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Terms in this set (1972)
(1) This ruler defeated an invasion of a neighboring tribe, the Alemanni, at the Battle of Tolbiac. This man's wife Clotilde famously convinced him to convert to Christianity, after which he convened the First Council of Orleans. In his later rule, this chieftain proclaimed the Lex Salica to govern territory that he previously had secured in the 486 Battle of Soissons. For the point, name this Frankish king, considered the founder of the Merovingian Dynasty.
ANSWER: Clovis I
(2) During this battle, Task Force 34, under the command of Willis Lee, was moved away from a defensive position at the San Bernadino Strait to pursue a decoy force. William Halsey's actions in this battle were derisively called "Bull's Run". Admiral Kurita commanded the powerful Centre Force during this battle which saw the first use of Kamikaze aircraft by Japanese forces. For the point, name this largest naval battle of World War II which took place in the Philippines.
ANSWER: Battle of Leyte Gulf (accept Battle of the Sibuyan Sea; accept Battle of Surigao Strait; accept Battle of Cape Engano; accept Battle off Samar)
(3) Day and month required. A document named for this date attempted to curb the excessive privilege of the szlachta [shlock-tah] and was passed by the Sejm [same] parliament in 1793, inspiring the name of a Polish constitution. Another event on this date featured mass executions on Principe Pio Hill and was commemorated in a painting showing a lantern illuminating a man in a white shirt with hands raised above his head. A firing squad prepares to fire on, for the point, what date in 1808, as commemorated in a painting by Francisco Goya?
ANSWER: 3rd of May (accept May 3rd Constitution; accept The Third of May 1808)
(4) William Gosse named this place one year after Ernest Giles became the first European to see a similar location, the Olgas. This place was created when mountain ranges in the Amadeus Basin were uplifted during the Petermann Orogeny. The orientation of the sun at certain times of the day changes the color of this location, which has a prevalence of feldspar-rich arkose. Climbing this location will be prohibited from October 2019 due to a decision made by this location's Aboriginal owners. For the point, name this sandstone formation in Australia.
ANSWER: Uluru (accept Ayers Rock)
(5) This President's administration passed the Relief for Public Land Debtors' Act in response to a financial panic. This president convinced Great Britain to reduce the size of its navy on Lake Champlain in the Rush-Bagot Treaty. Florida was acquired by this president, who opposed European intervention within Latin America with a policy devised by his Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams. For the point, name this fifth US president whose tenure coincided with the "Era of Good Feelings."
ANSWER: James Monroe
(6) This empire traced its roots to Andragoras' rebellion and subsequent invasions by the Parni tribe. The houses of Karen and Suren were thought to have originated in this empire. After invading Armenia, Osroes I was temporarily deposed as ruler of this empire as retaliation by Trajan. Augustus bargained with this empire for the return of eagle standards captured by this empire after Crassus' defeat at Carrhae. For the point, name this empire ruled by the Arsacid dynasty and succeeded by the Sassanids.
ANSWER: Parthian Empire (or Parthians or Arsacid Empire before mention, prompt on "Persia(n)")
(7) One side in this battle failed to understand the XGE surrender signal and continued to fire. The Suvorov and Borodino were sunk in this battle, the first naval battle in which wireless telegraphs were used. The winning side in this battle crossed the T twice against a fleet that had been sent from the Baltic Sea to join the Pacific Fleet at Vladivostok. For the point, name this victory for Togo Heihachiro, a 1905 naval victory for Japan over Russia.
ANSWER: Battle of Tsushima Straits
(8) This man, who invented a harmonic device whose constant rate of swinging allowed for accurate time, manufactured a telescope with which he discovered Titan. This inventor of the pendulum clock aimed to replace Descartes' prevailing optical theories by publishing his Treatise on Light. For the point, name this Dutch scientist who explained the behavior of wave fronts in a namesake principle and names a probe that traveled to Saturn with the Cassini orbiter.
