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AWH Chapter 4
Terms in this set (45)
The Hyksos were foreign people who conquered Egypt around 1640 BC, until they were driven out by Thutmose I. They were very important people, and they let the Egyptians continue many of their customs. The Hyksos created the chariot and the scimitar.
Why did Egypt fall to the Hyksos?
The Hyksos ruled Egypt from about 1640 to 1570 B.C. The Hyksos invasion shook the Egyptians' confidence in the desert barriers that had protected their kingdom. Also a succession of weak pharaohs and power struggles among rival nobles made Egypt a weak country.
How did the Kushites rule? What
contribution did Piankhi make
The Kushites were a people of
trade who adopted and protected the
Egyptian way of life. They saw themselves as better fit to rule Egypt than the Libyans. Their main aim was to guard Egyptian culture. With Piankhi as their king, the Kushites overthrew the Libyan dynasty that had ruled Egypt for more than 200 years. He united the Nile Valley and then created a monument in his homeland of Kush to celebrate his victory.
What was the relationship between Nubia and Egypt during the New Kingdom?
The Relationship between Nubia and Egypt during the new Kingdom was that Egypt had traded with them and influenced the region since the time of the Middle Kingdom.
Who invaded Egypt?
-Ruled Egypt from about 1640-1570 B.C.
How did Egypt lose power?
The Egyptians lost power by both the Egyptians and the Hittite kingdoms were attacked by the "Sea Peoples". After these invasions, Egypt never recovered its previous power. The Egyptian empire broke apart into regional units, and small kingdoms arose. Egypt soon fell to its neighbors' invasions. Eventually the Libyans crossed the desert to the Nile Delta.
How did the Kushites view Egyptian culture?
- Egyptian governors, priests, soldiers, and artists strongly influenced the Nubians
- Kushite princes went to Egypt and learned the Egyptian language and worshiped Egyptian gods
- They adopted the customs and clothing styles of the Egyptian upper class
- The Kusites preserved Egyptian values and guarded these values by conquering Egypt
What was Meroe and why was Meroe important?
Meroe was a Nubian city near the Red Sea that became a trading center between Africa, Arabia and India. The Kushite kings settled in the city of Meroë,
south of Egypt. Their kingdom entered a golden
age. The city played an important role in trade.
Meroë also became an important center for making iron weapons and tools.
Describe the Golden Age of Meroe.
Meroe was a major center for the manufacture of iron weapons and tools due to their abundant supplies of iron ore
Merchants loaded iron bars, tools, and spearheads onto their donkeys and transported the goods to the Red Sea. They then traded these goods for jewelry, fine cotton cloth, silver lamps, and glass bottles.
Who were the Assyrians? What dates are assigned to them?
The Assyrians lived in Assyria, which came to be in 850 BC. They acquired a large empire with very advanced military, and high tech weaponry. Thier capital, Nineveh, was burned and destroyed by the Chaldeans and Medes people. This then cause the downfall of the Assyrians in 612 BC.
What made the Assyrians such a strong fighting force?
The Assyrians had a strong, resourceful army who came up with innovative tactics and battle plans for war. They had special soldiers called sappers who dug tunnels to sap, or undermine, the foundations of the enemy's walls so they would fall down. The Assyrians also had advanced weapons. Some of their weapons included iron tipped spears, iron daggers, and swords. Additionally, they had armor and shields to protect themselves. They Assyrians were a merciless and a bit ruthless when it came to the treatment of their defeated enemies. Sometimes they impaled the enemies who had survived or beheaded them. The children and the women were either sold into slavery or were slaughtered. All of these things contributed to making the Assyrians an impeccable fighting force in ancient world history.
Who did the Assyrians conquer? How were the conquered people treated?
The Assyrians conquered Syria, Palestine, and Babylonia. If the conquered people refused to pay, their cities were destroyed and the people were sent into exile.
Describe the Assyrian method of governing.
Assyrians government management system included having local governors report to a central authority
Besides conquest, what else did the Assyrians contribute?
The Assyrians had one of the first libraries.
The Assyrians also had the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, which are one of the seven wonders of the world.
With the Assyrians conquest, they were able to make many more trade routes.
This picture is of a tablet that was
found in the library in Nineveh.
Why did the Assyrians fall?
The cruelty displayed by the Assyrians had earned them many enemies such as the Medes and the Chaldeans. Together, the Medes and the Chaldeans brought the downfall of the Assyrians.
Describe the "Hanging Gardens"
A Chaldean king named Nebuchadnezzer restored the city, and the most impressive part was the hanging gardens. They are one of the seven wonders of the world. According to legend one of Nebuchadnezzer's wives missed her home, so he had trees and flowers planted on terraces 75 feet above Babylon's dry, flat plain.
In what ways were King Ashurbanipal and King Nebuchadnezzar similar?
Both King Nebuchadnezzar and King Ashurbanipal did things to that restored or ipal gave information to modern archaeologists. King Nebuchadnezzar built one of the seven ancient wonders of the world. On the other hand, King Ashurbancollected more than 20,000 clay tablets from around the fertile crescent which gave archaeologists valuable information about the region
How would growing prosperity among Persia's neighbors help Persia?
It would give opportunity for Persia to trade with near-by neighbors.
It might also give opportunity for Persia to conquer more land.
What are some reasons for a powerful ruler to show tolerance or compassion?
