433 terms

psych Exam 2

Erikson terns for psycholosocial crisis of adolescense.
identity versus role confusion
identity versus role confusion
refers to the adolescents attemp to figure out "who am I" but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.
is a consistant definition of onseself in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs and aspirations.
Eriksons theory Identitty achevement
occurs when adolescents attain their new identitites by establishing their own goals and values and abandoning some of those set by their parents and culture and accpeting others.
Erickson Role confusion
Identity diffusion
have few commitments to goals or values and are often apathetic about trying to find an identitiy; also called identitiy diffusion
Erikson Foreclosure
the adolescents forms an identiity prematurely accepting parents or societys roles and values wholesale
Erikson Moratorium
according to erikson in the process of finding a mature identity many young people seem to declare and identity moratorium a socially acceptable time out during which they experiment with alternative identities without trying to settle on any one
Gender Identity
is aperson self identification of being female or male
Sexual Orientation
refers to a persons sexual and romantic attraction toward a person of the other sex, the same sex, or both sexes
refers to the repeated petty arguing that typically occurs in early adolescents about common, daily life activities
parental monitoring
is parental awareness about where their children are, what they are doing and with whom
is a group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding others.
is larger group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily friends
peer pressure
refers to the social pressure to conform with ones freinds in behavoir, dress and attitude. it may be positive or negative in its effects
Deviancy training
is destructive peer pressure to rebel against authority or social norms.
Clinical depression
describes the syndrome in whihc feelings of hopelessness , lethargy, and worthlessness last in a person for two weeks or longer
is repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences to the extent of contributing to depression
Suicidal ideation
refers to thinking about committing suicide, usually with some serious emotional and intellectual or cognitive overtones.
Cluster suicide
refers to a series of suicides that are precipitated by one intitial suicide and that occur in the same community, school or time period.
is a deliberate act of self destruction that does not result in death
Juvenile delinquent
is a person under 18 years of age who breaks the law
Life cours persistent offenders
are adolescent lawbreakers who later become career criminals.
Adolescent limitied offenders
are juvenile delinquest whos criminal activity stops by age 21
Generational forgettting
is the tendency of each new generation to forget what previous generations have learned
emerging adulthood
now thought of as a seperate stage of developement emerging adulthood is the period between 18 and 25
refers to the process by which body functions are automatically adjusted to keep our physiological functioning in a state of equilibrium
replacement rate
is the number of births per woman required to maintain a stable populations
refers to recreational activiites and jobs that entail some risk or danger
Extreme sports
are forms of recreation that include apparent risk of injury or death and are attractive and thrilling as a result
Drug Abuse
is drug use to the extent of imparing the users physical or psychological health
Drug Addiction
is evident in a person when the absence of a drug in his or her body produces the drive to ingest more of the drug
Social norms approach
to reducing risky behavoirs uses survey data regaurding the prevalence of risky behavoirs to make emerging adults more aware of social norms
stereotype threat
is the possibiliity that ones behavior may be judged negativiely to confirm another persons prejudiced attitude
Diathesis stress model
is the view that mental disorders are caused by the interaction of a genetic vulnerability with stressful life events.
increasingly common among yound adults in all industrialized countries is the living pattern called cohabitiation in which two unreleated unmarried adults live together in a committed romantic relationship
refers to the gradual physical decline that accompanies aging
is the loss of hearing associated with aging
Invirto fertilization IVF
is a fertitlity treatment in which eggs cells are surgically removed from the woman and ferlized in the lab
which usually occurs around age 51 ovulation and menstration stop and the production of the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
hormone replacement thereapy HRT
is intended to help relieve menopausal symptoms especially in women who experience an abrupt drop in hormone level because their ovaries are surgically removed
or male menopause refers to age related changed in sexual desire, muscle mass, and other physical changes that accompany decreases in testosterone levels.
means death. as a measure of health it usually refers to the number of death each year per thousand memvers of a given population
means disease. as a measure of health, it refers to the rate of diseases of all kinds in given population, which can be sudden and sever or extend over a long time period
refers to a persons inabiliity to perform normal activities of daily life
refers to how healthy and energetic physically, intellectually, and socially, and individual actually feels
general intelligence
is the idea that intelligance is one basic trait, underlying all cogntive abilities according to spearman
seattle logitudinal study
was the first study of adult intellegiance that used a cross sequentional research design
fluid intelligence
is made up of those basic mental abilities inductive reasoning, abstract thinking, short tem memory, speed of thinking and the like required for understanding any subject matter
crystalized intelligence
is the accumulation of facts, information and knowledge that comes with education abd experiance within a particular culture
selective optimization with compensation
describes the tendancy of adults to select certain aspects of their lives to focus on, and optimize, in order to compensate for declines in other areas
selective expert
is someone who is notably more skilled and knowledgeable than the average person about whichever activities are personally meaningful
social clock
represents the culturally set timetable that estabilished when various events and behavoird in life are appropriate and called for.
midlife crisis
a oncepopular myth, the midlife crisis is a period of unusual anxiety, radical self reexamination, and sudden tranformation that is widely associated with middle age but has more to do with developemnet history than with chronological age.