ANSWER: Christiaan Huygens
(9) On the sidelines of the Genoa Conference, this country and its eastern neighbor signed a secret pact for military cooperation. This country's relations with Western Europe were normalized in the Locarno Treaties, although the "stab-in-the-back" myth continued to persist in this country, stemming from anger at the Treaty of Versailles. For the point, name this country that suffered extreme hyperinflation during the Weimar [vye-mar] Republic between losing the two World Wars.
ANSWER: Germany (accept Weimar Republic before mentioned; do not accept German Empire)
(10) The Hunter Commission led the perpetrator of this event to be removed from his post, despite his claim that he upheld the Rowlatt Act's ban on mass gatherings. During this event, civilians celebrated the Baisakhi festival before they were fired on by Reginald Dyer's troops. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest of, for the point, what 1919 massacre of hundreds of Indians in a garden near the Golden Temple in Sikhism's holiest city?
ANSWER: Jallianwala Bagh massacre (accept 1919 Amritsar massacre; do not accept Golden Temple massacre)
(11) This monarch replaced the ukaz with the guberniya and abolished the Prikaz. This monarch conquered a Black Sea port in the Azov Campaigns and visited Amsterdam during his Grand Embassy. This monarch targeted the influence of the boyars by introducing the Table of Ranks and a tax on beards. Sophia Alekseyevna was forced to become a nun by this monarch after he put down a revolt by the Strelsy. For the point, name this westernizing tsar who also defeated Charles XII in the Great Northern War.
ANSWER: Peter I (or Peter the Great)
(12) This river was once known as Okeanos Potamos, in which the island of Leuke supposedly contained Achilles' tomb. A series of defenses on this river include those named for Moesia and Pannonia, and are called Limes [lie-mes]. Following the Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarka, a term was coined referring to principalities on this river that included Wallachia and Moldavia. Apollodorus of Damascus built a bridge across this river for Trajan to invade Dacia. Originating in the Black Forest, for the point, what European river flows through Vienna and Budapest on its way to the Black Sea?
ANSWER: Danube River
(13) In The Eye Opener, one thinker from this school argued for the use of the "gentle arguments" and "break and subdue" methods. An earlier thinker from this school of thought outlined the fourfold negation method of logic, which he term "Catuskoi." That founder of this school's "middle way," or Madhyamaka, also posited this school's idea of "absolute nothingness." For the point, name this school of thought followed by Nichiren and Nagarjuna, which was founded after Siddartha Guatama found enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree.
ANSWER: Buddhism (accept Nichiren Buddhism or Mahayana Buddhism; accept Madhyamaka before mentioned)
(14) This composer dedicated a set of concertos titled La cetra to Charles VI. Written to celebrate the victory over the Turks at the siege of Corfu, this composer's only surviving oratorio centers on Holofernes' siege of Bethulia. This composer of Judith Triumphans wrote a set of 4 violin concertos each accompanied by a sonnet; those works are part of The Contest Between Harmony and Invention. For the point, name this composer of The Four Seasons.
ANSWER: Antonio Vivaldi
(15) Edmund Husserl's first major philosophical work was titled for this kind of Investigations. David and C.I. Lewis are important thinkers in a variety of this discipline which often involves possible worlds, its "modal" form. Aristotle's Organon discusses this subject, which may study the nature of syllogisms. For the point, name this mathematical and philosophical discipline which studies inference and recognizes multiple kinds of fallacies.
ANSWER: logic (accept word forms)
(16) A location in Rajamaki belonging to Alko became a major producer of these weapons. Potassium chlorate was one of the ingredients used to make these weapons, which share a name with cluster bombs that became known as "bread baskets." Over 450,000 of these weapons were produced during the Winter War. A foreign minister of Russia during World War II names, for the point, what makeshift explosive commonly created from a flaming rag and a bottle of alcohol?
ANSWER: Molotov cocktails
(17) The target of this event had previously arrested the Seven Bishops for protesting his relaxing of religious penal laws by reissuing the Declaration of Indulgence. This event was sparked by the birth of Mary of Modena's son. One leader in this event was read the Declaration of Right after landing at Torbay. The English Bill of Rights was written after, for the point, what event in which the Protestant William and Mary were invited to replace James II on the throne?
