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Erikson terns for psycholosocial crisis of adolescense.

identity versus role confusion

identity versus role confusion

refers to the adolescents attemp to figure out "who am I" but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.


is a consistant definition of onseself in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs and aspirations.

Eriksons theory Identitty achevement

occurs when adolescents attain their new identitites by establishing their own goals and values and abandoning some of those set by their parents and culture and accpeting others.

Erickson Role confusion
Identity diffusion

have few commitments to goals or values and are often apathetic about trying to find an identitiy; also called identitiy diffusion

Erikson Foreclosure

the adolescents forms an identiity prematurely accepting parents or societys roles and values wholesale

Erikson Moratorium

according to erikson in the process of finding a mature identity many young people seem to declare and identity moratorium a socially acceptable time out during which they experiment with alternative identities without trying to settle on any one

Gender Identity

is aperson self identification of being female or male

Sexual Orientation

refers to a persons sexual and romantic attraction toward a person of the other sex, the same sex, or both sexes


refers to the repeated petty arguing that typically occurs in early adolescents about common, daily life activities

parental monitoring

is parental awareness about where their children are, what they are doing and with whom


is a group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding others.


is larger group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily friends

peer pressure

refers to the social pressure to conform with ones freinds in behavoir, dress and attitude. it may be positive or negative in its effects

Deviancy training

is destructive peer pressure to rebel against authority or social norms.

Clinical depression

describes the syndrome in whihc feelings of hopelessness , lethargy, and worthlessness last in a person for two weeks or longer


is repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences to the extent of contributing to depression

Suicidal ideation

refers to thinking about committing suicide, usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones.

Cluster suicide

refers to a series of suicides that are precipitated by one intitial suicide and that occur in the same community, school or time period.


is a deliberate act of self destruction that does not result in death

Juvenile delinquent

is a person under 18 years of age who breaks the law

Life cours persistent offenders

are adolescent lawbreakers who later become career criminals.

Adolescent limitied offenders

are juvenile delinquest whos criminal activity stops by age 21

Generational forgettting

is the tendency of each new generation to forget what previous generations have learned

emerging adulthood

now thought of as a seperate stage of developement emerging adulthood is the period between 18 and 25


refers to the process by which body functions are automatically adjusted to keep our physiological functioning in a state of equilibrium

replacement rate

is the number of births per woman required to maintain a stable populations


refers to recreational activiites and jobs that entail some risk or danger

Extreme sports

are forms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and are attractive and thrilling as a result

Drug Abuse

is drug use to the extent of imparing the users physical or psychological health

Drug Addiction

is evident in a person when the absence of a drug in his or her body produces the drive to ingest more of the drug

Social norms approach

to reducing risky behavoirs uses survey data regaurding the prevalence of risky behavoirs to make emerging adults more aware of social norms

stereotype threat

is the possibiliity that ones behavior may be judged negativiely to confirm another persons prejudiced attitude

Diathesis stress model

is the view that mental disorders are caused by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability with stressful life events.


increasingly common among yound adults in all industrialized countries is the living pattern called cohabitiation in which two unreleated unmarried adults live together in a committed romantic relationship


refers to the gradual physical decline that accompanies aging


is the loss of hearing associated with aging

Invirto fertilization IVF

is a fertitlity treatment in which eggs cells are surgically removed from the woman and ferlized in the lab


which usually occurs around age 51 ovulation and menstration stop and the production of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone

hormone replacement thereapy HRT

is intended to help relieve menopausal symptoms especially in women who experience an abrupt drop in hormone level because their ovaries are surgically removed


or male menopause refers to age related changed in sexual desire, muscle mass, and other physical changes that accompany decreases in testosterone levels.


means death. as a measure of health it usually refers to the number of death each year per thousand memvers of a given population


means disease. as a measure of health, it refers to the rate of diseases of all kinds in given population, which can be sudden and sever or extend over a long time period


refers to a persons inabiliity to perform normal activities of daily life


refers to how healthy and energetic physically, intellectually, and socially, and individual actually feels

general intelligence

is the idea that intelligance is one basic trait, underlying all cogntive abilities according to spearman

seattle logitudinal study

was the first study of adult intellegiance that used a cross sequentional research design

fluid intelligence

is made up of those basic mental abilities inductive reasoning, abstract thinking, short tem memory, speed of thinking and the like required for understanding any subject matter

crystalized intelligence

is the accumulation of facts, information and knowledge that comes with education abd experiance within a particular culture

selective optimization with compensation

describes the tendancy of adults to select certain aspects of their lives to focus on, and optimize, in order to compensate for declines in other areas

selective expert

is someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful

social clock

represents the culturally set timetable that estabilished when various events and behavoird in life are appropriate and called for.

midlife crisis

a oncepopular myth, the midlife crisis is a period of unusual anxiety, radical self reexamination, and sudden tranformation that is widely associated with middle age but has more to do with developemnet history than with chronological age.

