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Micro Glossary

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Antagonism
Mutual opposition or contrary action. The INHIBITION of one bacteria by another.
Antibody
(Immunoglobulin) A glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with an antigen.
Antigen
(Immunogen) A foreign substance that STIMULATES the FORMATION OF ANTIBODIES that interact specifically with it.
Antisepsis
The PREVENTION of SEPSIS by preventing or inhibiting the growth of causative microorganisms
Attenuation
DILUTION / WEAKENING of virulence of a microorganism, reducing or abolishing pathogenicity.
Autotrophic Bacteria
SELF NOURISHING bacteria that are capable of growing in the absense of organs compounds. Organisms that obtain carbon from Carbon Dioxide
Bacillus
Rod shaped microorganism
Bacteria
A procaryotic one celled microorganism of the Kingdom Monera, existing as a free living organisms or as parasites, multiplying by binary fission and having a large range of biochemical properties
Bacterial Colony
A visible GROUP of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism
Bactericide
An agent that destroys bacteria BUT NOT necessarily their SPORES
Bacteriology
Science that studies bacteria
Binary Fission
A method of asexual reproduction in bacteria in which the cell splits into two parts, each of which develops into a complete individual.
Biological Vector
An arthropod vector in which the disease causing organism multiplies or develops WITHIN the arthropod prior to becoming infective for a susceptible individual.
Chlamydia
a large group of non motile gram negative intracellular parasites
Coccus
A type of bacteria that is SPHERICAL or OVOID in form
Commensalism
The symbiotic relationship of 2 organisms of different species in which ONE GAINS SOME BENEFIT, such as protection or nourishment.
Communicable
A disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another.
Contamination
The act of INTRODUCING DISEASE germs or INFECTIOUS MATERIAL into an area or substance
Diplobacilli
A DOUBLE BACILLUS, two being linked end to end to each other
Diplococcus
A genus of bacteria that are gram positive organisms occuring in PAIRS. Also called Streptococcus.
Disinfectant
A chemical or physical agent that KILLS DISEASE-CAUSING microorganisms - generally used on INANIMATE OBJECTS
Disinfection
The DESTRUCTION of INFECTIOUS AGENTS by chemical or physical means directly applied to an inanimate object
Drug Fast
Resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drugs/drugs
Endemic
Disease that occurs continuously in a particular region but has LOW MORTALITY
Endogenous Infection
PRODUCED or arising from WITHIN a cell or organism
Endotoxin
bacterial toxin CONFINED within the body of a bacterium. Freed only when the bacterium is broken down. Found only in gram negative bacteria
Epidemic
appearance of an infectious disease or condition that attacks MANY PEOPLE /SAME TIME /SAME GEOGRAPHICAL AREA
Exogenous Infections
Orginating OUTSIDE an organ or part.
Facultative Bacteria
Having the ability to do something that is not compulsory, in particular having the ability to live or ADAPT to certain conditions
Focal Infection
one in which the organisms are originally confined to one area but enter the blood or lymph vessel and SPREAD to other parts of the body.,
Fomite
Any INANIMATE OBJECT to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted
Fungus
A group of diverse and widespread unicellular & multi cellular organisms, lacking cholorphyll, usually BEARING SPORES, and often filamentous
Fungicide
An agent that kills fungi and their spores
General Infection
An infection that becomes systemic
Germicide
A substance that DESTROYS microorganisms
Heterotrophic Bacteria
An organism that REQUIRES COMPLEX ORGANIC FOOD from a carbon source in order to grown and develop.
Indigenous Flora
Plant life occurring or adapted for living in a specific environment
Infection
the state or condition in which the body or a part of it are INVADEd by a pathogenic agent that - favorable conditions; MULTIPLIES and produces injurious effects (REACTION).
Local Infection
Infection caused by germs lodging and multiplying AT 1 POINT IN A TISSUE, and remaining there (one area)
Maximum Temperature
Temperature ABOVE which bacterial growth will not take place
Mechanical Vector
A living organism or an object that is capable of transmitting infections by CARRYING DISEASED AGENT on its EXTERNAL BODY PARTS/ SURFACE
Mesophile
Bacteria that prefers moderate temperature and develops best at temperaturees between 25C and 40C
Microaerophilic
A microorganism that requires very little free oxygen
Microbiology
Scientific study of microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms.
Minimum Temperature
Temperature BELOW WHICH bacterial growth will NOT take place
Mixed Infection
Infection caused by 2 or more organisms
Mutualism
a relationship in which organisms of 2 different species live in close associations to the MUTUAL BENEFIT of each other.
Mycology
the branch of science concerned with fungi
Mycoplasmas
Bacteria of the Mycoplasma genus that are found in humans and most have no cell wall. It is the smallest free-living organisms presently known, being intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria
Opportunist
An organism that exists as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain circumstances
Optimum Temperature
Temperature at which an organism grows best
Osmotic Pressure
PRESSURE that develops when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a SEMI PERMEABLE MEMBRANE
Pandemic
A disease affecting the majority of the population of a large region or one that is epidemic at the same time in many different parts of the world.
Parasitism
An interactive relationship between 2 organisms in which ONE IS HARMED and THE OTHER BENEFITS
Pathogenicity
The state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease
Primary Infection
An ORIGINAL INFECTION from which a second one orginates
Prion
A small proteinaceous infectious particle that is RESISTANT to most procedures that MODIFY NUCLEIC ACID
Protozoa
One celled organsims of the Kingdom Proista, most are unicellular, although some are colonial.
Protozoology
Science that deals with the study of protozoa
Psychrophile
Bacteria that PREFERS COLD, thriving at temperatures between 0C and 25 C
Rickettsia
A genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracellular parasitic bacteria.
Secondary Infection
Infection CAUSED by a DIFFERENT ORGANISM than the one causing the primary infection.
Septicemia
condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in the blood.
Sporadic
A disease which occurs occassionally or in scattered instances
Staphylococcus
A genus of gram-positive, non motile, opportunistic bacteria which tends to aggregate irregular, grape-like clusters.
Sterilization
Process of COMPLETELY REMOVING or DESTROYING all life forms or thEIr products on or in a substance
Streptobacilli
A genus of bacteria containing gram-negative RODS, which form a CHAIN LIKE colony
strepto cocci
gram positive cocci that occurs in chains
Aerobe
A microbe that can only live in the presence of oxygen
Anarobe
a microbe that can ohnly survive in an area WITHOUT O2 present.
Parasite
A parasite that is COMPLETELY DEPENDANT on its living host for survival.
Saphrophyte
An organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter
Symbiosis
the living together in close association of different species
Synergism
the HARMONIOUS ACTION of 2 MICROORGS producing an effect that neither could produce alone
Thermophile
bacteria that thrives best at HIGH temperatures, between 40C and 70C
Toxemia
BLOOD DISTRIBUTION THROUGHOUT THE BODY of poisonous products of bacteria growing in a focal or local site, thus producing generalized symptoms
Toxin
A POISONOUS SUBSTANCE, oF plant, animal, bacterial or fungal origin
True Pathogen
A real or genuine disease producing organism
Viricide
An agent destructive to viruses
ViroloGy
The study of viruses and viral disease
Virualen
Relative power and DEGREE of PATHOGENICITY possessed by organisms to produce disease
Virus
An intracellular, infectious parasite, capable of living and reproducing only in living cells.