ecological niche
refers to the lifestyle and social context adults settle into that are compatible with their individual personalilty needs and interests.
gender convergence
is the tendency of the sexes to become more similar as women and men move through middle age
is the idea that family members should support one another because family unity is more important than individual freedom and success
fictive kin
refers toa person who becomes accepted as part of a family to which he or she has no blood relation
empty nest
refers to the time in the lives of parents when their grown children have left the home to puruse their own lives
are caregivers who celebrate family achievements gather the family together and keep in touch with family members who have moved away
sandwich generation
middle aged adults were once commonly referred to as the sandwich generation because of the false belief that they are often squeezed by the needs of the younger and older gnereations
relative deprivation
is the idea that peoples satisfaction is determined by comparing themselves to others in their group
extrinsic rewards of work
include salary, health insurance, pension, and other tangible benefits
intrinsic rewards of work
include job satisfaction satisfaction self esteem and other intangible benefits.
is a skilled and knowledgeable person who adivises or guides an inexperienced person
refers to a work schedule that is flexible so that workers can balance their personal and employemnet responbilities.
is working at home and using electronics means of keeping in touch with the office
are situations events experiences or other stimuli that cause a person to feel stressed
allostatic load
refers to the total burden of stress and illness that a person must cope with
organ reserve
is the capacity of the bodys organs to allow the body to cope with unusual stress
problem focused coping
often used by younger adults, problem focused coping occurs when a person attempts to change a stressor in order to reduce its impact.
emotion-focused coping
often used by older adults, emotion focused coping occurs when a person changes how they feel about a stressor rather than attempting to change the stressor directly
is prejudiced against older people
is a condescending way of speaking to older adults that resembles baby talk, using simple sentences, a slower rate, higher pitch and repetitition
young old
most of americas elderly can be classified as young old, meaining that they are healthy and vigorous, relatively well off financially, well integrated into the lives of their families and communities and politically active.
old old
older people who are classified as old old are those who suffer sever physical mental or social problems in later life
oldest old
elderly adults who are classifed as oldest old are dependent on others for almost everything
population pyramid
graphically represents the entire population as a series of stacked bars in which each bar represents a different age cohort, with the youngest cohort at the bottom
dependency ratio
is the ratio of self sufficient productive adults to children and elderly adults in a given population
compression of morbidity
researchers who are interested in improving the health of the elderly focus on a compression of morbidity, that is , a limiting of the time any person spends ill or infirm
primary aging
refers to the universal and irreversible physical changes that occur as people get older
secondary aging
refers to changes that are more common as people age but are causede by health habits, genes, and other influences that vary from person to person
cardiovascular disease
refers collectively to the various diseases that affect the heart and the circulatory system
maximum life span
is the max number of years that a particular species is genetically programmed to live. for humans the maximum life span is approx 122 years
average life expectancy
is the number of years the average newborn in a particular population is likely to live
is a person who is 100 years old or older
calorie restriction
is the practise of limiting dietary energy intake while still consuming sufficient vitamins, minerals and other important nutrients in an effor to slow down aging
ecological validity
is the idea that memory should be measured vie everyday tasks rather than in lab tests
control processes
include memory and retrieval strategies, selective attention, and rules or strategies for problem solving
is severly impaired judgement memory or problem solving ability that is irreversible and caused by organic brain damage or disease.
alzheimer disease
a progessive disorder that is the most common form of dementia, is characterized by plaques and tangles in the cerebral cortex that destroy normal brain functioning
vascular dementia or multiinfarct dementia
which accounts for about 15% of all dementia, occurs because an infarct, or temporary obstruction of the blood vessels prevents a sufficient supply of blood from reaching an area of the brain. it is characterized by sporadic and progressive loss of brain functioning also call MULTIINFARCT DEMETIA
frontal lobe dementia
frontotemperal lobar degeneration
is a form of dementia characterized by personality changes caused y damage to the frontal lobe of the brain, also called frontotemperal lobar degeneration
self actualization
characterized by aesthetic and spiritual understanding, self actualization is the final stage in maslows heirarchy of needs
life review
an older person attempts to put his or her life into perspective by recalling and recounting various aspects of life to members of the younger generations.
Erik Erikson theory
sel theories
such as eric erickson theory, focus on the core self, or the search to maintain ones integretity and identity
Erik Erikson Intergrity versus despair
the final stage of developement according to erik erikson is integrity versus despair, in which older adults seek to integrate their unique experiences with their vision of community
continuity theory
of aging each person copes eith late adulthood in much the same way that he or she coped with earlier periods of life
positivity effect
is the tendency for elderly people to perceive, prefer, and remember positive experiences and images more than negative ones.
stratification theories
emphasize that social forces limit individual choices and affect the ability to function
disengagement theory
ageing results in role relinquishment, social withdrawl, and passivity
activity theory
is the view that older people remain active in a variety of social spheres and become withdrawn only unwillingly
age in place
many elderly people prefer to age in place by remaining in the same home and community adjusting but not leaving when their health declines.
natually occuring retiremetn communities NORC
are neighborhoods or apartment complexes created by elders who moved to the location as younger adults and never left.
american association of retired persons, is the major organization representing elderly adultts in the u.s.