A powerful ruler may want to show compassion so they were popular with their people, and had very few enemies. Also, a ruler who believes in some sort of afterlife would not want to be punished after they have died for actions they committed while still living. If other lands saw they were nice to their people, they may want to trade more with that area or city.
How did Cyrus treat the people he conquered?
Cyrus's kindness toward conquered peoples revealed a wise and tolerant view of empire.
When Cyrus's army marched into a city, his generals prevented Persian soldiers from looting and burning. Cyrus believed in local customs and religions.
What reasons may explain the revolts under Darius? Were these revolts justified?
King Darius helped conquer a lot of land for his empire, but he ruled with absolute power and authority. He also separated the empire into 20 provinces. One could justify these revolts with
the fact that the people wanted freedom and rights. However, he was responsible for a lot of the Persian Empire's size and growth.
What methods and tools did Darius use to hold together his empire?
He appointed a satrap, a governor, who ruled locally
Also he appointed tax collectors and military leaders
Sent out inspectors as the "King's Eyes and Ears"
Darius had the Royal Road built, which allowed communication to become quicker and improved trading
Metal coins were a tool that was used that also improved trade because everyone was using the same currency
How would the Royal Road enable a ruler to maintain power in the empire?
It would allow rulers to communicate quickly with the distant parts of the empire.
What events led to the development of Zoroastrianism?
Cyrus founded the empire of Persia
Cambyses, Cyrus' son, expanded the empire
Darius, Cambyses' successor, gained power and expanded the empire and divided it into 20 provinces
Zoroaster was a Persian prophet who tried to answer the question, "Why should so much suffering and chaos exist in the world?"
Believed in life being a struggle between the spirit of good and evil and each person must participate in this struggle
What did Zoroaster teach?
Zoroaster was a Persian prophet who tried to answer this question: "Why should so much suffering and chaos exist in the world?" He taught that the earth is a battleground where struggle is fought between good and evil, and that each person should participate in this struggle. The god of Zoroaster was Ahura Mazda who judges how well each person fought in the battle for good.
a trained civil service, those who run the government & promoted equality in China
How did Confucius believe that social order, harmony and good government could be restored in China?
Confucius believed that social order, harmony, and good government could be restored by encouraging 5 basic relationships. These relationships were ruler to subject, father and son, husband and wife, older brother and younger brother, friend and friend.
What is filial piety?
Respect for Parents and ancestors (devoting oneself to one's parents during their lifetimes and honoring their memories after death by performing certain rituals
Why did Confucius believe in the importance of filial piety?
Confucius sought to reform Chinese society by using the values of social order, harmony and good government.
He made 3 of the 5 basic relationships about family.
- Father and Son
- Husband and Wife
- Older Brother and Younger Brother
Why wasn't Confucianism considered a religion?
Confucianism was an ethical system. It was based on the principles of right and wrong, and it became the foundation of the Chinese government.
a Chinese thinker that mentioned relations among all living things was important.
Daoism was the philosophy of Laozi that encouraged the search for knowledge and understanding of nature.
Daoists made contributions to alchemy, astronomy, and medicine.
Legalism was a form of government where people believed the emperor should give great rewards to people who obeyed the laws and harsh punishments for those who broke the rules.
What were the Analects? What was I Ching? How are they similar?
The analects was a book of the teachings of Confucius written by his students. The I Ching is a collection of all the changes. Confucius was a big fan of of the I ching and used it in his teachings
What Dynasty ruled from 221 BC - 202 BC? Who was the emperor? What ethical system did he use to rule?
The Qin Dynasty
Emperor: Shi Huangdi
Ethical System: His idea of running things was known as Legalism. Legalists followed and kept all rules and were strict on the laws.
What methods did Shi Huangdi take to crush political opposition?
Shi Huangdi stopped internal battles in China and destroyed opposition within China. He took 120,000 noble families and had them move into the palace so he could watch over them, seizing their land. He was a sort-of control freak, and made China into 36 administrative districts. He also burned books that disagreed with his Legalist beliefs, and even had his Legalist advisor kill hundreds of Confucian scholars.
Why did Shi Huangdi have these terra cotta soldiers created?
Shi Haungdi had these terra cotta soldiers created becuase he wanted protection in his future life. He wanted his army to be big enough and strong enough to defeat anyone, or anything that came their way.
Discuss the reasons why the Great Wall was built. Comment on its grandeur.
The Great Wall of China closed the gaps between walls and extended the wall to the empire's border.
Would a ruler who followed Confucian or Daoist ideas have built the Great Wall ? Why or Why not?
Probably not because the Confucian and Daoist would of wanted to share more ideas with more people, not close ideas off from other people with a Great Wall sealing them off from the outside world.
Insert an image of yin and yang. Explain its meaning
yang:warm,bright,hard, and clear
Ying and yang represent the natural rhythm of life
Religions and ethical systems in Persia and China arose in response to what similar conditions?
Religions and ethical systems in Persia and China arose because of expansion.
Some examples of the religions are Daoism, Legalism, Zoroastrian, and Confucianism(bureaucracy)
How might Sennacherib's and Cyrus's contrasting ruling styles probably affected their legacies?
Because Sennacherib was a ruthless ruler, he may not have a very good legacy, whereas Cyrus does have a good legacy because he was so kind and respectful to his people.
Egypt and Nubia
Two empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forged commercial, cultural and political connections.
Assyria developed a military machine and a well-organized administration.
By governing with tolerance and wisdom, the Persians established a well-organized empire that lasted 200 years.
The social disorder of the warring states contributed to the development of three Chinese ethical systems.