ANSWER: The Glorious Revolution (accept The Revolution of 1688)
(18) This man's friendship with Erhard Milch prevented him from resigning his posts after suffering an inflamed knee. After Fritz Todt was killed in an aviation accident, this man was forced to become the Minister of Armaments. This man, who used 152 anti-aircraft searchlights to create his famous "Cathedral of Light" effect, wrote the book Inside the Third Reich detailing his time as the "Nazi who said sorry." For the point, name this chief architect for Nazi Germany.
ANSWER: Albert Speer
(19) This modern-day country was the target of the planned Operation Tiderace. One side overran defending Australians in the Battle of Sarimbun Beach in this country where a surrender was negotiated at the Old Ford Factory. HMS Prince of Wales led a naval group named Force Z assigned to protect this country that was destroyed by Japanese airstrikes prior to an invasion by Tomoyuki Yamashita's forces. The "worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history" occurred in, for the point, what Southeast Asian colony and modern-day city-state on the Malay Peninsula?
(20) Bavaria withdrew from this war after the accession of Maximillian III and the Treaty of Fussen. A siege of Tournai was ended by Maurice de Saxe with his decisive victory at the Battle of Fontenoy. One side's superior discipline and training were shown at the Battles of Kesselsdorf and Hohenfriedberg. Charles VI attempted to avoid this conflict by creating the Pragmatic Sanction, which failed when Prussia invaded Silesia. For the point, name this mid-18th century war caused by the rise of Maria Theresa.
ANSWER: War of the Austrian Succession
(21) After her death, this woman's two-year old son Thomas was looked after by Lewis Stukley. An engraving of this woman at age 21 was created by Simon de Passe. Samuel Argall led the group that kidnapped this woman, who was baptized by Alexander Whitaker and given the name Rebecca before a 1616 trip to England on which she died of smallpox. A tobacco innovator named John Rolfe married, for the point, what Native American woman who interacted with the Jamestown colony?
(22) The Chanyu Modu defeated this dynasty at the Battle of Baideng, forcing this dynasty to accept marriage alliances called Heqin [he-chin]. The Revolt of the Seven States occurred during this dynasty, which was founded by a man who avoided assassination at the Feast at the Hong Gate. This dynasty came to power after defeating Xiang Yu's Chu state and was briefly usurped by Wang Mang. Founded by Liu Bang, this dynasty fell during the Yellow Turban Revolt. For the point, name this dynasty immediately following the Qin [chin] that names the largest ethnic group in China.
ANSWER: Han Dynasty
(23) This policy was carried out by an newly-created administration led by Edward Stettinius and later Leo Crowley. This policy was enacted shortly after a declaration that a leader saw his country as a "great arsenal of democracy." This policy, which was compared to allowing a neighbor to use your garden hose during a fire, officially ended America's neutral stance during World War II. For the point, name this policy that sought to aid Allied countries through shipments of weaponry and food.
ANSWER: Lend-Lease Act
(24) Despite three affidavits providing evidence of this product's existence, the European Union stripped this product of its trademark in Europe in 2019. American gold medals in the 1984 Olympics earned consumers this product, which backfired after the Soviet boycott improved Team USA's performance. Since 1986, The Economist has maintained a currency comparison index named for this product. In 1967, Jim Delligatti invented, for the point, what fast food item with "two all-beef patties and special sauce," sold by McDonalds?
ANSWER: Big Mac
(25) This man paid the Alvsborg Ransom to bring an end to the Kalmar War. At the Battle of the Rain, this man crossed the Lech River to defeat Count Tilly. Axel Oxenstierna ruled as chancellor after this man was slain leading cavalry at Lutzen against imperial forces. This man was immortalized as the "Lion of the North" after a 1630 intervention to aid Protestants in Germany. For the point, name this Swedish king who entered the Thirty Years' War.
