Psychology Exam 2

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The Big 5 (O.C.E.A.N.)
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Terms in this set (82)
groupa collection of two or more people who believe they have something in commonin groupus and them mentalityprejudicea positive or negative evaluation of another person based on his or her group membershipdiscriminationa positive or negative behavior toward another person based on his or her group membershipsolidaritymutual support and unity that produces or is based on common interests, objectives, standards, and sympathiesdeindividuationloss of awareness of one's own value due to group immersiondiffusion of responsibilitydecrease in feelings of responsibility because one is surrounded by others acting in a similar manner as oneselfbystander effectawait others to act firstgroup polarizationtendency for group's initial leaning to become stronger over timearistotleman is by nature a social animaldarwinadaptive social instinctsmaslowbelongingness and love needscooperationbehavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefitsbruneauperspective taking improves attitudes of dominant group towards stigmatized ones but may deteriorate the attitudes of less dominant groups towards the dominant one(s).Krauslower-status individuals already engage in perspective takinggalinskyperspective taking in business linked to unethical behavior perhaps due to competitive nature of business negotiationsapproval motivenormative influence, conformity, obedienceaccuracy motiveinformational influence, persuasion, consistencyhedonic motivebehaviorism ( rewards and punishment)observatinal learning...reactancetendency for people to react negatively to overt attempts to control themnormsrules and regulations that govern social behavior (unwritten and elaborate)reciprocity(return the favor) door in the face and reciprocity of concessionsconformitytendency to do what others do simply because others are doing itobediencethe tendency to do what authorities tell us to do simply because they tell us to do itintrinsicdoing something because you enjoy itextrinsicdoing something becasue it leads to other rewardsstatisticIdentifies patterns in dataset & generates predictionsTraining phaseAlgorithm produced attributes that were common to movies preferred by given group of individualsSupervisedresearcher knows what dimensions to look forReinforcementlearn based on success or failure; good for multistep processesUnsupervisedsimilar to factor analysis; may overfit the data (use regularization)Creativity measurescreative achievements, interests, or UUTEccentricitySchizotypal personality measures (magical thinking, distorted perceptions, preference for solitude, mild paranoia)Heston (1966)children adopted away from schizophrenic biological mothers were more likely to be creativeKinneyreplicated Heston's study - schizotypal participants with or without schizophrenic parents were more creativeNettle and Rawlings & Locarnincreative individuals score higher on schizotypal personality scalesPersonalityan individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking, and feelingself reporta series of answers to a questionnaire that asks people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their won behavior or mental staeMMPI-2clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problemsprojective techniquesa standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual's personalityRorschach Inkblot Testa projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)a projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of peopletraita relatively stable disposition to behave in a particular and consistent wayconscientiousnessorganized, careful, self disciplinedagreeablenesssofthearted, trusting, helpfulneuroticismworried, insecure, self-pityingopennesimaginative, variety, independentextraversionsocial, fun loving, affectionateWilliam's Syndromea rare genetic disorder that can lead to problems with development.reticular formationa brain structure that regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousalWonderlicPersonnel Testa popular group intelligence test used to assess the aptitude of prospective employees for learning and problem-solving in a range of occupations.Ggeneral intelligenceSspecific abilitiesMmiddle level abilitiesdeviation IQA statistic obtained by dividing a persons test score by the average test score of people in the same age grouprelative intelligencestable over timeabsolute intelligencechange considerably over timemotivationthe purpose for or psychological cause of an actionintrinsic motivationa motivation to take actions that are themselves rewardingextrinsic motivationa motivation to take actions that are not themselves rewarding but that lead to rewardautonomyone's freedomCompetencethe ability of an individual to do a job properlydelay of gratificationthe ability to wait in order to obtain something that one wants.relaxation therapya technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the bodyrelaxation repsonsea condition of reduced muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, breathing rate, and blood pressurebiofeedbackthe use of an external monitoring device to obtain information about a bodily function and possibly gain control over that functionaerobic exerciseincreases heart rate and oxygen intake for a sustained periodsocial supportaid gained through interacting with othersoxytocina hormone secreted by the pituitary gland in pregnant and nursing mothershumorreduce sensitivity to pain and distressprisoner's dilemmamirrors the risks and benefits of cooperation in everyday life