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32 terms

APWH Part 9

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Martin Luther
protested sale of indulgences, wrote Ninety-Five theses
Protestant Reformation
Began with Martin Luther's protest with indulgences
John Calvin
established a theocratic community in the Swiss city of Geneva, preached an even more intense version of protestantism, popular in France
Church of England(Anglican Church)
Henry VIII declared his country to be Protestant because he was a little bitch, and wanted revenge
Catholic-Counter Reformation
Council of Trent, sponsored art and architecture
1520s - 1640s Europe
Europe was plagued by a series of religious wars, as papacy and Catholic monarchs attempted to halt the Protestant tide
Nation-States
Solid political units with fixed borders, a sense of national unity, and mostly homogeneous population in terms of language and ethnicity.
Bureaucracies
tax - collecting bodies, central banks, general staffs, admiralties
Absolute Monarchy
no legal limitations to the monarch's power, justified by law of divine right
Louis XIV
the Sun King, created a highly centralized bureaucracy and national economy, broke the power of the aristocracy and made it his bitch, illustrated the strength and weaknesses of absolute monarchy
Siege of Vienna
Turks nearly destroyed Austria but were turned back
Frederick the Great
a great general as well as a skilled ruler, one of the most effective monarchs of his time, greater dictatorship and decreased freedoms
Peter the Great
centralized political power, forced rapid Western Style modernization on Russia, changed Russia's geopolitical orientation, more European in nature
Northern Renaissance
Europe's level of intelligence rose during these years, William Shakesphere was around during this time in England
Baroque
Cultural style that followed the Renaissance, dominated painting and architecture from early 1600's through early 1700's
Nicolaus Copernicus
began to cross important scientific boundaries, provided mathematical proof for the heliocentric theory
Heliocentric Theory
earth and the planets revolve around the sun
Scientific Revolution
Rene Descartes, Roger Bacon laid groundwork for modern formal logic and revitalized the ancient concept of the scientific method
Galileo
confirmed and popularized Copernicus' theories, ran afoul with the Catholic Church
Issac Newton
represents the Scientific Revolution at its peak, famous for the laws of motion, his thoughts on the concept of gravity, and his role in inventing the mathematical system of calculus.
Age or Reason(Enlightenment)
1700's in Europe when everybody was discovering new ****
Mary Wollstonecraft
important woman that played a significant role in the Enlightenment, considered founder of modern European feminism, wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women, insisted that women possessed reason and were entitled to equal rights
Voltaire
most prominent Enlightenment philosophers, shared a faith in order and logic, believed that government should be rationally organized and fairly regulated, freedom of speech and religion,opposed organized rebellion as a flawed human institution
Adam Smith
made a case for supporting capitalism, Scottish economist
proto- industrialization
immediate precursor to the Industrial Revolution, early uses of machinery and factories
Henry the Navigator
began the Portuguese's age of exploration, tried to find a sea route to India and the Far East
Lines of Demarcation
pope gave jurisdiction over most of South America and all of North America to the Spanish, while the Portuguese got Brazil
Ferdinand Magellan
led an expedition that tied together all of Spain's and Portugal's previous efforts, circumnavigated the world
Francisco Pizarro
destroyed Incan Empire
Dutch East India Company
Dutch formed this company to manage their colonies
British East India Company
founded to manage economic and military relations with South and SE Asia
Gunpowder Empires
new states that were created due to their steez and status