ANSWER: Gustavus Adolphus (accept Gustav II Adolf; prompt on partial answers)
(26) A Day of Remembrance for this class of people is held annually on November 20th in honor of Rita Hester and others. After a TV writer controversially asked the British National Lottery to review a charity supporting this cause, Harry Brewis hosted Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and other activists during a 57-hour Twitch livestream of Donkey Kong 64 that raised $340,000 for that charity. The charity Mermaids UK raises awareness for, for the point, what people with a personal identity different to that of their assigned sex, the "T" in LGBT?
ANSWER: transgender/transsexual activism (accept anything related to promoting equal rights and/or support for transgender and/or transsexual people; prompt on "youth activism" after "TV writer" is read; prompt on anti-suicide/anti-self harm activism)
(27) During this conflict, William Shepherd ordered his troops to fire grape shot at a crowd of gathered Regulators. A militia funded by James Bowdoin and led by Benjamin Lincoln tried to suppress this conflict. George Washington returned from retirement in response to this conflict, whose leader failed to seize the Springfield armory despite rallying thousands in protest of unfair taxes. For the point, name this unsuccessful 1787 rebellion in Massachusetts which exposed the flaws of the Articles of Confederation.
ANSWER: Shays' Rebellion (or Uprising, etc.; do not accept or prompt on "Shay" alone)
(28) This system included numerous caravanserais, which provided supplies and shelter. After the fall of Trebizond, this system was allegedly used by Genoese citizens carrying the Black Death. Samarkand and Bukhara were vital stops along this route, which the modern Karakorum Highway partially follows. Marco Polo was one of the first Europeans to use, for the point, what route in which a namesake textile was traded by Chinese merchants to the West?
ANSWER: Silk Road (or Silk Route; accept Sichou Zhi Lu)
(29) This poem, whose title entity "shall sweep the clouds no more," was inspired by an 1830 article in the Boston Daily Advertiser. "Harpies of the shore shall pluck" at the title vessel of this poem, whose "thunders shook the mighty deep" and which had a "deck, once red with heroes' blood" and a "holy flag" "Nailed to her mast." A call to "tear her tattered ensign down" opens, for the point, what Oliver Wendell Holmes poem commemorating a ship that fought the HMS Guerriere, the USS Constitution
ANSWER: Old Ironsides
(30) This man's ally Bogud of Mauritania helped defeat rebels after the codeword "Venus" was given. To end a civil war, this man won the Battles of Munda and Lauro in Spain. This man beat a rival at the Battle of Pharsalus who later died in Egypt. This member of the First Triumvirate used circumvallation to win the Battle of Alesia against Vercingetorix in the Gallic Wars. For the point, name this leader who crossed the Rubicon to become ruler of Rome and was killed on the Ides of March.
ANSWER: Gaius Julius Caesar (prompt on Caesar)
(1) This man's economic "shock therapy" was derided by Alexander Rutskoy as suicide and helped prompt Parliament into revolt. After becoming president, this man acted as the most prominent signatory to the Belavezha Accords and entered his country into the CIS. This man gave a speech atop a tank to thwart the coup of the Gang of Eight before taking power, and he resigned in 1999 amidst problems with alcoholism. For the point, name this first leader of the Russian Federation.
ANSWER: Boris Yeltsin
(1) An Epicurean-esque philosophical school from this country was heavily criticized at a conference of all faiths held in what is now this country in 1578. Arthur Schopenhauer was influenced by the philosophy of this country when he wrote The World as Will and Representation. A philosophical lineage from this country includes the great thinker Shankara and is divided into dualist and nondualist branches called "dvaita" [d'vi-ta] and "advaita" [ahd-vi-ta] respectively. For the point, name this country, home to Vedanta and other philosophical schools like Yoga.
(2) The city of Carcassonne was a major target during this event, and Arnaud Amalric oversaw a bloody massacre at Beziers [BAY-zee-ay] during this event. Simon de Montfort the Elder was killed in the Siege of Toulouse during this campaign, which was triggered by the murder of the legate Pierre de Castelnau by the forces of Raymond VI. For the point, name this 13th century effort by Pope Innocent III to eliminate a religious movement in Languedoc, France.
