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AP Biology Exam
Terms in this set (268)
Difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryote cells:
Eukaryotes have internal-membrane bound organells
Unicellular organisms that don't have nuclei
Organisms whose cells contain their genetic information inside the nucleus
Which of the following structural features of phospholipid molecules affect their ability to assemble into cell membranes?
Phosolipids have both hydrophonic and hydrophilic regions
Whcih of the following structures is found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Which of the following organelles is most likely to affect apoptosis?
How does the folded nature of the cristae within mitochondria affect their function?
The folds increase the surface area to increase the efficiency of mitochondrial reactions
Which of the following organelles functions in both the storage of nutrients and the transport of nutrients throughout a cell?
Which of the following describes the function of the endomembrane system of eukoryotes?
Synthesis and transport of polypeptides
Which of the following structures is found in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes?
Which of the following effects is likely to result if the chloroplasts are removed from a plant cell?
The cell will not be able to produce glucose through carbon fixation
Which of the following statements best describes the possible effects of organelle malfunction?
Organelle malfunction disrupts normal cell function, which causes wider systemic malfunction
Which of the following describes a characteristic similarity of ALS, multiple sclerosis, and Tay-Sachs disease?
These are all neurological diseases
Which of the following statements provided the evidence for you to rule out the possibility that Morgan had Lyme disease or flu?
Morgan did not have a sore throat, fever, or swollen lymph nodes
If Micheal had any children, will they be at risk of also having the disease affecting Micheal?
Yes, because it is an inherited disease
Micheal had extremely high levels of fatty acids in his blood. Which of the following describes a possible cause of this abnormality?
His nerve cells had malfunctioning lysosomes, so fatty acids were not being broken down
Based upon Micheal's symptoms and diagnosis, what can you infer about the process of apoptosis?
It can be triggered by organelle malfunction
Morgan's mitochondrial myopathy is due to a genetic defect. Which of the following statements provides evidence that this is a hereditary disorder?
Morgan's cells do not produce a protein needed for optimal mitochondrial function
Which of the following describes a possible treatment to Micheal's condition?
Administer a medication that counteracts apoptosis due to lipid accumulation
A patient with mitochondrial myopathy would be expected to have low levels of which of the following?
What type of tissue is affected by myopathy?
Which of the following statements describes the range of properties possible for proteins embedded in cell membranes?
The hydrophonic regions of a membrane protein are embedded in the lipid bilayer, while the protuding parts of the protein are hydrophilic regions
Which of the following properties of water molecules increases the ability of water to be a good solvent?
Water molecules contain polar covalent bonds, which affect the polarity of the molecules and increase their ability to dissolve other molecules
Which of the following processes is depicted in the diagram?
Active transport (arrow pointing right w/ more concentration)
Internal membranes facilitate cellular processes by:
Minimizing competing interactions
Which of the following molecules freely diffuses through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane?
Oxygen, because it is nonpolar
Which of the following types of molecules is most likely to be found embedded in plasma membranes to aid in cell-to-cell recognition?
If structure X is removed from the membrane shown below, which substance listed will become unable to cross the membrane?
Glucose, due to its size
Chart with H2C and CH2:
Which of the following substances moves in cyclic fashion between the environment and living organisms, forming an essential component of proteins lipids, and nucleic acids found in living cells?
A cell has an internal concentration of sodium chloride equal to 9 g/L. A sodium chloride (NaCl) solution has prepared in a lab of concentration of 8 g/L. Which of the following describes the effect of placing the cell in this solution?
The solution is hypotonic to the cell, so the cell will take in water and burst
Which of the following does not drive passive transport of a substance through a cell membrane?
Which set of substances requires either channel or transport proteins to cross the cell membrane?
H2O, NaCl, C6H12O6
Predict which of the following cells will demonstrate the slowest rate of nutrient diffusion
The cell with the smallest surface-area-to-volume ratio
Image of Plasma membrane:
Endocytosis; uptake of nutrients
Predict which cell will experience the most rapid exchange of materials with the environment
Cube-shaped cell with dimensions of 2umx2umx2um
Which of the following factors most influences the rate of molecular movement into a cell?