filial responsibility
is the idea that adult children are obligated to care for their aging parents.
frail elderly
are the minority of adults over age 65 who are physically infirm. very ill, or cognitively impaired
activities of daily life ADLs
in determintg fragilty gerontologist often refer to the activities of daily living which comprise five tasks, eating, bathing, toileting, dressing and transferring from a bed to a chair
instrumental activities of dailly life IADLs
are actions that are important to independent living and require some intellectual competance and forethough such as shopping for food, paying bills, and taking medication
assisted living
is an intemediate form of eldr care that provides some of the privacy and independence of living at home, along with some medical supervision
is the study of death and dying
terror management theory TMT
people adopt cultural values and moral principles in order to cope with their fear of death
near death experience
is an episode in which a person comes close to dying but survives and reports having left his or hery body and having moved toward a bright white light while feeling peacefulness and joy
good death
is one that is peaceful, quick and painless, and that occurs at the end of a long life, in the company of family and friencs and in familiar surroundings
is an institution or program in which terminally ill patients receive palliatiative care
palliative care
such as that provided in a hospice, is care that relieves suffering while safegaruding the persons dignity
double effect
is a situation in which medication has the intended effect of releiving a dying persons pain and the secondary effect of hastening death.
change that typically occurs during adolescense is
is the heart doubles in size and beats more slowly
a great deal of parental interference and control is a strong predictor of
adolescent depression
a survey conducted in the mid-1990s founr that .05 percent of american high school students identified themselves as homosexula, while a survey in Holland found 8.5 percent of students said that they were attractecd to others of the same sex. which of the following is the most likely explanation for this statitisical difference
open homosexuality is more culturally accepted in Holland than it is in the united states
abbie is aware of where her son is whenever he goes out, and she requires him to call if there is any change in plans. abbie is demonstrating
parental monitoring
according to dunphy which of the following describes the sequence of heterosexual relationships during childhood and adolescense
groups of same sex freinds, public interactions within a crowd of mixed sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd, formation of couples with private intamcies
according to erikson, the goal of adolescence is to
form a coherent identity
according to international statistics, teenagers in any other developed nation. The reason for this troubling statistic is
that teenagers in the united states use less contraception than those in other countries
when you look at the rate of growth for childresn from ages 7 to 11 you see that
children grow more slowly than they did in ====
which of the following factors have the greatest influence on whether or not children thrive in a blended family
the SES and emotional security of the parents
which of the following children is most likely to have a healthy sense of self esteem
dinnah, who appreciates herself and other children equally
henry having both conditions together
adolescent acne is usually brought on by
increased activity of oil and sweat glands
amanda is about to become a teenage mother. based on recent research, she and her child will better handle the situation if her parents are
supportive but do not assume complete care for her child
an unintended consequence of high stakes testing is
increased high school dropout rates
arrest statistics do not accurately reflect the prevalence of adolescent deliquency because
many offenders are never caught
austin, an adolescent, believes that government should pay for citizens health care. from this premise,he reasons about the particulars of how and why governmnet-funded health care would work. this is an example of
deductive reasoning
child sexual abuse is most common in children ages
cliques and crowds provide adolescents with social
during an identity moratorium adolescents typically
attemp to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary
during middle school, social relationships amoung students
deteriorate due to the increased number of students
enrique strongly believes that males should always be the ones to ask females out on dates. he believes that if a man accepts an invitation for a date from a girl it makes him a sissy. this is an expression of Enriques
gender identitity
family conflict and stress
may cause the early onset of puberty
fifteen year old richard wants to be allowed to drive the family care, even though he does not yet have a drivers license. when his parents ask him why he thinks he should have driving privelages he answers becauase i know other kids who do it and its just stupid that i have to wait another 3 months until i turn 16. example of
both girls and boys puberty typically begins as young as ---years or as late as --years
girls who become pregnant before the age of 15 are more likely to experience
high blood pressure and spontaneous abortion
ideally, before having sex, teenagers would discuss the risk of pregnancy and STIs but in reality only about--- of them have these discussions
identify the accurate statement regarding suicide in the united states.
in 2005 the suicide rate for the elderly was more than twice the rate for teenagers
if high school wants to decrease the incidence of violence, they should
set clear standards of student behavoir
adolescense, changes in the heart and lungs include
greater lung capacity.
which two of the following nutrients are likely to be deficient in the adolescent diet
iron and calcium
during the growth spurt, the last parts of the body to grow is the
adolescent acne is usually brought on by
increased activity of oil and sweat glands
mr. and mrs. smith have discovered that their son has been skipping classes and cutting school with a group of boys. which of the following is most likely true
their son chose this group because he shares their interests.
roman is taking a weight lifting class in high school. the weights he lifts should
identitity acheivement involves a denial of past experiences and childhood identificaitons
troy is typically of the adolescent in search of vocational identitiy. most likely his vocational identity will be achieved
around the age of 25 or later
a characteristic of adolescent egocentrism is
the belief that ones emotional experiences are misunderstood by others.
