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Earth Science Chapter 17 Test
Terms in this set (43)
is produced by combination of earth's motion and sun's energy
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time, based on observation and weather that have been collected over many years. Helps describe a place or region
What are the measurable properties of weather and climate
speed of wind, direction of wind, type of rain, air temperature, humidity
What is the composition of the Atmosphere?
Atmosphere has changed dramatically over the years. Composition varies from time to time and place to place 99% Nitrogen and Oxygen, 0.93% Argon and 0.039% Carbon Dioxide
is the source of all clouds and precipitation. Like carbon dioxide, water vapor absorbs heat given off by Earth. Also absorbs some solar energy.
for of oxygen that combines three oxygen atoms into each molecule
particles include sea salts from breaking waves, fine soil blown into the air, smoke and soot from fires, pollen and microorganisms lifted by the wind, and ash and dust from volcanic eruptions
air pollutants-human influence
air pollutants are airborne particles and gases that occur in concentrations large enough to endanger the health of organisms.
are emitted directly from identifiable sources such as transpiration vehicles
are not emitted directly into air, form in the atmosphere when reactions take place among primary pollutions and other substances
noxious mixture of gases and particles formed by reactions triggered by sting sunlight
what happens as you travel up in the atmosphere
the atmosphere thins as you travel away from Earth until there are too few gas molecules to detect
the weight of the air above
the Earth's atmosphere becomes colder as you climb higher
bottom layer of the atmosphere, where temperature decreases with an increase in altitude
second layer from the bottom, temperature remains constant
3rd layer of the atmosphere, coldest layer
4th layer of the atmosphere, contains only a tiny fraction of the atmosphere, temperatures increase because oxygen and nitrogen absorb short wave,
where does the Earth energy come from
almost all the energy that drives Earth's variable weather and climate comes from the sun
not distributed evenly over the Earth's surface, variations are caused by motions of the eath
Summer solstice - first day of summer, June 21st or 22nd
Winter solstice - first day of winter, December 21st and 22nd
occur midway between solstices,
Autumnal equinox- September 21 or 22
Spring equinox- march 21 or 22
Length of Daylight
determined by Earth's position in orbit, all latitudes receive 12 hours of daylight during the vernal and autumnal equinoxes. During summer solstice there is a big length of daylight and in winter solstice there is a big length of darkness.
heat is the energy transferred from one object to another because of a difference in their temperatures
3 mechanisms of energy transfer as heat are
conduction, convection and radiation
is the measure of the average kinetic energy of the individual atoms or molecules in a substance
is the transfer of heat thorough matter by molecular activity
is the transfer of heat by mass movement or circulation within a substance
travels out in all directions from its source, can travel through the vacuum of space, third mechanism of heat transfer
A wave that can transfer electric and magnetic energy through the vacuum of space.
Energy associated with motion
occurs when light bounces off an object
produces a larger number of weaker rays that travel in different direction
50% of the solar energy that strikes the top of the atmosphere, reaches Earth's surface and is absorbed
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
How does land control the temperature
land heats more rapidly and to higher temperature than water. Land also cools more rapidly and to lower temperature than water. Temperature variations, therefore, are considerably greater over land than over water.
altitude and temperature
the lower the altitude the lower the temperature
windward coast and temperature
will experience a full moderating influence of the ocean, cool summers and mild winters
Leeward Coast and temperature
have a more continental temperature pattern because winds do not carry the ocean's influence onshore.
Mountains and temperature
act as barriers
Cloud Cover and temperature
the extent of cloud cover is a factor that influences temperatures in the lower atmosphere, by reducing the amount of incoming solar radiation the maximum temperature on a cloud covered day will be lower than on a day when the colds are absent and the sky is clear
is the fraction of total radiation that is reflected by any surface, Fraction of solar radiation reaching earth that is reflected back into space
are lines that connect points that have the same temperature
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