Kinetic energy of the molecules
Which of the following characteristics most limits the efficiency of a cell's material exchange with its environment?
Which of the following descriptions of the surface area of a maple-tree leaf best explains the relationship of structure to function?
The surface-area-to-volume ratio of the leaf is very high to maximize CO2 intake
A cuboidal cell and a spherical cell have the same volume, but the cuboidal cell has a higher surface area than the spherical cell. Which of the following is true?
The cuboidal cell will take in nutrients and eliminate wastes more efficiently than the spherical cell
Which of the following descriptions of the structure of an elephant best explains the large, flat ears filled with many tiny blood vessels known as capillaries?
Elephant ear structure allows for the most rapid heat exchange with the environment
Spherical cells of various sizes were observed under the microscope and their diameters recorded. Predict which of the following cells will require the greatest amount of time to move nutrients through the cytoplasm
8 um diameter
Suppose you calculate the surface area of spheres of increasing volumes and then you graph the results. If you plot surface area on the y-axis and volume on the x-axis, what will be the result?
A curve with a continually decreasing slope
Which of the following shapes, all with fixed volume x, will allow for the most efficient exchange of materials with the environment?
An elongated rod of volume x
As a cell grows larger and increases in volume, which of the following effects on its surface area is most likely?
Its surface area increases, but not as quickly as its volume increases
Which of the following body locations contains cells with the largest surface-area-to-volume ratio?
Lungs, in order to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the environment
Which of the following substances is most likely to be soluble in water?
A polar substance capable of forming hydrogen bonds
Which of the following correctly describes the property of water that helps protect aquatic organisms when winter temperatures plunge well below freezing for several months?
Water's density decreases as it changes from a liquid to a solid
Image of blue bar, zoned in on line:
Which of the following processes is most likely to be occurring when a person sweats during heavy exercise?
Runoff is water that collects on Earth's surface after rainfall and eventually flows into larger bodies of water for the conclusion that runoff often contains fertilizers, pesticides, and other chemicals that farmers have applied to their fields?
Water is an excellent and versatile solvent
Which of the following correctly describes a hydrogen bond?
A bond between hydrogen and another atom
Which of the following properties of water is the result of strong forces of attraction between water molecules?
Which of the following factors most directly contributes to the polarity of water?
Which of the following is the reason that your feet are burned by sand on a beach, but cooled by the ocean just a few feet away?
Water's high specific heat
Two cubes: predict which of the following cells has the most efficient nutrient absorption and elimination
Cell A, because it has the larger surface-area-to-volume ratio
Chart of shapes: predict which of the following cells has the most efficient nutrient absorption and elimination
Small cube, because its dimensions allow the most nutrients to enter and move the shortest distance
The image below shows a prokaryotic cell. Describe how this cell differs from a eukaryotic cell
It has a cell wall, which is a structure not found in a number of eukaryotic cells
Cell membrane permeability: What question is the scientist most likely trying to answer by conducting the experiment?
How do proteins affect the rate of diffusion of polar molecules across a cell membrane?
If the Golgi body of a cell becomes nonfunctional, which of the following would you predict will happen?
Modification and distribution of proteins in vesicles in vesicles will stop
Which of the following explains why the presence of internal membranes affords these cells an advantage over cells lacking such structures?
Compartmentalization keeps different functions seperarted within the cell
Which molecule should the biologist tag with the radioactive label in order to collect the data she is looking for?
What do you predict the reason for the cell death?
Lysosomes are manufacturing, so molecules targeted for destruction are not being removed
Graph: Energy use up, concentration gradient right
Active transport of larger molecules requiring the output of energy
Graph of purple and blue blob:
Digestion of food particles
Which of the following is the most likely to result in a change in the phenotype of an organism?
Alterations in the DNA sequences in the organism's chromosomes
Which of the following processes takes place in eukaryotic cells after a messenger RNA molecule is transcribed from DNA?
