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Terms in this set (98)
The part of quality management focused on providing confidence that quality requirements will be fulfilled.
Define Quality Assurance
The part of quality management focused on fulfilling quality requirements.
Define Quality Control
Center for Devices and Radiological Health
Provides information to help industry comply with FDA regulations.
Center for Devices and Radiological Health:
Food and Drug Administration.
The largest hospital accreditation agency.
Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare.
JCAHO stands for:
Hospital Accreditation, ISO 9001
The act was enacted in response to a growing concern over radiation exposure from consumer electronic products in 1968.
Radiation Control and Safety Act:
provide for the establishment of minimum standards by the federal government for accreditation of education programs for persons who administer radiologic procedures and for the certification of such procedure since 1981.
Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety Act
It gives the FDA the legal authority to directly regulate the use of medical devices in health care facilities since 1990.
Safe Medical Devices Act
must undergo a MQSA inspection every 3 years.
Mammography Quality Standards Act
Process that provides quality images and services.
Medical, technical, or management in nature.
Identifies, monitors, and resolves problems.
What is required in quality assurance?
Identification of imaging requirements.
Selection of equipment.
Development of equipment specifications.
Installation and testing of equipment.
What are the 5 requirements to purchasing equipment?
Team input on "Will this piece of equipment meet your requirements?" Consists of radiologist, administrators, supervisors, in-house services, and staff technologists.
Identification of imaging requirements needs:
Ability to meet required specifications.
Selection of equipment must include:
Does it have a high speed starter?
50kW or over ratings?
Development of equipment specifications:
Must have Physicists perform Q&A and test applications.
Installation and testing of equipment are responsibilities of:
Quality assurance program:
Risk evaluation policy.
Construct trending reports for spotting reoccurring issues.
Track major & minor event mechanism (All incident reports must be reported to state and federal levels).
Monitoring equipment performance must establish:
Monitoring equipment performance must be done by a:
can be performed by anyone trained on the equipment used.
How often is processor sensitometry is performed?
Focal Spot size estimation. none
Angulator or protractor accuracy. none
Half-value layer. annual
kVp accuracy. semi-annual
Timer accuracy. semi-annual
mR/mAs linearity and producibility. semi-annual
Exposure reproducibility. semi-annual
Distance and centering indicators accuracy. quarterly
CR/DR Plate. quarterly
Quality assurance semi-annual schedule includes:
emit more luminescence than diagnostic x-ray film boxes.
Mammography view boxes
Has 3 test tools:
1) Line pair
2) Star test
Focal spot size test
Focal spot size estimation's important for:
focal spot size also increases.
As focal spot use increases,
+/- 1% tolerance
evaluated using a larger test tool.
Angulator/Protractor Accuracy test tool can be:
+/- 5 kVp tolerance
* below 100kV = /- 3
* above 100 kV = +/- 6
Computerize kV/dose meter
Kilovoltage Accuracy test tool
+/- 5 %
Timer accuracy for single phase
Motorized spinning top
Timer accuracy for three phase
Measured by using dosimetry equipment to determine amount of filtration that will reduce beam intensity to one-half of it's original value.
Half-Value Layer Testing (beam quality)
Computerized vK/dose meter.
Half-Value Layer test tools
The sum of added and inherit filtration is greater then ___ for three phase 80 kVp.
The sum of added and inherit filtration is greater then ___ for single phase at 80 kVp.
mA(mAs) station accuracy is confirmed by mR/mAs measurement.
mR/mAs linearity limit**
+/- 5% or coefficient of .5
Exposure timer tolerance/producibility**
3% in one direction but not greater than 4% in both directions of the SID.
What the acceptable limit for collimator accuracy (PBL)
can be no greater than 3% of the SID
Primary beam alignment
Light field and x-ray beam congruence crucial +/- 3% of SID allowance in sum of both directions
Collimator and Bucky tray Accuracy
Film sensitometer is tested ___.
1% allowance. No greater than 2%.
Central ray Accuracy
Testing involving jitter, contrast resolution, relative sensitivity, shading corrections, image noise, and artifact checks pertain to ___ ___ and are tested _____.
CR testing, quarterly.
Testing that involves cut accuracy/thickness, smoothness/degree, mesh resolution, all pertain to _____ _____ and are tested _____-_____.
Testing that involves PBL, central ray (beam alignment), light to radiation field coincidence, size indicators, lamp brightness, SID accuracy all pertain to _____ _____ and are tested _____.
Collimator testing, quarterly
Testing that involves resolution, focal spot size, contrast, dose rates, PBL, automatic brightness system all pertain to _____ _____ and are tested _____-_____.