identity of an adolescent appears to be experiencing identity diffusion
zachery who spends most of his time just hanging out and seems apathetic about life
you and a researcher conducting interviews with young adolescents and their parents. you ask 12 year old girls if they had ever hugged or kissed a boy for a long time or hung out with older boys. you then ask their parents if their 12 year old daughters had engaged in these behavoirs. if your results are similiar to other surveys, what would you find
the parents answers grossly underestimate their daughters behavoirs.
compared with earlier times in their lives, many adolescents are
less self confident than they were as children
because of the obsession with body image during adolescens, girls may ingest--- and boys may take---
diet pills, steriods
ever since he began puberty, barry has been staying awake late at night and craving sleep in the mornings. his parents should.
realize that this is due to 100 %hormonal shifts
in adolescents, the limbic system matures before the prefrontal cortex, as a result
adolescents tend to be ruled more by emotion than logic
in general as children become adolescents their feelings of competence
in the twenty first century, early puberty positively correlates with which of the following
aggression and antisocial behavoir in boys
in the u.s. parent child conflict peaks in
early adolescence
in which of the following relationships are likely to find the most bickering
mothers and daughters
jacobs parents threaten to put him out on his own whenever he breaks a household rule, no matter how slight. jacobs parents are demonstrating
psychological control
josef enjoys sports, especially running. as an adolescent, he has the potential to become a star athlete. which of the following will be most beneficial to him in reaching his full potential
the rapid chnages in myelination in his brain and the guidance of an experienced coach
klaczynski's studies of younger and older adolescents analytical thinking indicated that
most adolescents do not think as analytically as their capabilites would allow
lee ann is a 16 year old who has just started working 25 hours a week at a local ice cream store. if she is like the average employed adolescent she is more likely than students who are not employed to
get poor grades.
most adolescents need a bridge in their transition from childhood to young adulthood, easing the shift from childish behavoirs to more independent ones. this bridge is generally provided by
cliques and crowds
ms. kincaid, a new high school math teacher, wants to appreciate her students and the two concepts are helpful in acheiving a better understanding
peer selection and peer facilitiation
of the brain stem, limbic system, prefrontal cortex, and corpus callosum, the last to mature in adolescence is the limbic system
one reason why adolescents nurtritional habits may be poor is
anxiety about their body image
parental monitoring, even if restrictive and controllin, does not usually cause deleterious effects
parents awareness of where their children are, what they are doing and with whom they are doing it is refferred to as
parental monitoring
piaget called the reasoning that characterizes adolescence
found operational thought
recent research indicates that there is direct link between deficiences in the adolescent diet and
the presence of vending machines on high school campuses
secondary sex characteristics are those characteristics that
are not directly related to reproduction
sixteen year old leon drinks heavily and drives dangerously fast, believing that he cannot be hurt. leon is demonstratin
the invincibility fable
spreading insults and rumors by means of emails, text messages, or web postings is called
cyber bullying
the adolescent who will probably find puberty most difficult is
katya an early maturer.
biological events that begin puberty involve a hormonal signal from the--- located in the ---
hypothalamus, brain
the common middle-school schedule that involves classroom changes every 40 mins has the effect of
creating a developmental mismatch.
the hormone that causes the ovaries and testes to greatly increase their production of estradiol and testosteron is`
gonadotropin-releasing hormone
the most effective sex education programs begin
before high school
the period when childrens bodies become adult like is called
what effects does malnutrition have on puberty
it tends to delay the onset of puberty
what is the name of the hormone which is high at the onset of puberty and affects appetite, especially in girls
when ella looks in the mirror, she sees and overweight girl. she is 5 feet tall and weighs 87 pounds she does aerobics for at least two hours daily and eats very little. ella most likely suffers from
anorexia nervosa
when piaget and inhelder asked children of different ages to balance a scale using different weights, they found that
by age 10, children tended to use trial and error strategies
which of the following has the largest impact on whether adolescent sexual discovery and exploration is health and enjoyable or shameful and frightening
culture and social context
which of the following is an example of gender role
the belief that a womans place is in the home, taking care of children.
which of the following is more common in adolescent boys than in adolescent girls
completed suicide
which of the following is true of all eating disorders.