The mRNA transcript undergoes a series of enzyme-regulated modifications
Which of the following correctly states a difference between protein synthesis in prokaryotes and protein synthesis in eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes, but not eukaryote, undergo transcription and translation simultaneously
Which of the following provides DNA with the capacity to serve as the carrier of biological information?
Its arrangement of nucleotides
Which of the following determines the structural and functional characteristics of a protein?
Its amino acid sequence
Which of the following occurs when a peptide bond forms between two amino acids?
A water molecule is released as a covalent bond forms between carboxyl group of one ammino acid and an amino group of another amino acid
Which of the following best describes the role of RNA polymerase in a cell?
It reads the DNA molecule for synthesis for a complementary strand of mRNA
Mutations caused by errors during translation most likely cause which of the following effects?
The effects can be beneficial, harmful, or neutral
Image: which component of a nucleotide monomer is represented by #2 in the diagram?
Which of the following describes the initiation step of translation?
Ribosomal RNA recognizes a specific region of mRNA
Which of the following is an example of a codon?
What accounts for the finding that a protein normally in an aqueous buffer but loses its function when placed in an organic solvent such as hexane?
The protein's overall shape can be varying depending on the solvent
Which statement below accurately describes 3' and 5' ends of DNA?
They are carbons in the pentose sugar involved in a sugar-phosphate linkage and determine the direction of transcription
Which two cellular components make up the ribosomal subunits involved in the process of translation?
Ribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins
Image: Genetic sequence circle
What must happen to a strand of polypeptides before it becomes a functioning protein?
It must be folded into its proper shape
Which of the following must occur before mRNA can leave the nucleus in a eukaryotic cell? (intron, exons spliced, poly-A tail)
I, II, V
A codon contains a triplet code. Which of the following is true of this code?
The three nucleotides of a codon carry information to make a single amino acid
What is the end product of translation?
A codon is part of a ___molecule, while an artification is part of an ___molecule
What role do tRNA molecules play in protein synthesis?
They carry amino acids to sites of protein synthesis
How does genetic information flow to nearly all cells?
Which of the following would you expect to contribute to faster protein synthesis in prokaryotes?
mRNA does not have to cross a cell membrane
How is mRNA related to DNA?
mRNA and DNA have nucleotides that complement one another
What would be the direct result if RNA polymerase were missing from a cell?
DNA could not be transcribed
Which of following produces no change in a phenotype?
Codon table: How will the mutation affect the resulting protein's structure?
The protein's structure will change because it will have an amino acid substitution
Which of the following correctly describes the primary and tertiary structures of a protein?
The primary structure is the amino acid chain; the tertiary structure is the protein's shape
What is a point mutation?
A change in a single nucleotide
Which best explains the rise in antibiotic resistance among bacteria?
Antibiotics kill susceptible bacteria, decreases competition for antibiotic resistant bacteria
Which letter marks the zone of inhibition?
How does the modern definition of antibiotic differ?
An antibiotic is any chemical, natural, or synthetic, that inhibits the growth of a microorganism
Which of the following correctly describes a plasmid?
A small, circular DNA molecule that replicates independently of the chromosome
Why would a scientist add a florescent jellyfish gene to a plasmid?
To determine if plasmid transformation has been successful
Which of the following correctly describes bacterial transformation?
Extracellular DNA is taken up by a bacterial cell
Which of the following statements describes an adaptation?
Tree frogs developing poisonous secretions and bright coloration
Which of the following conditions renders a population vulnerable to the loss of alleles as a result of random mating?
Reduced population size
Which of the following describes the fact that island chains are often sites of rapid speciation events?
Islands in an island chain are isolated and have slightly different environments and resources, so many species can evolve
Which of the following statements is true about the potential for evolutionary change across many generations within a single population?
The direction and rate of evolutionary change within a population depend on changes taking place in the population's environment
Which of the following conditions must be met in order for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
There is no immigration or emigration
Which of the following statements is true regarding the scientific evidence that supports the theory of evolution?
Scientific evidence supports the evolution of all extinct species and all existing species
Which of the following exerts selective pressures on populations?
