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Martin Luther

protested sale of indulgences, wrote Ninety-Five theses

Protestant Reformation

Began with Martin Luther's protest with indulgences

John Calvin

established a theocratic community in the Swiss city of Geneva, preached an even more intense version of protestantism, popular in France

Church of England(Anglican Church)

Henry VIII declared his country to be Protestant because he was a little bitch, and wanted revenge

Catholic-Counter Reformation

Council of Trent, sponsored art and architecture

1520s - 1640s Europe

Europe was plagued by a series of religious wars, as papacy and Catholic monarchs attempted to halt the Protestant tide


Solid political units with fixed borders, a sense of national unity, and mostly homogeneous population in terms of language and ethnicity.


tax - collecting bodies, central banks, general staffs, admiralties

Absolute Monarchy

no legal limitations to the monarch's power, justified by law of divine right

Louis XIV

the Sun King, created a highly centralized bureaucracy and national economy, broke the power of the aristocracy and made it his bitch, illustrated the strength and weaknesses of absolute monarchy

Siege of Vienna

Turks nearly destroyed Austria but were turned back

Frederick the Great

a great general as well as a skilled ruler, one of the most effective monarchs of his time, greater dictatorship and decreased freedoms

Peter the Great

centralized political power, forced rapid Western Style modernization on Russia, changed Russia's geopolitical orientation, more European in nature

Northern Renaissance

Europe's level of intelligence rose during these years, William Shakesphere was around during this time in England


Cultural style that followed the Renaissance, dominated painting and architecture from early 1600's through early 1700's

Nicolaus Copernicus

began to cross important scientific boundaries, provided mathematical proof for the heliocentric theory

Heliocentric Theory

earth and the planets revolve around the sun

Scientific Revolution

Rene Descartes, Roger Bacon laid groundwork for modern formal logic and revitalized the ancient concept of the scientific method


confirmed and popularized Copernicus' theories, ran afoul with the Catholic Church

Issac Newton

represents the Scientific Revolution at its peak, famous for the laws of motion, his thoughts on the concept of gravity, and his role in inventing the mathematical system of calculus.

Age or Reason(Enlightenment)

1700's in Europe when everybody was discovering new ****

Mary Wollstonecraft

important woman that played a significant role in the Enlightenment, considered founder of modern European feminism, wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women, insisted that women possessed reason and were entitled to equal rights


most prominent Enlightenment philosophers, shared a faith in order and logic, believed that government should be rationally organized and fairly regulated, freedom of speech and religion,opposed organized rebellion as a flawed human institution

Adam Smith

made a case for supporting capitalism, Scottish economist

proto- industrialization

immediate precursor to the Industrial Revolution, early uses of machinery and factories

Henry the Navigator

began the Portuguese's age of exploration, tried to find a sea route to India and the Far East

Lines of Demarcation

pope gave jurisdiction over most of South America and all of North America to the Spanish, while the Portuguese got Brazil

Ferdinand Magellan

led an expedition that tied together all of Spain's and Portugal's previous efforts, circumnavigated the world

Francisco Pizarro

destroyed Incan Empire

Dutch East India Company

Dutch formed this company to manage their colonies

British East India Company

founded to manage economic and military relations with South and SE Asia

Gunpowder Empires

new states that were created due to their steez and status

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