factor
The absence of leadership
A hands-off, let-things-ride approach
Refers to a leader who
abdicates responsibility
Delays decisions
gives no feedback, and
makes little effort to help followers satisfy their
Other Transformational Perspectives Bennis & Nanus (1985)
Four Leader Strategies in Transforming Organizations
Clear vision of organization's future state
TL's social architect of organization
Create Trust by making their position known and standing by it
Creatively deploy themselves through positive self-regard
Other Transformational Perspectives Kouzes & Pozner (1987, 2002)
Model consists of 5 fundamental practices
Enable leaders to get extraordinary things accomplished
1. Model the way
Exemplary leaders set a personal example for others by their own behavior
2. Inspire a shared vision
Effective leaders inspire visions that challenge others to transcend the status quo to do something for others
3. Challenge the Process
Leaders are like pioneers - are willing to innovate, grow, take risks, & improve
4. Enable Others to Act
Leaders create environments where people can feel good about their work & how it contributes to greater community
5. Encourage the Heart
Leaders use authentic celebrations & rituals to show appreciation & encouragement to others
Focus of Transformational Leaders
TLs empower and nurture followers
TLs stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers
TLs commonly create a vision
TLs require leaders to become social architects
TLs build trust & foster collaboration with others
Focus of Transformational Leaders Overall Scope
Describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and carry out significant changes in organizations
TL Strengths
Broadly researched.
Intuitive appeal.
Broader leadership view.
Strong follower.
Yukl 1999.
Broadly researched
TL has been widely researched, including a large body of qualitative research centering on prominent leaders and CEOs in major firms.
Intuitive appeal
People are attracted to TL because it makes sense to them.
TL treats leadership as a process occurring between followers and leaders.
Broader leadership view
TL provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models.
Strong Follower
TL emphasizes followers' needs, values, and morals.
Yukl 1999
Evidence supports that TL is an effective form of leadership.
TL Criticisms
Lacks conceptual clarity
Dimensions are not clearly delimited
Parameters of TL overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership
Measurement questioned
Validity of MLQ not fully established
Some transformational factors are not unique solely to the transformational model
TL treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition than a behavior that can be taught
TL is elitist and antidemocratic
Suffers from heroic leadership bias
TL is based primarily on qualitative data
Has the potential to be abused
TL Application
Provides a general way of thinking about leadership that stresses ideals, inspiration, innovations, and individual concerns
Can be taught to individuals at all levels of the organization
Able to positively impact a firm's performance
May be used as a tool in recruitment, selection, promotion, and training development
Can be used to improve team development, decision-making groups, quality initiatives, and reorganizations
The MLQ helps leaders to target areas of leadership attributes