According to the theory of natural selection, which of the following statements describes the cause of differential survival within a single population?
Individuals with beneficial traits are more likely to survive and pass those traits on to their offspring
Which of the following determines the new petal colors that spontaneously appear in a population of wildflowers?
Changes in DNA
What is the relative fitness of a flower?
A mule's sterility is an example of which condition?
A postzygotic barrier that prevents gene flow between speces
Which factor will most likely impact the survival of a species in a rapidly changing environment?
The overall collection of alleles in the population is diverse and varied
Which of the following statistics is used to measure the evolutionary fitness of a population?
Number of surviving offspring
Which of the following events provides a mechanism for rapid evolution over a single generation?
Which of the following statements is true?
Chance and random events can influence the evolutionary process in all populations, but especially in small ones
What role do humans play in artificial selection?
Humans choose which organisms to be bred
In the Hummingbird War Game, what can you conclude?
Allele frequencies changed in the plant population
Which of the following is a product of artificial selection?
A turkey that lays larger eggs than wild turkeys
How could artificial selection have changed this change in teosinte?
By producing new combinations of traits
In which way are natural selection and artificial selection the same?
They both exert selective pressure on an individual
Which exemplifies evolution by artificial selection?
Breeding only cows that give the most milk
How would a phenotype change caused by artificial selection differ from a phenotype change caused by natural selection?
It would be no different
How is selective pressure related to evolution?
Selective pressure can be a driving force in evolution
How did feeding choice in Hummingbird Game affect evolution of flower length?
Competition provided selective pressure
Which factor places limits on size, number, color, or other characteristics of an organism produced by artificial selection?
Which of the following types of evolution has the sunflower population undergone?
How might gene flow between two populations act against speciation?
By increasing the mixing of gene pools from the two populations
What would you expect to find in a large gene pool?
High genetic variation
Map: U.S distribution
The species has experienced a bottleneck
Which of the following terms applies to these species?
Behavioral and geographical isolation
What is the founder effect?
Genetic drift observed after a small population splits off
Which of the following is true of artificial selection?
It is directed by humans
What type of speciation process includes polyploidy?
What type of selection does this represent?
What evolutionary process has increased as a result?
If a mutation event occurs that results in the deletion of one base near the beginning of the sequence, which of the following is the most likely outcome?
The protein synthesized
Which statement most likely explains this change?
Changes in the environment changed each morph's ability to evade predation in different ways
Graph: Evaluate the data to determine whether the data data suggest any changes in genetic diversity for this population over time
The data for gene Y and gene Z suggest a loss of diversity, but other data show no evidence of change
Image: D-loop, anticodon and T+C loop
Distribution of base pairing in the D-loop will disrupt the shape of the D-loop arm, which will destroy this molecule`s ability to bind to enzymes or ribosomes
Graph: Number of individuals w/increase from dull to brightly colored
The graph will split down the middle into two groups, one dull and the other brightly colored, with very few individuals of intermediate coloration
Graph: Prediction if migration is possible between populations B and C
The average number of alleles per gene for population B will increase but will decrease for population C
Which of the following statements most directly supports the claim bulls observed variation in behavior is genetically determines?
Young cattle sired by certain bulls are more excitable than cattle sired by other bulls
Bar graph: Proportion of population
Beginning in 2002, the pollinator population is shifted from bees to butterflies
Degrees of Freedom question
The population is not in equilibrium and is changing in a direction that suggests genetic drift
Which statement below if the most likely explanation in the changes to this organism over the six-year period shown?
This organism has constantly undergone evolution, although at different rates at different times throughout the data collection period, and will continue this way in the future
Which of the following types of macromolecules was one of the first molecules formed on primitive Earth that allowed life to arise?
Image: Arms of different species
These species share a common ancestor from which they evolved seperately
What does this indicate about the origins of life?
All organisms descended from a common ancestor
What are these structures? (DNA image)
Graph: Frequency of alleles spiking up with generation
Environmental pressures selected in favor of this alleles, which confers an advantage to the organism
Which of the following statements about this hypothesis is true today?
