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MIDDLE ADULT HOOD PSYCH
Terms in this set (34)
At age 60, Sanda begins to be more aware of her sarcopenia, which she hopes to postpone with frequent exercise. What is sarcopenia?
the general loss of mass and function as part of the aging process.
________ describes the experience of men during the climacteric.
Saaeda notices that her eyesight is not quite as sharp as it used to be. This is caused by a slight weakening of the muscle around her eyes as she is gets into her fifties. This is known as
There is now increasing evidence about the harmful effects of chronic inflammation in general. It is implicated in a whole series of degenerative illnesses. What diet is recommended in helping to avoid this?
The Mediterranaean Diet
What are personal control beliefs?
The idea that the individual can dictate outcomes in a specific situation.
Fluid intelligence is concerned with the cognitive mechanics of the human mind; Crystallized intelligence with the skills and experience acquired over a period of time. Nunes & Kramer (2009) compared older and younger air traffic controllers in Canada. They found a significant difference between information processing speeds in tasks unrelated to their occupation which favored the younger group. However, with regard to cognitive tasks related to the job, the results were largely identical. How did they explain this?
It's a trade-off, with crystallized intelligence gained from experience compensating for a decline in information processing speeds
Crystallized intelligence is knowledge accumulated over a period of time. It can be acquired via experience, professional and personal, travel, reading and education. It is usually culturally based and can be the result of both choice and personal circumstances. It is sometimes described as cognitive pragmatics and opposed to the cognitive processing of fluid intelligence. It is usually measured by
vocabulary tests, interpretation of texts.
Ramscar et al, (2014) did research to find that a decline in information processing speed is not necessarily indicative of a decline in cognitive capability. They do not deny that older adults take longer to process information in the manner indicated by the tests, only that this is the result because
the same cognitive mechanism processing different quantities of information.
Exactly when fluid intelligence begins to decrease is an object of some debate in the academic literature. Some date it from the late 20s, others somewhat later, around the mid 40s. There are of course differences between individual persons. Assuming Jim is in his late 50s, what kind of cognitive information will he likely process in slower fashion that when he was 20?
new or novel information
David is retiring from the company after thirty years. His boss, Sandra, is worried that the person she is training to replace him may not be able to. She has shown him all the systems, and introduced him to customers and clients. The new person is proficient in all of those systems (more so probably than David), and he is extremely personable. "Why am I so worried?" wonders Sandra. The answer has something to do with tacit knowledge, which is ________.
knowledge which cannot be codified, transferred in a written form, or even properly verbalized, and, therefore, difficult to transfer.
Socio-emotional selectivity theory (SST) states that our goals and priorities usually change in midlife. Rather than long term goals, we become more concerned with life-satisfaction in the present. This in linked to a belief that
future time is limited.
Ghislieri and Gatti (2012) identify "generative leadership" and "intergenerational transfer" as key to the future economic success of countries like Italy. What is generative leadership?
the passing of entrepreneurial and organizational skills to a future generation
Levinson developed the "stage crisis view", similar to Erikson's concept of crisis in many ways. What is the key difference with regard to midlife ?
Levinson proposed a wider set of influential factors, work, family, but also religion, ethnicity, socio-economic status, which may induce a "crisis" at this time of life.
According to Erikson, middle adulthood should be associated with which of the following qualities or virtues?
care for others
Paula's children have moved out of the house and she now has two young grandchildren. She finds herself often thinking about how she can pass on her legacy to them and decides to be more involved in their lives, as well as in the community. Paula's behavior coincides with how John Kotre (1984) defined generativity as a ________.
form of investment.
A person's subjective age can change on a
Levinson believed that social identity was marked by quite pronounced differences in terms of gender. He believed that the "female dream," was subject to a fundamental dichotomy which made for often difficult choices. What was that dichotomy?
work/occupation and marriage/family
A midlife adult who is struggling with generativity would be described as someone experiencing stagnation. How might this be described?
An absence of involvement, inclusivity, and concern for others.
Over the past 25 years, the divorce rate for people over 50 has doubled, and tripled for those over 60, yet Cohen (2018) predicts a fall in divorce rates due to ________ .
increases in educational attainment and the fact that "baby boomers" are simply a divorce prone cohort.
David Olson and Blaine Fowers (1993) found that only around 1 in 10 marriages could be awarded the highest score for overall relationship quality. He described these as vitalized marriages. They were described as being based on a high level of self-disclosure, expression of sentiment, shared beliefs, religious and secular, and
higher income levels
Clark and Lois have a generally happy marriage but also have some conflicts in their marriage that they argue about on a weekly, sometimes daily basis. Clark's spontaneous absences, Lois' intense work schedule, and insecurities that are unlikely to change are what John Gottman would call ________.
The decline in relationship satisfaction over time has been explained as "a return to a hedonic set-point". How is the latter understood?
The idea that people have a baseline of personal happiness that is largely set by personality traits, and that they will return to this baseline regardless of positive and negative events in their life.
Significantly more men repartner after "gray divorce"—22% of women and 37% of men. Women live longer than men, but this would not account for this difference in ratio. What two reasons are given to describe this large numerical difference?
Men prefer to repartner with younger women, older women often prefer to retain their autonomy at this age and are unwilling to to adopt another caring role.
The University of California in its report on the "sandwich generation" (2014) reckoned that federal and state services, hospitals and social workers, and primary physicians provided less than 20% of total care for the long-term sick and disabled. What makes up the remaining 80%?
Family members, primarily women, often perform a valuable function in keeping other family members informed about the well-being of other family members. This creating, maintaining and monitoring function informs other family members when others need emotional and physical support. This has come to be known in the academic literature as ________.
Papernow (2018) claims that reconstituted families after a "gray divorce" with adult children may encounter more difficulties blending together than younger parents/step-parents with younger children. What is a contributing factor for this?
Relationships, and previously patterns of interaction have formed over a longer period of time
An increase in subjective well-being was linked to what social living arrangement?
The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) put the number of men who will get a bone fracture at over age 50 to be around
In his late 50s, Harrison begins feeling cramps in his stomach, fatigue, and generally sick. He feels this way for over a year before finally going to the doctor, where is likely diagnosed with
Zacher et al (2012) identified one particular factor (first identified by Erik Erikson) as key in motivating older adults to continue working. What is this factor?
Which is the best definition of the "sandwich generation"?
a cohort of adults who face competing demands from aging parents and adult (or younger) children
During middle adulthood, declines in information processing speed, can be compensated by increases in
Jamaal is 63 years old and becoming increasingly aware of his own sarcopenia, or ________.
the loss of muscle mass and function as part of the aging process
If socioemotional selectivity theory is based on the perception of time left, then Baltes SOC theory of "successful aging" is based on
The inner resources and drive of the individual choosing options and confronting circumstances.
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