ecological niche

refers to the lifestyle and social context adults settle into that are compatible with their individual personalilty needs and interests.

gender convergence

is the tendency of the sexes to become more similar as women and men move through middle age


is the idea that family members should support one another because family unity is more important than individual freedom and success

fictive kin

refers toa person who becomes accepted as part of a family to which he or she has no blood relation

empty nest

refers to the time in the lives of parents when their grown children have left the home to puruse their own lives


are caregivers who celebrate family achievements gather the family together and keep in touch with family members who have moved away

sandwich generation

middle aged adults were once commonly referred to as the sandwich generation because of the false belief that they are often squeezed by the needs of the younger and older gnereations

relative deprivation

is the idea that peoples satisfaction is determined by comparing themselves to others in their group

extrinsic rewards of work

include salary, health insurance, pension, and other tangible benefits

intrinsic rewards of work

include job satisfaction satisfaction self esteem and other intangible benefits.


is a skilled and knowledgeable person who adivises or guides an inexperienced person


refers to a work schedule that is flexible so that workers can balance their personal and employemnet responbilities.


is working at home and using electronics means of keeping in touch with the office


are situations events experiences or other stimuli that cause a person to feel stressed

allostatic load

refers to the total burden of stress and illness that a person must cope with

organ reserve

is the capacity of the bodys organs to allow the body to cope with unusual stress

problem focused coping

often used by younger adults, problem focused coping occurs when a person attempts to change a stressor in order to reduce its impact.

emotion-focused coping

often used by older adults, emotion focused coping occurs when a person changes how they feel about a stressor rather than attempting to change the stressor directly


is prejudiced against older people


is a condescending way of speaking to older adults that resembles baby talk, using simple sentences, a slower rate, higher pitch and repetitition

young old

most of americas elderly can be classified as young old, meaining that they are healthy and vigorous, relatively well off financially, well integrated into the lives of their families and communities and politically active.

old old

older people who are classified as old old are those who suffer sever physical mental or social problems in later life

oldest old

elderly adults who are classifed as oldest old are dependent on others for almost everything

population pyramid

graphically represents the entire population as a series of stacked bars in which each bar represents a different age cohort, with the youngest cohort at the bottom

dependency ratio

is the ratio of self sufficient productive adults to children and elderly adults in a given population

compression of morbidity

researchers who are interested in improving the health of the elderly focus on a compression of morbidity, that is , a limiting of the time any person spends ill or infirm

primary aging

refers to the universal and irreversible physical changes that occur as people get older

secondary aging

refers to changes that are more common as people age but are causede by health habits, genes, and other influences that vary from person to person

cardiovascular disease

refers collectively to the various diseases that affect the heart and the circulatory system

maximum life span

is the max number of years that a particular species is genetically programmed to live. for humans the maximum life span is approx 122 years

average life expectancy

is the number of years the average newborn in a particular population is likely to live


is a person who is 100 years old or older

calorie restriction

is the practise of limiting dietary energy intake while still consuming sufficient vitamins, minerals and other important nutrients in an effor to slow down aging

ecological validity

is the idea that memory should be measured vie everyday tasks rather than in lab tests

control processes

include memory and retrieval strategies, selective attention, and rules or strategies for problem solving


is severly impaired judgement memory or problem solving ability that is irreversible and caused by organic brain damage or disease.

alzheimer disease

a progessive disorder that is the most common form of dementia, is characterized by plaques and tangles in the cerebral cortex that destroy normal brain functioning

vascular dementia or multiinfarct dementia

which accounts for about 15% of all dementia, occurs because an infarct, or temporary obstruction of the blood vessels prevents a sufficient supply of blood from reaching an area of the brain. it is characterized by sporadic and progressive loss of brain functioning also call MULTIINFARCT DEMETIA

frontal lobe dementia
frontotemperal lobar degeneration

is a form of dementia characterized by personality changes caused y damage to the frontal lobe of the brain, also called frontotemperal lobar degeneration

self actualization

characterized by aesthetic and spiritual understanding, self actualization is the final stage in maslows heirarchy of needs

life review

an older person attempts to put his or her life into perspective by recalling and recounting various aspects of life to members of the younger generations.