It is one of several hypotheses about the origin of life supported by scientific research
Which of the following is a consequence to species after an exposure to ecological stresses, such as wildfires or pollution?
Their extinction rate increases
Which of the following conditions of the primitive Earth was necessary for the origin of life?
A supply of inorganic gases and energy
It is evidence that supports our understanding of evolution
Image: Condenser and test of Earth conditions
Organic compounds essential to life could be made under the conditions found on primitive Earth
According to scientific evidence, when is it hypothesized that life on Earth originated?
Between 3.5 and 3.9 billion years ago
Which of the following statements correctly identifies geological evidence relating to origin of life on Earth?
The available geological evidence supports the range of models proposed to explain the origin of life
Which of the following statements describes how vestigial structures provide evidence for evolution?
Vestigial structures demonstrate the conservation of genes
Which of the following molecules have been found as carriers of biological information in living organisms?
DNA and RNA
Which of the following molecules is conserved across phyla ranging from aerobic bacteria in humans, providing evidence for common ancestry?
What is the difference between analogous structures and homologous structures?
Analogous structures are derived from shared function; homologous structures are derived from shared ancestors
What fact provides the most compelling evidence that whales evolved from land-dwelling animals?
The whale's pelvis and leg bones
A cavefish lives in total darkness, yet it has eyes
Because the eyes add nothing to the fish's fitness, it is possible that they will dissapear
What is the purpose of these genes?
They control when other genes are expressed
Why might a scientist study stages of a species' embryonic development to learn about a species' evolution?
Because ancestral characteristics can be preserved in an organism's developmental pathways
Which evidence could you use to provide the highest level of certainty of the relatedness among these organisms?
DNA sequence comparisons
Why are mutations in homeotic genes considered to be a primary mechanism for evolutionary change?
They can cause changes in body shape
Why are the wings of bats and the arms of humans considered homologous structures?
Because humans and bats share a common ancestor with the same structure
Which describe a transitional fossil?
A fossil with characteristics intermediate between an older species and a more recent species
What information was found in the hox genes of whales that have a bearing on the evolutionary history of this animal?
Mutations are found in whale hox genes that explain how the whale flipper shape evolves
When do scientists think eukaryotes began to evolve?
What were Harold Urey and Stanley Miller trying to replicate in their famous "premordial soup" experiment?
The inorganic conditions that gave rise to life
Which capability do scientists think evolved as a result of the seperation of interior spaces from external spaces to protobionts?
The ability to carry out unique chemical reactions
What evidence do they site for this hypothesis?
The composition of volcanic gas today
Why so scientists think that RNA is a likely candidate to have been the first genetic material?
Some RNA can catalyze reactions
Identify the correct sequence of events that occurred on Early Earth
Monomers became polymers, anaerobic prokaryotes appear, multi-cellular life appears
How do scientists think endosymbiosis might have occurs?
Eukaryotes preyed on prokaryotes
Why do scientists think that anaerobic organisms were the first life forms evolve?
Early Earth's atmosphere had no oxygen
Which substance do scientists think was critical to the rise of Early life on Earth?
Which is responsible for changing Earth's atmosphere from no oxygen to 21%?
Which of the following characteristics is shared by all modern living systems?
Codons based on a triplet code
Which of the following life processes has evolved and been conserved through nearly every modern organism?
Which of the following statements is true regarding metabolic pathways of archea, bacteria and eukarya
They are all conserved across all three domains
Which of the following processes expresses information encoded by DNA and RNA?
Transcription and translation
Graph: Phylogenic tree example
The evolutionary relationship among species
Which of the following is true about all three domains?
They are related through common ancestry
Graph: Species in phylogenic tree
Graph: Animal development on tree
Graph: Names in phylogenic tree
What is the most accurate way to relate species on a phylogenic tree?
Use a computer to compare similarities in DNA sequences
What does the common homeostatic mechanism indicate about humans and horses?
They share a common ancestor
Which compound is most directly responsible for an organism's phenotype?