ANSWER: Albigensian Crusade (or Cathar Crusade; prompt on Crusade(s))
(3) Augustus van Horne Ellis died in this battle while leading an attack through the Triangular Field. On the first day of this battle, forces under Henry Heth overran First Corps ["core"] troops stationed at McPherson Ridge. The Peach Orchard and Devil's Den were key locations at this battle, where Joshua Chamberlain's volunteer regiment led a successful defense of Little Round Top. For the point, name this 1863 battle, the turning point of the Civil War in Pennsylvania.
ANSWER: Battle of Gettysburg
(4) This thinker wrote the "Letter on Humanism", and he addressed the title concept's "saving power" and "extreme danger" in another essay, "The Question Concerning Technology." This thinker lamented that Western philosophy had forgotten "the question of Being" in the introduction to his magnum opus, which coined terms like "ready-to-hand" and Dasein [DAH-zaiyn]. For the point, name this German philosopher who detailed his Nazi convictions in the infamous Black Notebooks and wrote Being and Time.
ANSWER: Martin Heidegger
(5) The first holders of this position are often considered to have come from the House of Alpin and claimed to be descended from Fergus of Dal Riata. Despite dying before reaching this position's country, Margaret the Maid of Norway is sometimes considered to have held this position. Edward I placed John Balliol as his puppet in this position, whose holders used the Stone of Scone [skoon]. This title was reclaimed from English domination by the victor of the Battle of Bannockburn. Robert the Bruce held, for the point, what title?
ANSWER: Monarch of Scotland (accept King of Scotland, prompt on Queen of Scotland)
(6) An invasion of this modern-day country was repelled by the forces of Raden Wijaya, who later founded an empire based in this country. That empire in this modern-day country reached its zenith under Hayam Wuruk and his Prime Minister Gajah Mada. An earlier empire in this modern-day country had its capital at Palembang and was known as the Srivijaya empire. The Majapahit empire was ruled from this modern-day country's island of Java. For the point, name this country which contains the islands of Bali and Sumatra.
(7) In 2013 in this country, referee Otavio Jordao da Silva was quartered and beheaded by fans after da Silva fatally stabbed a player in an amateur soccer game. This country carried out a campaign to prevent its torcidas organizadas from being visibly violent at the Arruda stadium in Recife, the Maracana, or its 10 other venues for a 2014 sporting event that included a 7-1 semifinal loss for this country to Germany. Fernandinho and Neymar play for, for the point, what country that hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup?
(8) In the aftermath of this event, petroleuses were falsely accused of being paid for arson. Louise Michel dared a military tribunal to sentence her to death for her involvement in this event, but was instead deported to New Caledonia. 147 people involved in this event were shot at the Mur des Federes after this event was suppressed by General Patrice MacMahon during the Bloody Week. For the point, what 1871 revolutionary government refused the authority of Adolphe Thiers' Third Republic and was located in the French capital?
ANSWER: Paris Commune
(9) Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund and this ruler signed the Treaty of Canterbury, acknowledging land claims in France. Thomas Beaufort served this king, who executed his former friend, Sir John Oldcastle. A plot to replace this king with Edmund Mortimer ended with a trial at Southampton. After capturing Harfleur, this man won a critical battle in a muddy field that would lead to the Treaty of Troyes with Charles VI. For the point, name this English king who won the Battle of Agincourt.
ANSWER: Henry V of England (accept Henry of Monmouth; prompt on Henry)
(10) Politicians from this man's country opposed him in the Caravelle Manifesto. The efforts of ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. and Cable 243 led to this man's death. This man alienated Buddhists in the Xa Loi Pagoda raids following a self-immolation by a monk, and he instituted the Strategic Hamlet Program to shelter peasants. This anti-Communist Vietnamese leader opposed Ho Chi Minh's Viet Cong guerillas. For the point, name this first President of South Vietnam who was assassinated in 1963.
