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Mutual opposition or contrary action. The INHIBITION of one bacteria by another.


(Immunoglobulin) A glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with an antigen.


(Immunogen) A foreign substance that STIMULATES the FORMATION OF ANTIBODIES that interact specifically with it.


The PREVENTION of SEPSIS by preventing or inhibiting the growth of causative microorganisms


DILUTION / WEAKENING of virulence of a microorganism, reducing or abolishing pathogenicity.

Autotrophic Bacteria

SELF NOURISHING bacteria that are capable of growing in the absense of organs compounds. Organisms that obtain carbon from Carbon Dioxide


Rod shaped microorganism


A procaryotic one celled microorganism of the Kingdom Monera, existing as a free living organisms or as parasites, multiplying by binary fission and having a large range of biochemical properties

Bacterial Colony

A visible GROUP of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism


An agent that destroys bacteria BUT NOT necessarily their SPORES


Science that studies bacteria

Binary Fission

A method of asexual reproduction in bacteria in which the cell splits into two parts, each of which develops into a complete individual.

Biological Vector

An arthropod vector in which the disease causing organism multiplies or develops WITHIN the arthropod prior to becoming infective for a susceptible individual.


a large group of non motile gram negative intracellular parasites


A type of bacteria that is SPHERICAL or OVOID in form


The symbiotic relationship of 2 organisms of different species in which ONE GAINS SOME BENEFIT, such as protection or nourishment.


A disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another.


The act of INTRODUCING DISEASE germs or INFECTIOUS MATERIAL into an area or substance


A DOUBLE BACILLUS, two being linked end to end to each other


A genus of bacteria that are gram positive organisms occuring in PAIRS. Also called Streptococcus.


A chemical or physical agent that KILLS DISEASE-CAUSING microorganisms - generally used on INANIMATE OBJECTS


The DESTRUCTION of INFECTIOUS AGENTS by chemical or physical means directly applied to an inanimate object

Drug Fast

Resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of a drugs/drugs


Disease that occurs continuously in a particular region but has LOW MORTALITY

Endogenous Infection

PRODUCED or arising from WITHIN a cell or organism


bacterial toxin CONFINED within the body of a bacterium. Freed only when the bacterium is broken down. Found only in gram negative bacteria


appearance of an infectious disease or condition that attacks MANY PEOPLE /SAME TIME /SAME GEOGRAPHICAL AREA

Exogenous Infections

Orginating OUTSIDE an organ or part.

Facultative Bacteria

Having the ability to do something that is not compulsory, in particular having the ability to live or ADAPT to certain conditions

Focal Infection

one in which the organisms are originally confined to one area but enter the blood or lymph vessel and SPREAD to other parts of the body.,


Any INANIMATE OBJECT to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted


A group of diverse and widespread unicellular & multi cellular organisms, lacking cholorphyll, usually BEARING SPORES, and often filamentous


An agent that kills fungi and their spores

General Infection

An infection that becomes systemic


A substance that DESTROYS microorganisms

Heterotrophic Bacteria

An organism that REQUIRES COMPLEX ORGANIC FOOD from a carbon source in order to grown and develop.

Indigenous Flora

Plant life occurring or adapted for living in a specific environment


the state or condition in which the body or a part of it are INVADEd by a pathogenic agent that - favorable conditions; MULTIPLIES and produces injurious effects (REACTION).

Local Infection

Infection caused by germs lodging and multiplying AT 1 POINT IN A TISSUE, and remaining there (one area)

Maximum Temperature

Temperature ABOVE which bacterial growth will not take place

Mechanical Vector

A living organism or an object that is capable of transmitting infections by CARRYING DISEASED AGENT on its EXTERNAL BODY PARTS/ SURFACE


Bacteria that prefers moderate temperature and develops best at temperaturees between 25C and 40C


A microorganism that requires very little free oxygen


Scientific study of microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms.

Minimum Temperature

Temperature BELOW WHICH bacterial growth will NOT take place

Mixed Infection

Infection caused by 2 or more organisms


a relationship in which organisms of 2 different species live in close associations to the MUTUAL BENEFIT of each other.


the branch of science concerned with fungi


Bacteria of the Mycoplasma genus that are found in humans and most have no cell wall. It is the smallest free-living organisms presently known, being intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria


An organism that exists as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain circumstances

Optimum Temperature

Temperature at which an organism grows best

Osmotic Pressure

PRESSURE that develops when two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a SEMI PERMEABLE MEMBRANE


A disease affecting the majority of the population of a large region or one that is epidemic at the same time in many different parts of the world.


An interactive relationship between 2 organisms in which ONE IS HARMED and THE OTHER BENEFITS


The state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease

Primary Infection

An ORIGINAL INFECTION from which a second one orginates


A small proteinaceous infectious particle that is RESISTANT to most procedures that MODIFY NUCLEIC ACID


One celled organsims of the Kingdom Proista, most are unicellular, although some are colonial.


Science that deals with the study of protozoa


Bacteria that PREFERS COLD, thriving at temperatures between 0C and 25 C


A genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracellular parasitic bacteria.

Secondary Infection

Infection CAUSED by a DIFFERENT ORGANISM than the one causing the primary infection.


condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in the blood.


A disease which occurs occassionally or in scattered instances


A genus of gram-positive, non motile, opportunistic bacteria which tends to aggregate irregular, grape-like clusters.


Process of COMPLETELY REMOVING or DESTROYING all life forms or thEIr products on or in a substance


A genus of bacteria containing gram-negative RODS, which form a CHAIN LIKE colony

strepto cocci

gram positive cocci that occurs in chains


A microbe that can only live in the presence of oxygen


a microbe that can ohnly survive in an area WITHOUT O2 present.


A parasite that is COMPLETELY DEPENDANT on its living host for survival.


An organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter


the living together in close association of different species


the HARMONIOUS ACTION of 2 MICROORGS producing an effect that neither could produce alone


bacteria that thrives best at HIGH temperatures, between 40C and 70C


BLOOD DISTRIBUTION THROUGHOUT THE BODY of poisonous products of bacteria growing in a focal or local site, thus producing generalized symptoms


A POISONOUS SUBSTANCE, oF plant, animal, bacterial or fungal origin

True Pathogen

A real or genuine disease producing organism


An agent destructive to viruses


The study of viruses and viral disease


Relative power and DEGREE of PATHOGENICITY possessed by organisms to produce disease


An intracellular, infectious parasite, capable of living and reproducing only in living cells.

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