food consumption is disconnected from the internal cues of hunger
which of the following is true of life course persistent offenders
they may show signs of brain damage
which of the following statements is correct regarding the relationship between body and fat and the onset of puberty
there is a positive correlation between obesity and early onset of puberty
which two of the following nutrients are likely to be deficient in the adolescent diet
iron and calcium
a common outcome when in vitro fertilizatioin is used to assist in reproduction in the u.s. is that
almost half of the pregnancies results in low birth weight twins and triplets
a couple in their mid 50s wish to maintain their excellent brain functioning into their 70s 80s and even beyond. the best way to accomplish their goail is to
maintain good general health
Labouvie-vief which is the following characterizes the cognitive developement of the emerging adult
the emergence of complex critical and relativizing thinking
all smoking diseases are
does and duration sensitive
as students progress through college they are ten times more likely than their non college peers to experience at lest one episode of schizophrenia
as tom helped himself to a 4th beer, he announced to everyone at the barbacue that alcohol is healthy in moderation.how does the text define modertion
no more than two drinks of moderate size per day
aunt judith is playing cards with her group of friends. they are all at least 60 years of age. what characteristics of senescence do they all have in common
their faces have noticable wrinkles
because of their skepticism college graduates tend to think more narrowly and rigidly than those who did not attend college
currently in the u.s. the percentage of overweight is
66 percent
david is 50 years old and can hear well enough to understand a whisper spoken three feet away. in a sample of 50 year old men, david would be in
the majority
diseases and chronic conditions associated with aging
may be strongly affected by lifestyle
drug use usually decreases by the earl 20s
early studies of adult intelligence led researchers to the conclusion that intelligence in adulthood
peaks at about age 18 remains stable until the mid 20s and declines thereafter
form a biologyical perspective women should try to concieve before age ---- and men before age---
hal has consumed large quanitiites of alcohol for the past 30 years. he is at risk for a disease marked by irreversible brain damamge know as
wernike-korsakoff syndrome
harry is 65 years old and can hear well enough to understand a whisper spoken three feet away in a sample of 65 year old men harrys hearing would be
about average
how do friends differ from family members
friends are chosen for qualities that make them good companions
if you were to ask 22 year old college student how she feels about premaritial sex, and she agrees with the majority of her peers she would say that premarital sex is
in the u.s. emerging adults are less likely to live at home than those in some other cultures. which of the following is true
they are still likely to recieve financial support from their parents.
infertility is defined as unable to conceive after trying for at lest what period of time
12 months
jacks mother had schizophrenia, so jace war raised by his grandparents, now jack experiences streess due to his new job and his grandfathers unexpected death. he is beginning to display symptons of schizophrenia. the manifestation of thes symptoms is best explained by which developemental concept
the diatheses-stress model
jessica is 21 years old. how is her circle of friends likely to differ from that og her mother when she wsa jessicas age
jessicas circle of friends is more likely to include both males and females
jim couldnt understand why he kept slowly gaining weight, he wanst eating any more than usual and he maintained he regular excercise routine. what explains his weight gain
his metabolism slowed down by a 3rd between emerging and late adulthoood.
katherine age50 and her daughter lisa age 20 have recently taken jobs as waitresses. compared to lisa katherine will probably
employ more time management strategies
martha was a 21 year old girl living in the u.s in the early 1800s suzanne is a 21 year old girl living in the u.s. in 2008 what is a primary developement difference between these two young women
suzanne is not under pressure to bear as many children as possible as martha was
most developmentalists agree that cohabitation before marriage can strengthen a relationship and ensure a happy marriage.
on the international average lauren can expect to live how many years longer than her husband
5 years
one biological reason why women tend to live longer, healtheir lives is that
the second x chromosome or extra estrogen protects them
perlmutters interviews with restaruant mangers revealed that older employees did better on the job because they
comobined several tasks when possible
reasearchers on obesity agree that in middle age
metabolism slows down by about a third
reasearch studies on alcool use have shown that
moderate use of alcohol may increase longevitiy
schies cross sequential research on intellecutual developemnet demonstrated that
individuals improve in most mental abililties during adulthood and then experience a gradual decline
someone asks you whether or not an individualsd personality emains stable from chilhood through adulthood. based on info in the text on personality patterns how owuld you answer
personality is both contiunous and discontinuous
the chages in apperance tha occur in middle adulthood
include change in skin, hair and fat distrbution, can be made worse by poor lifestyle choices and are inevitable results of primary aging
the first visible signs of senescence may be observed in the
the idea that intelligence always declines throughout adulthood was
supported by early cross sectional studies
the main least liekly to experience male menopause is
bob who is 55 and has decided to retire early.
the most basic statistic reagding health--- refers to the number of deaths each year per 1000 members of a population, while--- is measured of acute chronic illnesses
mortality; morbidity
the use of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection in a typical IVF cycle is especially useful when
a man is HIV positive and a women is HIV negative
the world leader in both the obesity epidemic and he diabetes epidemic is
the united states
thinking may become more --- and --- with each year of college
reflective and expansive
those with college degrees on average have higher incomes years in college also corelate with better
health --
todays emerging adults have--- sexual partners and --- babies than emerging adults of only a few years ago
more; fewer
to test fluid intelligence a psychologist would be likely to measure
inductive reasoning
what happes in the brain of emerging adults as he or she continues to gain life experience
new dendrites are formed, while unused neurons disappear
what percentage of emerging adults in the u.s have had at least one STD
what percentage og u.s.adults eat three daily servings of vegtables
what two things can best prevent the decline in exercise
friendship with people who exercise and public policies
when developmentalist use the term expert they usually mean a person who
is significantly better than others at performing a certain task
which of the following characterizes integrated adults
they are able to regulate emotions and logic
which of the following age groups reports the lowest rates of chronic illness
which of the following is a true statement about hormone replacement theray
researchers now believe that the studies demonstrating its effects were invalid
which of the following is a true statement about male menopause
men suffer from sudden stress related shifts in hormone levels
which of the following is true regarding the self esteem of emerging adults
in spite of the new challenges and stressors that they face their self esteem is higher than earleir and continures to rise throughout emerging adulthood.