ANSWER: Ngo Dinh Diem
(11) Corpses were often thrown into this body of water after state executions carried out at the Gemonian Stairs. The Via Flaminia's crossing of this body of water was the site of a battle whose victor was inspired to paint the Chi-Rho on the shields of his forces. Maxentius' head was thrown into this river after he lost the Battle of Milvian Bridge, resulting in the ascension of Constantine as emperor. For the point, name this river that flows through Rome.
ANSWER: Tiber River
(12) Charles Barry added two fountains to this site next to St.-Martin-in-the-Fields. Statues of John Jellicoe and David Beatty were added to this site in 1948. The main structure at this site is flanked by four bronze lions and four bas reliefs, one of which depicts the Battle of Copenhagen. Located near Charing Cross in Westminster, this site features a Corinthian column topped by a sword-wielding admiral. For the point, identify this square in London that honors Horatio Nelson.
ANSWER: Trafalgar Square
(13) The first manmade form of this material was Parkesine, although Daniel Spill contested that product's patent in court and tried to name it Xylonite. Alexander Parkes was responsible for inventing this material which was showed-off at the 1862 London World's fair. While studying the secretion of lac beetles, Leo Baekeland helped create one type of this material called Bakelite. Some examples of these materials include plexiglass and Tupperware. Polyethylene is often used for bags and bottles and is a type of, for the point, what synthetic chemical polymer?
ANSWER: Plastic (accept Celluloid or Parkesine or Baekelite before mention)
(14) This ruler's construction projects included the Unfinished Obelisk, which broke in transport and was left in Aswan. Trading expeditions to the land of Punt were established under this ruler, who built a mortuary temple into the cliffs of Deir al-Bahari that became known as the Djeser-Djeseru. Monuments built by this ruler were later defaced by her stepson, for whom she had ruled as regent. For the point, name this 18th Dynasty pharaoh who was succeeded by Thutmose III after her death in 1458 BC.
(15) At this battle, a soldier who had been earlier dismissed because of an eye infection charged enemy lines alone to redeem his name. That man, Aristodemus, died at this battle, where Arimnestus threw a large rock to kill the enemy commander, Mardonius. This battle, which was fought at the same time as a naval engagement at Mycale [mi-kah-lee], was won by Pausanias' troops near Boeotia [bohee-she-uh]. For the point, name this 479 BC battle, the final land battle of Xerxes' invasion of Greece.
ANSWER: Battle of Plataea
(16) This man defeated Hardin Runnels in an 1859 election, but was forced out two years later after refusing to swear an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy. William Stanbery accused this politician of fraud leading this man to brutally beat him with a cane. At the Convention of 1833, this man oversaw the creation of a state constitution that was submitted by Stephen Austin. For the point, name this key figure in the Texas Revolution who now names the state's largest city.
ANSWER: Sam Houston
(17) This company's productions of Parade and Pulcinella featured design by Pablo Picasso. The Great Depression spelled the end of this company, which premiered L'Apres-midi d'un faune [lap-reh mi-dee doon fawn], marking Vaslav Nijinsky's first work as a choreographer. The riotous premiere of The Rite of Spring was produced by this company. Sergei Diaghilev founded, for the point, what ballet company that, despite its name, was based in Paris, not Moscow?
ANSWER: Ballets Russes (["ballet" roose], but be lenient)
(18) This event's victims were later brought to the Koptyaki forest and thrown down the Ganina Yama mineshaft. The approach of the Czechoslovak Legion prompted the perpetrators to carry out this event in Yekaterinburg. Diamonds sewn into nightclothes may have temporarily protected the victims of this event, including Maria, Tatiana, and Anastasia. For the point, name this July 1918 massacre of the Imperial family of Russia.