Erik Erikson theory
sel theories

such as eric erickson theory, focus on the core self, or the search to maintain ones integretity and identity

Erik Erikson Intergrity versus despair

the final stage of developement according to erik erikson is integrity versus despair, in which older adults seek to integrate their unique experiences with their vision of community

continuity theory

of aging each person copes eith late adulthood in much the same way that he or she coped with earlier periods of life

positivity effect

is the tendency for elderly people to perceive, prefer, and remember positive experiences and images more than negative ones.

stratification theories

emphasize that social forces limit individual choices and affect the ability to function

disengagement theory

ageing results in role relinquishment, social withdrawl, and passivity

activity theory

is the view that older people remain active in a variety of social spheres and become withdrawn only unwillingly

age in place

many elderly people prefer to age in place by remaining in the same home and community adjusting but not leaving when their health declines.

natually occuring retiremetn communities NORC

are neighborhoods or apartment complexes created by elders who moved to the location as younger adults and never left.


american association of retired persons, is the major organization representing elderly adultts in the u.s.

filial responsibility

is the idea that adult children are obligated to care for their aging parents.

frail elderly

are the minority of adults over age 65 who are physically infirm. very ill, or cognitively impaired

activities of daily life ADLs

in determintg fragilty gerontologist often refer to the activities of daily living which comprise five tasks, eating, bathing, toileting, dressing and transferring from a bed to a chair

instrumental activities of dailly life IADLs

are actions that are important to independent living and require some intellectual competance and forethough such as shopping for food, paying bills, and taking medication

assisted living

is an intemediate form of eldr care that provides some of the privacy and independence of living at home, along with some medical supervision


is the study of death and dying

terror management theory TMT

people adopt cultural values and moral principles in order to cope with their fear of death

near death experience

is an episode in which a person comes close to dying but survives and reports having left his or hery body and having moved toward a bright white light while feeling peacefulness and joy

good death

is one that is peaceful, quick and painless, and that occurs at the end of a long life, in the company of family and friencs and in familiar surroundings


is an institution or program in which terminally ill patients receive palliatiative care

palliative care

such as that provided in a hospice, is care that relieves suffering while safegaruding the persons dignity

double effect

is a situation in which medication has the intended effect of releiving a dying persons pain and the secondary effect of hastening death.

change that typically occurs during adolescense is

is the heart doubles in size and beats more slowly

a great deal of parental interference and control is a strong predictor of

adolescent depression

a survey conducted in the mid-1990s founr that .05 percent of american high school students identified themselves as homosexula, while a survey in Holland found 8.5 percent of students said that they were attractecd to others of the same sex. which of the following is the most likely explanation for this statitisical difference

open homosexuality is more culturally accepted in Holland than it is in the united states

abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. abbie is demonstrating

parental monitoring

according to dunphy which of the following describes the sequence of heterosexual relationships during childhood and adolescense

groups of same sex freinds, public interactions within a crowd of mixed sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd, formation of couples with private intamcies

according to erikson, the goal of adolescence is to

form a coherent identity

according to international statistics, teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is

that teenagers in the united states use less contraception than those in other countries

when you look at the rate of growth for childresn from ages 7 to 11 you see that

children grow more slowly than they did in ====

which of the following factors have the greatest influence on whether or not children thrive in a blended family

the SES and emotional security of the parents

which of the following children is most likely to have a healthy sense of self esteem

dinnah, who appreciates herself and other children equally

henry having both conditions together


adolescent acne is usually brought on by

increased activity of oil and sweat glands

amanda is about to become a teenage mother. based on recent research, she and her child will better handle the situation if her parents are

supportive but do not assume complete care for her child

an unintended consequence of high stakes testing is

increased high school dropout rates

arrest statistics do not accurately reflect the prevalence of adolescent deliquency because

many offenders are never caught

austin, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens health care. from this premise,he reasons about the particulars of how and why governmnet-funded health care would work. this is an example of

deductive reasoning

child sexual abuse is most common in children ages


cliques and crowds provide adolescents with social


during an identity moratorium adolescents typically

attemp to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary

during middle school, social relationships amoung students

deteriorate due to the increased number of students

enrique strongly believes that males should always be the ones to ask females out on dates. he believes that if a man accepts an invitation for a date from a girl it makes him a sissy. this is an expression of Enriques

gender identitity

family conflict and stress

may cause the early onset of puberty

fifteen year old richard wants to be allowed to drive the family care, even though he does not yet have a drivers license. when his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privelages he answers becauase i know other kids who do it and its just stupid that i have to wait another 3 months until i turn 16. example of


both girls and boys puberty typically begins as young as ---years or as late as --years


girls who become pregnant before the age of 15 are more likely to experience

high blood pressure and spontaneous abortion

ideally, before having sex, teenagers would discuss the risk of pregnancy and STIs but in reality only about--- of them have these discussions


identify the accurate statement regarding suicide in the united states.

in 2005 the suicide rate for the elderly was more than twice the rate for teenagers

if high school wants to decrease the incidence of violence, they should

set clear standards of student behavoir

adolescense, changes in the heart and lungs include

greater lung capacity.

which two of the following nutrients are likely to be deficient in the adolescent diet

iron and calcium

during the growth spurt, the last parts of the body to grow is the


adolescent acne is usually brought on by

increased activity of oil and sweat glands

mr. and mrs. smith have discovered that their son has been skipping classes and cutting school with a group of boys. which of the following is most likely true

their son chose this group because he shares their interests.

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