which of the following groups is most likely to report having gotten drunk or smoked cigerettes in the past 30 days
which of the following pheneomena have contributed to the problem worldwide spread of seculaly tranmitted infections
easy access to global travel and technology
which of the following refers to the bodys natural adjustment to any disruptions
which of the following statements is true regarding the overall health and longevity of emerging adults
worldwide emerging adults can now expect to live longer healtheir lives than a few decades ago
which of the following statistics is true of schizophrenia
it is more common in males than females
who will most liekly have marked symptoms of meonpause
norma, who just had a hysterectomy
a factor that contributes to good relationships between todays middle aged adults and their parents is the
health and economic freedom that allow older adults to be independent
a particular lifestyle and social context that evokes and reinforces personality traits is called
ecological niche
a person who is anxious and depressed in young adulthood is likely to show the same traits in middle adulthood
after nearly 20 years with his company, mikes job was outsourced. he wants his new job to offernot only a good wage but also job stisfaction and sense of accomplishment. he is focused on the
intrinsic rewards of work
aging and disease are related in that the eldery
are more likely to die of a particular disease
an important reason that averagelife expenctancy over the past century has risen is that
infantand childmortality rates have been reduced
as adults age their friendships tend to
as people age vitamin andmineral needs may increase because
the bodys ability to use nutrients is reduced
aunt emily is the familys kinkeeper theis means that she assumes resoponsibility for
gathering the family for holiday sending birthday reminders and disseminating family communications
autopsies show the brains of Alzheimmer vitims
have a proliferation of plaques and tangles
beatrice has vision problems due to a build up of fluid within her eys, beatrice had
celina and jorge have recently moved celinas elderly parents inot her home. even though they face sacrificies for doing so. they believe they did the right thing because of
cheryl is entering the workforce due to a recent divorce. as a single parent with 3 children, she needs at least a livalbe wage good benefits and a retirement plan she is focused on
extrinsic rewards of work
consequences of a partibular chronic diease are characteristics of what type of aging
cross culturely social clock norms
vary in scope and rigidity
daetta is very organzied and tends to conform easily. she is high on which of the big 5
families with stepchildren foster chilren or adoptive children experience greater challenges in developing secure attachments
because some children remain strongly attached to their birth parents.
gender convergence can change individulas core personality
gret is 48 and pregnant with her 1st child she was determined to have a baby before her biological clock rendered it impossilbe. she is facing critism from her family and freinds who think she is too old to give birth. their standards are based upon the
social clock
in schaies seatle longitududinal study, the congnitive decline of late adulthood was most evident in which of the following
processing speed
in some cultures as they grow older, men find it easeier to express emotions and women tend to
assert themselves
in the u.s. today the socail clock
allows for greater diversity than in the past
loss of working memory is particularly likely to affect the ability to
repeast a series of numbers just heard
many elderly people suffering from depression so not recieve treatment because
theri depression goes undiagnosed
marriage is influenced by many factors including
the social and political context
martha at age 75 is typical of people her age. she believes that when compared to others of the same age
she is doing well but they have more problems and are self absorbed
mary can reasonably predict that the most supportive members of her social convoy will be her
matilda is moody anxious and self punishing matilda is high in
mel is a retired stockbroker who mentors children at the local YMCA in the use of computers. he is demonstrating the psychosocial stage of
generativity versus stangation
most developmental theorists today believe that
stages of adult development are not entirely orderly and predictable
most develomentalist today belive that the changes of middle age produce a true midlfe crisis
mres calderi is 70 years old and as a typical person in late adulthoood she
is quite happy and enjoying her life
primary aging refers to age related changes that
ineveitably take place as time goes by and are universal
randy moved across the country to advance her career thogh he moved alone he soon developed a group of co workers and friends who became like family to him they served as his
social convoy
remarriages are less likely to end in divorce than first marriages
sam is usually a kind helpful and easygoing person he is high on which of the big 5 traits
severly impaired judgement is the amin consequence of primary aging
the group of people who move through lie with an individual providing protection and encouragement is the individuals
social convoy
the leading cause of death for men and women is
cardiovascular disease
the main reason we may not notice the young old is that
they don not fit our sterotypes of elderly
the midlfe crisis might accurately be described as a crisis of
developmental history
the most common cause of blindness in the elderly is
macular degeration
the percentage of adults who report they are close to their siblings is
the primary reason older people recieve less input inot their brains is that
their senses decline, reducing the sensory input
those speaking to the elderly need to
increase the logical pause
those with poor vision suffer more from their impairment than those who are hard of hearing
through adulthood the major source of an individuals developmental continuity is his or her
using elderspeak when engaging in converstion with an older adult
is demaning
vascular demntia is caused by
insufficient suppply of blood to the brain
weight training should be part of an elderly person exercise program
what percentage of adults over 65 in north america is living in a hospital or nursing home
when alzheimer disease appers in middle age it
progreses more rapidly
when our present population is sorted according to age the resulting graph is approahcing a demeographic
square or triangle
which of the following cancause reversible dementia
undernourishment, alcohol abuse, over medication, and dehydration
which of the following describes the realtionship of age and chronic disease
chronic disease increases with age
which of the following is true statement about nutrition
daily caloric requirments decrese with age
which of the followin is a true statement about nutrition
daily caloric requirments decrease with age
which of the following is true reagarding the middle generation as the sandwich generation
providing assistance to older and younger generations may be more a function of personality than of necessity
which of the following is crucial when older people have sensory loss
which most accurately depicts middle age
changes do not necessarily cluster around 40
which produces symptoms that seem like dementia
with age what happens to the brain
all of the above occure with age
who is likely to have most stable personalitly
35 year old woman
a bereaved person may develope a deeper appreciation of human relationships
a person whom a dying person designates to make his or her medical decisions is
a health care proxy
according to erikson, integirty versus despari is the focus of
late adulthood
adolescent egocentrism is evident when teenagers belive
they personally are much more socially significant than they actually are.
