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Chapter 6 Electricity (Esthetics)

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Electricity
form of energy that produces light, heat, magnetic and chemical reactions.
Electric Current
(modality) the flow of electricity along a conductor
Conductor
a material that allows electricity to flow through it
Insulator
a material that does not allow electricity to flow through
Load
term for any electrically powered appliance
Amp
unit of electrical strength
volt
unit of electrical pressure
ohm
unit of electrical resistance
watt
measure of electrical energy being used
electrotherapy
application of electrical currents during treatments to the skin
electrons
tiny, negatively charged particles
direct current
(DC) constant current in which electrons move at an even rate and flow in 1 direction
hertz rating
the number of cycles per secon that a generator alternates current
alternating current
(AC) a rapid oscillating cycle that alternates back and forth.
frequency
the number of times the cycling of an alternating current occurs per second
converter
changes DC to AC
rectifier
changes AC to DC
generator
a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy
amp rating
indicates the number of electrons flowing through a particular line
milliampere
1/1000th of an amp
milliamperemeter
the instrument used to measure the electrical current used in skin care equipment
ohm's rating
the resistance to the motion of the electrons through a conductor
kilowatt
1,000 watts
kilowatt hours
measures the rate at which energy is used
Underwriter's Laboratory
found on the back of an appliance, certifies that appliance has been rated to work safely under written conditions
closed path
(circuit) path is closed, allowing electricity to flow through
open path
path is broken, does not allow electricity to flow
rheostat
indicates the amount of current flowing through the equipment and regulates the amount with a knob or dial
overload
occurs when too many devices are operated on the same circuit at one time. (operation fails)
short circuit
occurs when a conductor comes into contact with a wire carrying current to a load
power box
carefully insulated location where the electric current enters a building from a generator or power plant
fuse
a safety device that prevents electrical wires from overheating. wire inside melts when overload occurs
circuit breaker
safety device that breaks the flow of current when an overload occurs. 2 pieces of metal separate when overloaded
grounding wire
3 wire system, round prong is the grounding prong- connects directly to the ground below building
polarized plug
2 prong plug,
electrical shock
human contact with an electrical current; can be anywhere from mild shock-electrocution
local shock
passes through a small part of the body, cause burns and muscle contraction. may be severe
general shock
(electrocution) passes through the nervous system, causes the heart to stop, breathing to cease and muscle to convulse
GFCI
ground fault circuit interruptor; senses current leakage in an electrical circuit, will interrupt power if there is contact with H20
electrotherapy treatments
facial treatment that requires the use of electricity
galvanic current
(ionization) constant direct current, low voltage, high amperage. Produces an electrochemical effect.
phoresis
the process of forcing a water-based solution into the skin by applying galvanic current
anaphoresis
alkaline solution pushed into the skin by - pole
desincrustation
treatment that breaks down blockages in the skin
cataphoresis
acidic solution is pushed into the skin by + pole
iontophoresis
treatment in which the deeper layers of the epidermis are built up and nourished
poles
charged ends of magnets
polarity
having opposite poles in an electric current
electrodes
negative or positive charged poles that attract or repel particles in treatment solutions
cathode
negatively charged electrode
anode
positively charged electrode
High Frequency
Tesla current, alternating current that can be adjusted to different voltages to produce heat.
Argon
Violet ray (High Frequency)-used on acneic lesion
Neon
Orange ray (High Frequency)-used on normal to oily skin to create warmth for product penetration and increase circulation
Sparking
spark gap, lifting the electrode from the skin to create a more powerful ozone *can cause damage
Direct High Frequency
holds the electrode directly on the face, produces ozone to create germicidal effect
Indirect High Frequency
client holds electrode and esthetician gently massages the face. (Viennese Massage)
Faradic Current
an alternating current that is interrupted to produce a mechanical, non-chemical reaction, passive form of exercise
Direct Faradic
esthetician places both electrodes on the client's skin, passes both electrodes over skin, NEVER touching electrodes together.
Indirect Faradic
esthetician wears a wrist band electrode and client holds second electrode, massage focused mainly on motor points
sinusoidal current
alternating current that produces a mechanical effect, penetrates deeper than faradic. Used on prematurely aging skin
Light Therapy
use of light rays or waves to create a beneficial effect on skin
Electromagnetic radiation
heat energy is transferred by radiation, electrons move in wavelike patterns
wavelength
the measurement of crest to crest in a wavelength
short=more energy long=less energy
electromagnetic spectrum
range of all wavelengths that can be produced by radiant energy
visible light
what humans can see
white light
a combination light, broken down by prism
prism
a 3 sided glass object that breaks white light into individual wavelengths
fluorescent light
long lasting economical light source. creates blue or cool tones
incandescent light
ordinary light bulb, creates red or warm tones
invisible light
range of light not visible to the human eye
infrared rays (IR)
slightly longer wavelength than visible rays, produce heat, penetrate all layers of the skin, affecting muscle, bone, nerves and joints
ultraviolet rays (UV)
slightly shorter wavelength than visible rays, produce - and + effects, healing, Vit D, germicidal, aging, cancer
UVC
little effect on skin
UVB
burning rays, penetrate to lower layers of skin and stimulate melanin
UVA
aging rays, penetrate to dermis destroying collagen and elastin
wax heating unit
heat wax for hair removal
hot towel cabinet
keep towels warm and moist
paraffin heating units
heat parafin wax for use in hand and body treatments
electronic mittens or booties
used to aid penetration of product into hands or feet
electric masque
creates warm moist heat to aid in product penetration on face
microdermabrasion machine
aggressive exfoliation of the epidermis
rotating brush machine
superficially exfoliates the epidermis
electric pulverizer spray
aka Dr. Lucas Spray, atomizes products to be used on skin
spray machine
aids in application of liquid facial products
suction machine
creates a vacuum on the skin to aid in deeper pore cleansing, by drawing dirt, sebum and impurites out
facial steamer
supplies warm vapor to client's skin, aids in cleansing, exfoliating, stimulates sebum production
skin scope
eleaborate magnifying mirror/light that allows client and esthetician to see what is happening under skin. uses a black light
wood's lamp
uses black light and magnification to colorize areas of skin conditions
magnifying lamp
provides light and magnification for better skin analysis
thermal/heating effects
creates heat due to friction
conduction
transfer of heat via direct contact
convection
transfer of heat via liquid or gas
radiation
transfer of heat through a vacuum
electrochemical effects
electrical current travels through a water based solution and onto the body. produces relaxationor stimulating effects.