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The thirst center is located in the


The salivary enzyme amylase functions to digest

An abnormal form of hemoglobin

Sickle-cell anemia is caused by

the glomerular filtration rate decreases

If the arteriole that supplies blood to the glomerulus becomes constricted


If the blood vessels of the anal columns become enlarged, the condition is called


The tightly coiled tube that leads to the vas deferens is the

Secretion of hydrogen ions

The kidneys help to regulate the pH of body fluids by controlling the


The tubular portion of the uterus that extends downward into the upper part of the vagina is the

Drops and filtration decreases

As a result of excessively low arterial blood pressure, glomerular hydrostatic pressure

Cell-mediated immunity

T-lymphocytes are presponsible for

Interstitial cells

The cells in the testes that produce male sex hormones are called

Neutorphils and monocytes

The most active phagocytic cells among the leukocytes are

All of these (T-helper, Endothial, Neuroglial cells)

The HIV viruses that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome may infect

Increases and the blood cholesterol concentration increases

If body cells lack LDL receptors, the plasma concentration of LDL molecules


The external reproductive organs can be distinguished by the __________ week of development


Which type of blood vessel serves as a blood reservoir?

Both spermatogenesis and oogenesis

Meiosis occurs during?

Metabolic acidosis

Diabetes mellitus, in which fatty acids are converted to ketone bodies, leads to?

Tidal volume

The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the?


Digestion of ___________ would be affected the most if the liver were severely damaged?


The American Heart Association recommends that the percentage of calories in a person's diet derived from fats should not exceed?

None of these(Urea,Uric Acid,Creatine)

Which of the following is an abnormal constituent of urine?


The tissue that forms a loose fitting sac around the heart is the?


As a platelet plug forms, platelets release the vasoconstricting substance called?


Gas exchange between the air in the alveoli and the blood in nearby capillaries occurs primarily by?

Depolarization of atrial muscle fibers

In an ECG pattern, the P wave is caused by?

Secondary oocyte

Which of the following can be fertilized to produce a zygote?


Which of the following elements is included in the hemoglobin molecules?

Respiratory system

A premature fetus has an increased chance of surviving if it produces enough surfactant to aid the functions of its?

Carbon dioxide increases

Breathing rate is most likely ot increase if the blood concentration of?

All of these

The spleen? A. Functions as a blood reservoir. B. Is responsive to low oxygen concentrations. C. Contains numerous macrophages. D. All of these

Decreased synthesis of estrogens

Women athletes sometimes experience disturbances in their menstual cycles because of?

Metabolic alkalosis

Ingestion of excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate to relieve the symptoms of ingestion may lead to?

proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb of loop of Henle, ascending limb of loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule.

Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from beginning to end?

Parasympathetic impulses and cause the heart rate to decrease

Inpulses carried to the heart by means of fibers that secrete acetylcholine are?

Water is needed by body temperature regulation

A person who is severly dehydrated is likely to have a high fever because?

Expiratory reserve volume

During forceful expiration, the air that can be expelled from the lungs in addition to the tidal volume is called?


The term used to describe an abnormally slow heart rate is?

Fibrinogen to fibrin

The basic event in the formation of a blood clot is the change of?

Muscular activity

The movement of lymph through lymphatic vessels is caused largely by?


A person with two identical variants or alleles, for a gene is?


Which of the following is a protien-splitting enzyme found in pancreatic juice?


The condition called thrombocytopenia is due to a deficiency of?

Both B. and C. are true

The skeleton of the heart consists of? A. Bone within the myocardium. B. Fibrous connective tissue in the interventricular septum. C. Fibrous Connective tissue encircling the heart valves. D. Both B. and C.

Female urethral pathway is shorter

Cystitis occurs more commonly in women than in men because the?

Sacral portion of the spinal cord

The micturition reflex center is located in the?


Kidney stones are least likely to be composed of


A person in a moderate environment probably would lose the greatest amount of water by means of?

Become edematous

If lymphatic tissue is removed from axillary region, the arm on that side is likely to?

Filtered by blood pressure

If a substance is transported form the plasma of the pertiubular capillary in the fluid of the renal tubule, it is aid to be?

Naturally acquired active immunity

the type of resistance that develops as a result of developin a disease is

Osmotic pressure

the force that causes tissue fluid to enter lymphatic capillaries is

Both T and B cells

A normal immune response requires the response of?