after losing a spouse,older women typically
enjoy their independenc choosing not to remarry
almost every older adult experiences depression and despari at the end of their live
although active euthanasia is illegal in most places in the world, a survey of seven nations found some doctors in these nations admitted performing it
an eldely woman who seeks to integrate her unique personal experiences withthe future of her community is in eriksons stage of
integirty versus despair
an exmple of active euthanasia is
injecting lethal drugs
an important funcion of mourning process is to
help prevent grief stricken individuals from committing self destuctive acts
andres wife of 45 years recently suffeed a stroke and required daily inhome care typical of men his age whose spouse requires additional care andre
began working more hours to pay for her care
assistance typically flows from members of the older generation to their children rather than vice versa
at age 65 mrs walker reacted to her recent retirement in much the same way that she dealt with earlier life changes this illustrates
continuity theory
claire ad dennis have lived in the same house for over 40 years, they reared their children there and were activiely involved in the community as they age their children want them to move to a nearby small apartment. like many other older adults, clair and dennis
prefer to age in place
by age 65 a person is most likely to lose
nearly an inch in height
compared to singel older adults the married elderly tend to be
happier and wealthier
compared to younger couples , older couples in longterm marriages
are closer
continuity theory would argue that the reaction of a 70 year old to the news that he has siabetes and must dramatically change his lifestyle is best predicted by the patients
past coping patterns
earl and lynn enjoy caring for their grandchild occasionally when their other commitments and theri busy lifestyle give them time for it. their grandparenting style is
ed and janet have been married for 60 years. when asked to share their secret to a long marriage, ed replied we
we have learned how to disagree
eldely men amy be more troubled by loosing a spouse than elderly women are because men
are less likely to seek out comfrot and help
for most people a single biological event marks the transition from early to middle adulthood
in addition to kubler ross,another set of stages of dying is based on the work of
abrahmam moslwo
in comparison with grief mourning
is more dependent on cultural practises
in every cultural tradition, religion plays a role in
providing hope at death
in oregon a physician may assist a patient in dying without consulting another doctor if the patient requests it
james age 50 is teminally ill, he is primarily focused on
leaving something udone
larua has just entered a hospice she can expect
pain killing medication
life satisfactionfor the elderly correlates with
friends more than family
life satisfaction for the elderly correlates with
friends more than family
maximum life span is said to be ---years for humans
medicaions for pain relief are under prescribed outside of palliative care for the teminally ill primarily becasue
they are addictive
mikhael, who is 15 has just moved to the u.s. with his parents from ukraine,mikhaels english skills are good, but his parents speak no english at all which of the following is likely to be true of mikhael and his family
mikhails family will depend on him to mediate between the familys old and new cultures
most elder abuse is committed by
adult children
most emerging adults have a firm grasp of who they are and have solidly established their identity
most studies of marriage of long duration find that compared to younger adults, the elderly are
happier in their marriages
mourning customs are designed by various cultures to channel grief toward affirmation of life
mrs smith lives in the same house as her because their parents are both drug addicts, she is now condidered an
surroate parent
older adults who take academic populatedbymostly college students tne to do relatively poorly, as they are unable to compensate for declines in theri reaction time and fluid intelligence
palliative care provides
relief from physical pain
polly regulalry describes her youth and earlie radulthood as perfect having hadmany wonderful experiences a loving family and good friends. she is demonstrating
the positivity effect
recent research had indicated the most older adults
want to retire as soon as they care eligible
recent reserch in sweden had indicatedtat the quality of life in late adulhood is directly related to
research on wisdom finds that
a minority of adults are wise
researchers who have subsequently investigated kubler ross stages have
rarely found the same stages occurring in sequence
several recent trends have contribute to makeing a good death more likely than a bad death
they are honest conversation, the hospice and palliative care.
signing a living will and desgnating a health care proxy are tow way in which people can ensure that they die exactly as they wish
the function of the hospice is to
allow people to die in peace
the idea that people compare themselves to others in their group and are satisfied if they are no worse off than the group norm is
relative deprivation
the majority of the elderly are frail
the mearure of health most important to the quality of life is
the most important buffer against the loss that comes from retirement and widowhood is having
at least one close friend
the specific meanings attached to death are the same throughout the world
the term ageism refer to
judging people on the basis of chronolgoical age
jacks mother had schizophrenia, so jack was raised by his grandparents,now at age 22 jack experience sever stress due to his new job and his grandfathers unexpected death, he is beginning to display symptoms of schizophrenia, the mainfestation of these symptomes is best explained by which of the following developmental concepts
the diathesis stress model
by the end of middle age nearly everyone needs
reading glasses
rose and emil have beentold by their doctor that theyare an infertile couple, which means they have been unable toconceive aftertryingfor at least
12 months
when schaie conducted cross sectional research comparing the congitive abilites of adults of different ges he found
a gradual decline in intellectual ability wiht age
the average women in her 20s will become pregnant within ---months of unprotectected sex.