Common ancestor of marsupial lions and wombats:
Which of the following explains that lizards are also ectotherms but birds evolved to become endotherms?
A split occurred sometime in the past in response to different environmental processes
Why are cladograms and phylogenic trees considered to be dynamic, or constantly changing?
Because they are updated and rearranged as new data are discovered
Which of the following best describes the overall goal of cladistics analysis?
To determine the relative order in which species evolved
Which of the following best describes a phylogenetic tree?
A hypothesis about evolutionary readiness
Graph: Red box on certain species
A only & B and D only
Which of the following types of evolution gives rise to the greatest biodiversity in a given genome?
Which of the following best describes a gene that is highly conserved?
It has changed very little over time
Which of the following best describes an outgroup in a phylogenic tree?
A species that is most distantly related to all the other species
Which of the following best describes this phenomenon?
Which of the following best describes a clade?
A single ancestral species and its descendents
Which of the following features does the shaded part of the cladogram below represent?
A paraphletic group
Which of the following best describes the use of a control sample that is known to be from bighead carp?
As a positive control to show if there are bighead carp present in the area
How many species of carp does it appear were sampled?
Which of the following best describes the role of restriction enzymes in the bio technologies used in this study?
To cut DNA into bands at specific locations prior to gel electrophoresis
Which of the following statements best describes the process of electrophoresis?
The DNA in lane D is a control used to determine the size of bands in Lanes A, B, and C
Most important o ensure bighead carp are not becoming a significantly invasive species:
Obtain many samples from all locations within the system
Which of the following characteristics can be used to distinguish a species of carp as discussed in the study?
DNA carries heritable information
Which of the following best describes the purpose of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
Amplify small amounts of DNA to generate large amounts of DNA for analysis
Which of the following describes how this inheritance problem is possible?
The daughter must have inherited an O allele from each parent, both of whom are heterozygous for O
Segments of DNA specific to one species used in PCR
Reason why Miller-Urey no longer considered strong evidence:
Some of the gases used in the Miller-Urey experiment are now known not to have been present on early Earth
Scientists claim that all organisms evolved from a common ancestor. What provides evidence for that claim?
Organisms from all three domains use a common genetic code
Claudogram with present subdivisions:
Species A and D are out of place
Which general plans for investigation would be most useful in obtaining data that could be used to help test this hypothesis?
Analyze a single geological site rich in fossils from all time periods during which the extinct organism and its ancestors lived
Graph: number of lineages
Which of the following states a hypothesis that has been proposed concerning RNA's role in the origin of life on Earth?
Self-replicating RNA molecules able to bind to other molecules and carry out unique chemical reactions were the precursors to today's biomolecules
Justify her claim by indicating which technology she should use for her purpose
Polymerase chain reaction and plasmid-based transformation
Image: Monolayer, bilayer, miscelle and vesicle
Evidence of water on early Earth supports the idea that simple fatty acids could haveundergone self-assembly in a watery environment to form first cell membranes
Which graph provides a model that shows the effects of this predation selection pressure on the duck's clutch size?
Graph with high point in middle and blue rising further on, but not finishing
Which explanation describes why organisms have been able to survive in so many different aquatic environments?
Organelles have evolved structures for absorbing or excreting salts and water, depending on the environment they live in
Which of the following identifies the stages of interphase?
G1, S and G2
Which of the following best describes the role of G1 checkpoint in the cell cycle?
To assess whether all cellular processes up to that point have been correct
Which of the following pairs of characteristics is true of sexual reproduction?
It increases genetic variation, and its processes are evolutionary conserved in eukaryotes
At the end of mitosis, the daughter cells possess:
A complete and identical set of chromosomes
Which of the following changes is achieved during fertilization besides forming a diploid zygote?
An increase in the genetic variation of the population
Which of the following best describes an additional role that mitosis fulfills in an organism?
Renewing and repairing cells that die from normal weak or accident
Which of the following events ensures genetic diversity in sexually reproducing organisms through meiotic division?
Independent assortment of homologous chromosomes
Which of the following is most likely to occur as a result of the infection?