Diet high in unsaturated fats

Which of the following is not a factor that seems to increase the susceptibility to atherosclerosis? A. Diet high in unsaturated fats. B. High blood pressure. C. Lack of physical exercise. D. Obesity.

External jugular vein

Blood from the face and scalp is drained by the?

Placental membrane

Drugs ingested by a pregnant woman most likely reach her fetus by passing through the

Ciliary action

The movement of an egg cell down a uterine tube is aided by?

Agglutinogen A and B

Type AB blood contains?

Mast cells release histamine

As a result of an allergen-antibody reaction?


The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics is?

Essential amino acids

Plant proteins typically contain less than adequate amounts of?

Four sperm cells with 23 chromosomes each

In spermatogenesis, meiosis results in the formation of?

All of these

the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome include? A. Reduced head size. B. Mental retardation. C. Abnormal facial features. D. all of these


Which of the following usually accounts for the smallest percentage of leukocytes in a blood sample?

Calcium oxalate

Gallstones are usually composed of?

two arteries and one vein

How many blood vessels are usually found in the the umbilical cord?

Two thicknesses of epithelial cells and basement membranes

The respiratory membrane consists of?

Inner cell mass

The cells of a blastocyst that give rise to the body of the developing offspring constitute the?

Ventricular fibrilation

Which of the following would produce the most life-threatening condition?

S-A node, A-V node, A-V bundle, Purkinje fibers

The correct sequence of parts that functions to carry cardiac impulses.

Deficiency of lactase

The condition called lactose intolerance is caused by?


In an autoimmune disease, the immune response is directed toward?

Right atrium to the left atrium

The foramen ovale is an opening that allows fetal blood to pass from the?

From the pharynx to the anus

Peristalsis occurs in the digestive tract?

Act against foreign substances

A primary function of lymphocytes is to?

Neutrophils and monocytes

The most active phogocytic cells found in circulation blood are?

Epithelial cells of seminiferous tubules

Testicular cancer is most likely to originate from?

Descending limb of the loop of Henle

The hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the wall of the?

Diaphragm is lowered

During the defecation reflex, the


The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called

Residual volume

Which of the following are volumes that cannot be measured using a simple spirometer?

Right Atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary semilunar valve.

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of parts through which blood moves in passing from the vena cava to the lungs.

High in oxygen nutrients

The fetal blood that passes through the ductus venosus is relatively

All of these

Type B hepatitis can be transmitted by means of? A. sexual activity.B. blood transfusion. C. Saliva. D. All of these

Lack of surfactant

The condition of newborns called respiratory distress syndrome is caused by

One X and one Y chromosome

Normal males have?


The receptors of the inflation reflex are most sensitive to?

Digestive action of gastric juice

Microorganisms removed form incoming air by sticky mucus are most likely to be destroyed by?


As body fluids become more alkaline, neurons become?

Eighth week

The fetal stage of development begins at the end of the?

Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure

The movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily by?

Estrogen is high and progesterone is low

In the female reproductive cycle, menstrual flow occurs when the concentrations of?


The type of immunoglobulin found in the secretions of exocrine glands is

Total surface area of the respiratory membrane

Emphysema is characterized by an increase in?

The amnion and chorion

The placental membrane is compose of?

Polarization of ventricular muscle fibers

In an ECG pattern, the T wave is caused by?

Passively in the proximal convoluted tubule

The largest quantity of hydrogen ions is secreted?


A newborn infant may have some defense against digestive and respiratory disturbances because of IgA obtained from its mother's?

Cytoplasmic fragments of cells

Platelets are best defined as?

All of these

Androgens are? A. Male sex hormones. B. Female sex hormones. C. Releasing hormones. D. All of these


A relatively new treatment in the management of gastric ulcers is a drug that inhibits the production of HCl in the stomach. If a person took this medication for a long period, the digestion of what would be affected the most?

Joint cavities

Transcellular fluid includes the water and electrolytes within?


Which of the following is an agranulocyte?

Carbon dioxide to react with bicarbonate ions

the enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes?

Interlobular arteries

Afferent arterioles are lateral branches of the?

Fragmenting kidney stones

Shock-wave lithotripsy is a procedure for?


Severe demands are placed on a person's ability to regulate body temperature if body water loss exceeds?

Distension of the stomach

During the act of drinking water, the desire for water is usually inhibited by?