ANSWER: execution (or murder, massacre, etc.) of the Romanovs (accept execution of Tsar Nicholas II and his family, including Tsarina Alexandra, Olga, Alexei, Maria, Tatiana, and Anastasia)
(19) In this state, over $200,000 worth of money was stolen from a series of banks in an 1864 attack planned by Bennett Young. That action, the St. Albans Raid, was the northernmost battle of the Civil War. John Burgoyne's men lost to a coalition led by John Stark and Seth Warner ten miles from this state's city of Bennington. This state was a republic from 1777 to 1791, when it joined the union as the first non-colonial state. For the point, name this 14th US state, which is home to Burlington.
(20) Before attacking this empire, an army first attacked the island of Puna before landing at Tumbes. This empire's southern expansion was ended at the Maule River by the Mapuche people, and the Battle of Cajamarca secured its decline. A ruler of this empire named Huascar died fighting his brother Atahualpa, who was then ransomed for a room of gold by Spanish conquistadors. For the point, name this Quechua-speaking empire that built Machu Picchu and was centered at Cuzco, Peru until it was conquered by Francisco Pizarro.
ANSWER: Incan Empire
(21) This country's former first lady was nicknamed "Gucci Grace" for her extravagant dress. This country's current president was nicknamed "the crocodile" while serving as Vice President. Army chief Constantino Chiwenga is frequently charged with crushing dissent in this country, where Morgan Tsvangirai once ran the opposition Movement for Democratic Change. For the point, name this country currently led by Emmerson Mnangagwa, who took over after the ousting of Robert Mugabe.
22) The Independent Party of Color was dissolved in this country following the 1912 Little Race War. Thomas Estrada Palma served as the first president of this country. A 1903 treaty between the U.S. and this country, along with the Platt Amendment, helped secure an American naval base at this country's Guantanamo Bay. For the point, name this Caribbean island country that was led by Fidel Castro.
(23) This ruler signed the Treaty of Dover with England to launch an attack on Johan de Witt. This monarchs's army was greatly expanded by the minister Louvois, but his gains in the Netherlands during the War of Devolution were erased by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. This ruler's constant warring was funded by the economic minister Colbert and provoked the formation of the League of Augsburg. This member of the House of Bourbon built the palace of Versailles to cement his absolute monarchy. For the point, name this "Sun King" of France.
ANSWER: Louis XIV
(24) This leader's government arrested the spy Wolfgang Lotz, then set him free in 1968. This leader, who organized a brief United Republic with Syria that lasted for three years, worked with Mohammed Naguib of the Free Officers Movement to overthrow King Farouk. The ambitious Aswan High Dam project was completed by this man, who banned the Muslim Brotherhood and faced a combined French and British invasion after nationalizing the Suez Canal. For the point, identify this leader of Egypt in the 1960s.
ANSWER: Gamal Abdel Nasser
(25) A king of this country faced more than 55 assassination attempts and freed the assassin Beqir Valteri. A prime minister of this country developed a Twenty Point Program after the June Revolution. The Sigurimi secret police operated in this country, where they assisted in the rise of a dictator who executed Koci Xoxe [ko-chee jo-jay] and adopted state atheism. Enver Hoxha [ho-jah] once ruled, for the point, what Balkan country with a large Muslim population where King Zog once ruled from Tirana?
(26) In the city of Brauron, a festival to this deity had young girls wear saffron robes and pretend to be bears. It became illegal to mention the name Herostratus after he burned down a temple to this deity in the 4th century BC. Actaeon was turned into a deer after he saw this goddess naked. This child of Leto served as midwife for the birth of her twin sibling. For the point, name this deity whose temple at Ephesus was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, the Greek goddess of the hunt.
ANSWER: Artemis (accept Diana before "Greek" is read)
(27) This man took power shortly after a battle at Shimultai, which garnered him the support of Alghu in the Toluid civil war against Ariq Boke. After his forces gained control following the battle of Yamen, this man established a new capital at Dadu, which was visited by the Venetian merchant Marco Polo. The divine wind kamikaze famously thwarted this man's attempts to invade Japan. For the point, name this founder of the Yuan Dynasty and grandson of Genghis Khan.