Fluoroscopic testing, semi-annual.
Testing that involve mR/mAs, focal spot size, estimated skin exposures, kVp/timer/AEC reproducibility and accuracy tests all pertain to _____ _____ and are tested _____-_____.
Radiographic testing, semi-annually.
Light to radiation field template.
Beam Alignment test tool.
Collimator, Central Ray, and Bucky tray Accuracy test tool
+/- 10%, but no greater than 2% of the selected SID
Distance and Centering Indicators
Distance and Centering Indicators test tool
+/- 2% of the center of the image to the center of the plate
Centering indicator (alignment)
Image plate or film cassette
Centering indicator alignment test tool
In fluoroscopic systems, the source-to-skin distance limit for a mobile fluro unit is ___ inches for measuring exposure rate.
Field size accuracy and beam alignment.
Fluoroscopic systems measures
Fluoroscopic systems automated brightness controls uses ___ and ___.
AVC and AVS.
Uniformity and completeness of motion, section depth indicator accuracy, section thickness accuracy, resolution.
Tomographic systems measure
Lead mask with pinhole.
Thickness and accuracy tool.
Tomographic systems test tools for resolution
Monitors must be cleaned _____.
Radiograph monitors must have a luminance of ratio of ___ or greater.
Mammography monitors must have a luminance of ratio of ___ or greater.
CR testing uses ___ testing.
_____ (_____) is a system of computer software standards that permits a wide range of digital imaging programs to understand one another. Permits the interfacing of diverse systems so they can all share the same computer network and software filing system w/o conflict.
DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine)
PACS is a picture archival and communication system networked group of computers, servers, and archives that can be used to manage digital images.
What is the definition of "Picture Archiving and Communication System" (PACS)?
How often is collimation tested?
How often are dose related tests tested?
Federal requires testing to be performed annually.
How often are focal spot size tested?
As focal spot size increases, spatial resolution ___.
CR speed is ___.
DR speed is ___ and less dose than CR.
Concentration dose for fluoroscopy::
normal ___, Max 10, highest ___.
CR cassettes should be checked _____.
Used to convert grey scale values from the imaging system into the grey scale values for the display.
LUT (look up table)
the most common phosphors for the CR is _____.
barium fluorohalide bromides and iodides with europium activators
An electronic circuit within the x-ray machine that automatically terminates the exposure time when a predetermined quantity of x-rays has been detected.
automatic exposure control (AEC)
A manually set time that insures that an exposure will be terminated should the automatic exposure control fail.
a graphical representation of pixel values - generated from the image data that allows the CR system to find the useful signal by locating the minimum and maximum signal within the anatomical regions of interest in the image.
corresponds to the specific anatomy and technique used for an exam.
Shape of a histogram
The _-___ represent the (image before the edge detection and rescaling) amount of exposure.
The _-___ represents the incidence of pixels for each exposure level.
a graph of the exposure received to the pixel elements and the prevalence of the exposure within the image.
provides a method of altering the image to change the display of the digital image in various ways, altering brightness and grayscale of the digital image.
Look Up Table
Relationship between window level and image brightness is _____.
Window width is a control that adjust radiographic _____.
Window width and image contrast have an _____ relationship.
inverse (wide window width = low contras. narrow window width = high contrast).
a.) Aperture diaphragm
b.) Cones & Cylinders
d.) Positive Beam Limiting Device (PBL)
What are the types of beam limiting devices?
automatic collimation system used on diagnostic xray units
positive beam limitation (PBL)
What test is this: a lead marker is placed for each corner of the light beam plus crosshairs, or a lead marker, placed several centimeters above the cassette's surface, for the CR?
The collimator test tool.
Exposure time settings should be maintained within _______ of the label.
The aspect of quality assurance that monitors technical equipment to maintain quality standards.
Quality control is
Distance indicators should be ___, If not within these limits, it should be adjusted.
During a Half-Value Layer test, a radiation measuring device, such as a _____, is used to measure both the radiation _____ and original exposure.
For equipment operating over 70 kVp, the required minimum total filtration should be at least ___ mm.
Normal HVL of general diagnostic beams are ___-___ mm Aluminum.
_____ _____: low-energy photons, created during x-ray production, are unable to penetrate patient. Patients are protected from unnecessary exposure from low-energy radiation by the placement of inherent and added filtration in the path of the x-ray beam.
___ ______ verifies the consistency of radiation intensity for changes in mA or exposure time with constant mAs. The maximum variability is +/- ___.
mAs reciprocity, 10%
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