(nucleic acid)

A segment of DNA that codes for one protein


(nucleic acid)

A complete set of genes

Genetic code

(nucleic acid)

Specific sequence of nucleotides that can be translated into a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.

Each amino acid is represented by a triplet code.

Genetic information

(nucleic acid)

Instructs cells how to construct proteins; stored in DNA

DNA is made of ____________ and form
a ____________

DNA is made of 2 polynucleotide chains
and form a double helix

Hydrogen bonds hold nitrogenous bases together in...


DNA is wrapped about ...

...histones (proteins) and forms chromosomes

DNA bases pair specifically to ...

A - T
C - G

What happens during DNA replication?

1. hydrogen bonds break between bases
2. double strands unwind and pull apart
3. new nucleotides pair up with the exposed bases
4. process controlled by DNA polymerase

What delivers genetic information from nucleus to cytoplasm

(messenger RNA)

The making of mRNA is called ...

(takes place in the nucleus)

mRNA is made of a ...

single polynucleotide chain and is formed next to a strand of DNA.

What differ between a strand of DNA and RNA?

All nucleotides are complimentary except T (thymine) is replaced by U (uracil).

What carries amino acids to mRNA?

(transfer RNA)

What does tRNA do?

1. It carries amino acids to mRNA
2. carries anticodon to mRNA
3. translates a codon of mRNA into an amino acid
4. tRna that is located in the nucleus. It is released into the cell via pores.

What provides structure and enzymes activity for ribosomes?

(ribosomal RNA)

What is a change in genetic information?


What happens in a mutation?

1. extra bases are deleted or added
2. bases are changed
3. may or may not change the protein

What are inborn errors in metabolism?

Inborn errors in metabolism
a.) occurs from inheriting a mutation that then alters an enzyme.
b.) this creates a block on an otherwise normal biochemical pathway.

What are the 4 types of DNA nucleotides?

A = Adenine
T = Thymine
C = Cytosine
G = Guanine

When an amino acid chain assembles according to the sequence of base triplets in a molecule of mRNA, this is called ...


What is a stop codon?

1. A stop codon is a nucleotide triplet within mRNA, that signals the termination of translation by not coding for an amino acid.
2. It is part of protein synthesis

anti codon

Anti codon is made of three contiguous nucleotides of a tRNA, that are complementary to a specific mRNA codon.
(Hint: clover leave / anti codons are at the bottom)


codon is a set of three nucleotides of a mRNA corresponding to a particular set of amino acids.
(Hint: clover leave / codons are at the top)

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA ...


Each glucose molecule broken down by glycolysis yields a net gain of ...

2 ATPs

2 pyruvic acids

plus some release of high energy electrons

For each citric acid molecule, the product is ...

2 Co2 (carbon dioxide)
8 hydrogen atoms are transferred to NAD+ and FAD

6 carbon glucose are __________in glycolysis with 2___________ on each end.

6 carbon glucose are PHOSPHORYLATED in glycolysis with 2 PHOSPHOR MOLECULES on each end.

Glycolysis takes place in the ...

cytosol (cytoplasma)

Glycolysis requires oxygen. YES or NO


1 mole of glucose produces _______ ATPs.

36-38 ATPs

What happens to pyruvic acid if no oxygen becomes available?

It is converted into lactic acid

Each ATP has 3 parts ...

1 adenine molecule

1 ribose molecule

3 phosphate molecules in a chain

Phosphorylation requires___________from_____________

Phosphorylation requires energy release from cellular respiration.

At the end of glycolysis, 2 pyruvic acids are formed. What happens to them if oxygen becomes available?

If oxygen is available, pyruvic acid is used to produce acetyl CoA (which combines with oxaloacetic acid) and the citric acid cycle can begins.

Citric acid cycle and electron transport chain take place in the ...


Citric acid cycle and electron transport chain need__________ and hence are called____________.

Citric acid cycle and electron transport chain need oxygen and hence are called aerobic reactions.

What is the final product of the citric acid cycle?

Two acetyl CoA molecules are consumed to produce

2 ATPs
4 Co2

The ATP molecules are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.
(The cycle occurs twice, once for each acetyl CoA, hence 2 ATPs etc)

What else is formed in the citric acid cycle?


Carbohydrate molecules from foods can enter...

Catabolic pathways for energy production.

Anabolic pathways for storage.

Excess glucose is stored as...

1. Glycogen (mainly in the liver and muscle cells)

2. Fat

3. Converted into amino acids

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