Kinases will not activate, and the cycle will remained stopped at the checkpoints
Which of the following is the most accurate description of the cellular events of meiosis I?
Homologous chromosomes from each parent carry genes for the same heritable traits
Which of the following best describes the genetic complement in each daughter cell at the conclusion of meiosis?
A haploid set of chromosomes that are a recombination of a parent' chromosomes
How many chromosomes would a gamete produced by meiosis contain?
Which of the following best describes the events that occur when a cell is in the G0 phase?
It no longer divides
Which of the following best describes the phenotypic results in Trisomy 21?
Children lag in cognitive development
Genetic variation in meiosis:
There will be greater genetic variation in the genomes of the gametes resulting from meiosis
Describes process of DNA polymerases:
Add new nucleotides to a strand and repair any errors
Which statement is true about the complementary strands of a DNA molecule?
They run in an antiparallel direction, with the 5' end of one strand at the same end as the 3' end of the other
Which process did Griffith observe when studying virulent and nonvirulent bacteria?
The heat-killed virulent bacteria transformed the nonvirulent bacteria into becoming vir ulent
What function do RNA primers perform during DNA replication?
Provide sites for nucleotide addition along both strands
Which summary correctly reflects the direction of DNA replication on the leading and lagging strands on the template?
5' to 3' on the leading strand and 5' to 3' on the lagging strand
Identify order of steps in DNA replication:
Which finding describes result of Oswald experiment?
When DNA was destroyed, virulent cells did not transform nonvirulent cells
What is most likely dysfunctional in this cell?
Which radioscopes did they use to label which types of biomolecules?
Sulfur-35 in protein and phosphorus-32 in DNA
Which composition describes the products they found?
Both double helixes were composed of one original strand and one new strand
E. Coli and cell's function enhanced by gene structure
This gene sequence ensures transcription of arabinose genes only when arabinose is available, saving the cell from expending energy unncessarily
Under which of the following conditions would a cell proceed past the M spindle checkpoint?
When the spindle fibers are attached to the chromosomes
Under which of the following conditions would you expect the least amount of apoptosis to occur in a group of cells?
When there are a few healthy cells in an area an no unhealthy cells
Which of the following represents the number of strands of DNA produced after four rounds of PCR?
During which following phase of the cell cycle does DNA replication take place?
Select the description below that that differs protein synthesis.
Transcription and translation can occur simultaneously in a prokaryote but not in a eukaryote
Caused by uncontrolled cell growth:
Predict the fate of cells p53
The cells will proceed through the cell cycle, but the abnormalities that could lead to uncontrolled growth
Which of the following best describes a checkpoint in a cell cycle?
A set of control mechanisms operating in a cell at different stages to ensure proper cycling
What key piece did Watson and Creek apply to their information that Paulding did not?
Chargaff's finding that AT ang GC ratios are constant across phyla
During which of the following phases of the cell cycle does growth take place?
G1 and G2 phases
Which statement below explains how the changes in the limb bud are brought about?
Some cells undergo a programmed death, allowing digits to emerge
Which of the following is the final step in the cell cycle that produces two cells identical to the parent cell?
Which scenario predicted to occur if malaria infections increase dramatically in the future?
Thea allele frequency will increase, because heterozygous Aa individuals will be favored over homozygous AA individuals
Under which of the followingconditions would a cell stop going through the cell cycle at the G1 checkpoint?
No growth factors are present
Which mechanism increases genetic variation and operates across all three domains of life: Bacteria, Archea, and Eukarya?
Random errors in DNA replication and repair
Under which of the followingconditions would a cell stop going through the cell cycle at the G2 checkpoint?
DNA is unreplicated
Which of the following is an important ethical question that could be posed about this disorder?
Could prenatal testing for Huntington's mutation 100% reliable?
Which of the following cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) allows cells to move from G2 to the beginning of mitosis if thecells are ready to divide?
Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF)
Which of the following provides an accurate evaluation?
The F2 results support the claim by demonstrating that while the trait was transferred via meiosis even though it remained hidden in the F1 generation
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