AP Government Unit 1: Chapters 1, 2, 3
Terms in this set (70)
A process by which we select governmental leaders and what policies they pursue.
Political channels through which people's concerns become political issues on policy agenda.
EX: elections, political parties, interest groups, media
Policy making institutions
Branches of government charged with taking action of political issues.
EX: Congress, presidency, courts, bureaucracy
A system of selecting policy makers and of organizing government so that policy represents and responds to public's preferences.
In a democracy, choosing among alternatives requires that the majority's desire be respected.
In a democracy, guarantees rights to those who do not belong to the majorities.
Freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
Right to bear arms.
In times of peace, citizens do not have to quarter soldiers.
Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures.
Courts must provide due process of law, witness isn't compelled to witness against himself.
Guarantees the right to a speedy, impartial public trial in criminal cases with counsel and the right to cross examine.
Guarantees the right to jury trial in civil suits involving $20 or more.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Asserts the existence of unenumerated rights retained by the people.
Limits the powers of the federal government to those delegated to it by the Constitution.
Brought about by the Jefferson v Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or precious condition of servitude.
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages.
Gave women the right to vote.
Ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US, repealing the 18th amendment.
Appointment of presidential electors representing Washington, D.C.
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.
Federalist Number 10
Essay written by James Madison and the tenth of the Federalist Papers, a series arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution. Madison argued that a strong, large republic would be a better guard against those dangers than smaller republics—for instance, the individual states.
Jeremy Bentham said "the greatest happiness for the greatest number", should be applied to each nation's government, economy, and judicial system.
Individual liberty, insists on minimal government, promoting a free market economy, a noninterventionist foreign policy, and an absence of regulation in moral, economic, and social life.
A person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom.
A person who favors a political philosophy of progress and reform and the protection of civil liberties.
Gibbons v Ogden
Congress has power to regulate interstate commerce. Granting monopoly in NY is interfering with state commerce. Invalid by supremacy clause. States don't have the power.
The section of the Constitution in which Congress is given the power to regulate trade among the states and with foreign countries.
Privileges and Immunities
State must extend the same rights and services to people from other states that they give to their own citizens.
A structure of government proposed by James Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
17th century English philosopher. Wrote that the mind was a "blank slate" or "tabula rasa"; that is, people are born without innate ideas. We are completely shaped by our environment .
A document which spells out the principles by which a government runs and the fundamental laws that govern a society.
Declaration of Independence
A 1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independent nation. The Declaration of Independence was written mostly by Thomas Jefferson and the Second Continental Congress.
The idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property. Jefferson included these when he drafted the Declaration of Independence.
Consent of the governed
Agreement by citizens to obey the laws and the government they create. Consent is the foundation of government's legitimacy. Originated from John Locke and adopted by Jefferson.
A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.
In this type of government everyone, including all authority figures, must obey laws. Constitutions, statements of rights, or other laws define the limits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of the elected, appointed, or inherited positions.
Articles of Confederation
This document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes.
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
New Jersey Plan
A framework for the constitution proposed by a group of small states. Its key points were a one-house legislature with one vote for each state, a Congress with the ability to raise revenue, and a Supreme Court with members appointed for life.
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with their own plan for apportioning representation.
Agreement during the Constitutional Convention that Congress should be composed of a Senate, in which States would be represented equally, and a House, in which representation would be based on a State's population.
Separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.
Checks and balances
A constitutionally mandated structure that gives each of the three branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the actions of the others.
A political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them.
A term used to describe supporters of the Constitution during ratification debates in state legislatures. They favored a stronger central government.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states.
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Bill of Rights
Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.
Marbury v Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress.
It was a power given to the judiciary branch in order to sustain checks and balances. This power let judges examine a law or act passed by the government to see if it was constitutional or not.
A system of government in which a written constitution divides power between a central, or national, government and several regional governments.
A centralized governmental system in which local or subdivisional governments exercise only those powers given to them by the central government.
A government in which the states hold more power than the central government.
McCulloch v Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law. Established the "Supremacy Clause".
Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
Powers derived from the enumerated powers and the necessary and proper clause. These powers are not stated specifically but are considered to be reasonably implied through the exercise of delegated powers.
One of the powers of Congress that allows them to make any laws that are necessary and proper for carrying out their other powers. Also called the "Necessary and Proper Clause".
Full Faith and Credit
Clause in the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the civil judgments rendered by the courts of the other states and to accept their public records and acts as valid.
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government. They may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly.
A process in which political power is ''sent down'' to lower levels of state and government.
A system in which the national government provides grants-in-aid to states using conditions to elicit control.
Federal categorical grants given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of the merits of application.
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations.
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.
Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes or "categories," of state and local spending. They come with strings attached, such as nondiscrimination provisions. Compare to block grants.