which is most costly to society
according to erikson the serch for identity is complete at the end of the stage of identity versus role confusion
after the first ten years most married couples find
tension decreases as children become more independent
researdh in sensory functions in later adulthood indicates that
most visual and auditory losses can be compensated for
reserchers have found that the social clock is
jermemy has reared in several foster homes and ver knew his parents. when he stared working with kent he became close to kents family to the point when they fondly referred to his as our new found son jeremy is the familys
fictive kin
married teenagers are most likely to becomer --- and ---
depressed and agressive
jerry has recently lost his job and his health insurance benefits, he was diagnosed with diabetes and he and his wife of seventten years are divocing he is at risk for major disease or even premature death due to
a large allostatic load
a marked decrease in motor reaction time and brainprocessing inolder adults may be
shrinkage of the prefrontal cortex and the hupothalmus
research in sensory functions in later adulthood indicates that
most visual and auditoy losses can be compensated for.
todays most never married older adults are
happy and active
what is it called when a person cannot move, except for the eyes but brain waves are still apparent
lockin in syndrome
what is it called when a person is in a state characterized by prolonged cessation of all brain actvity and complete absence of voluntary movements
brain death
what is it called when a person is in a state of deep unconsciousness from which he or she cannot be aroused
when asked to estimate how much their peers smoke drink and do other drugs college students tend to
when older americans move they are most likely to move
not far from their residence
which of the following contributes to an adolescents lessening susceptibility to respiratory infections
shrinkage of the lymphoid system
which of the following factors has contributed to the increased number of suicides among european and american teens over the past four decades
lack of parental supervision
which of the following increases the likelihood of elder abuse
fraility poverty and substance abuse by caregiver
which of the following is a chareacteristic of a good death
peaceful quick and in familar surroundings
which of the following is a program for continuing education for the elderly in the u.s.
which of the following is a requirement for lege physician assisted suicide in oregon
the patient must wait 15 days between asking for the prescription and recieving it.
which of the following is a true statement about family caregivers of the frail elderly
dementia greatly increases the burden of caretaking
which of the following is a way that death has changed in the past 100 years
death often occurs in hospitals
which of the following is an example of passive euthanasia
a doctor does not resuscitate a patient who stops breathing
which of the following is an example of physician assisted suicide
a doctor gives a patient a prescription for a lethal medication
which of the following is one of the ADLs
which of the following statements about older people and religion is true
older people are less likely to attend weekly religious services than are younger people
which of the following theories claim that social forces limit individual choice and direct life especially in late adulthood
stratisfication theories
which parenting style is least effective during adolescence
who is most likely to be the healthiest and happiest at age 70
annette who is living with her husband
widows are more likely to remarry than are widowers
which of the following is true of selective optimization with compensation
it involves older adults figuring out how to accomplish what they want despite their limitations
bereeavement tends to be a short term process
mr . imhoff is 71 years old and has just enrolled in a course at the local college. which of the following is least likely to be his motivation
career developement
relationship challenges of marriage are quite the same for
same sex partners
joan suffered a ministroke that left her mildly imparied.much to her delight and her familys delight, she soon recovered what is her likely prognosis
she will most likely have other strokes,the first one was a warning
in all religions and cultures, death is reagarded as an
which of the following adolescents will be most liekly to experience menarche first
rebecca, who is african descent
martha cherished her family photos and letters from her children and siblings. she began to save many more items that reminded her of family members. soon she displayed
compulsive hoarding
while nature is primarily responsible for the maturity and health of the reproductive system in emerging adults, which of the following more strongly influences birth rates and secual activity
social context
the measure of health most importan to the quality of life aas
Passive Euthanasia
Involves allowing a seriously ill person to die naturally by withholding medical interventions
Is written order from a physician than no attempt should be made to revive a dying patient if he or she suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest
Active enthanasia
Involves a person taking action to end another persons life in order to relieve suffering.
Physician-assisted suicide
Is one in which a doctor provides the means for a person to end his or her life
Slippery slope
Is an argument that a given action will start a chain of events that will end in an undesirable outcome
Advance directive
Is a legal document containing instructions for end of life medical care.
Living will
Is a document that specifies what kinds of medical intervention a person wants if he or she become incapable of expressing those wishes
Health care proxy
Is a person chosen to make medical decisions for someone else if the second person becomes unable to do so.
is the sense of loss people fell following a death
Refers to the powerful sorrow a person feels at the death of another
Refers to the ceremonies and rituals that a religion or culture prescribes for bereaved people
Absent Greif
Occurs when people cut themselves off from the community and customs of grief and mourning
Disenfranchised grief
Occurs when bereaved people are not permitted to mourn publicly
Incomplete grief
Occurs when circumstances such as a criminal investigation, interfere with grieving.