ANSWER: Kublai Khan
(28) This battle was prompted after a disaster at the Garonne River forced Odo, the duke of Aquitaine, to call for aid. The losing side in this battle repeatedly charged uphill with cavalry and withdrew after the death of Abd al-Rahman. Fought at St. Martin's Abbey, this battle led its victor to be known as "the Hammer." For the point, name this 732 battle where Charles Martel thwarted the Muslim expansion into Europe.
ANSWER: Battle of Tours (accept Battle of Poitiers)
(29) This city was nearly torn apart by a civil war when a son of Contessina de' Bardi attempted to call up all debts owed to him. This city attempted to purge all "sinful" art by burning in the Bonfire of the Vanities when it came under the rule of Girolamo Savanarola. This city's Uffizi Gallery houses The Birth of Venus and La Primavera by painter Sandro Botticelli, who was under the patronage of this city's Lorenzo de Medici. For the point, name this Italian city that birthed the Renaissance.
(30) During this war, Thomas Macdonough won a battle on Lake Champlain called the "False Nile." In this war, Henry Proctor lost a battle near Moraviantown to William Henry Harrison, which preceeded a battle in which a commander declared, "We have met the enemy and they are ours." Oliver Hazard Perry won the Battle of Lake Erie during, for the point, what war that included the burning of Washington D.C. and was ended by the Treaty of Ghent in 1815?
ANSWER: War of 1812 Extra Question Only read if moderator botches a question.
(1) A Maoist insurgency led by this country's two different Communist parties resulted in a period of dramatic change called Krambhanga after the abolition of this country's monarchy in 2006. This country's Crown Prince Dipendra killed several of his family members and himself in 2002. This country supplies gurkha soldiers to the British Army, and this country's Sherpa people are part of its Buddhist minority. For the point, name this country on the Indian subcontinent where almost 9,000 people died in a 2015 earthquake in its capital of Kathmandu.
(1) Just prior to winning this battle, the winning side captured Aornos and struck an alliance with Taxiles. Hay was used as floats to cross the Jhelum River and launch a surprise attack in this battle. Bucephalus died shortly after this battle. The Punjab was annexed shortly after this battle, though the winning side refused to continue campaigning against the Nanda Empire afterward. This battle marked the first time Macedonian troops faced elephants in combat. For the point, name this 326 BC victory for Alexander the Great over Porus in India.
ANSWER: Battle of the Hydaspes River
(2) In this city, a dramatization of the novel The Two Captains was broken up at the start of a terrorist attack. Civilian casualties in this city escalated after troops refused to tell doctors what type of chemical weapon they had used, leading to the death of 130 hostages. The Spetsnaz special forces indiscriminately used poison gas to end a hostage crisis in, for the point, what city where Chechen terrorists occupied the Dubrovka Theater in 2002?
(3) Jean Delay diagnosed one of the central figures of these events with hysterical amnesia. Former Hungarian ambassador John Montgomery helped Miklos Horthy avoid being targeted by these events. Geoffrey Lawrence and Francis Biddle were presiding figures at this event, where Robert Jackson gave an opening speech. Hjalmar Schacht was acquitted of conspiring and planning crimes against peace at this event. Rudolf Hess was among the men transported to Spandau Prison after, for the point, what post-war trials against Nazi officials?
ANSWER: Nuremberg Trials (prompt on descriptive answers)
(4) In 2014, Thomas Hales' team finished their work proving a conjecture named for this man. English astronomer and explorer Thomas Harriot corresponded with this man about optics and cannonball stacking, the latter of which inspired this man's namesake conjecture about sphere packing. Albrecht von Wallenstein was advised astrologically by this man, whose works like Harmonices Mundi and Astronomia Nova were influenced by his work for Tycho Brahe. For the point, name this German mathematician and astronomer who developed the three laws of planetary motion.
ANSWER: Johannes Kepler
(5) A legend about a prostitute and a glass-eyed delegate from this state surrounds the move of this state's capital four times in a 25 year period. 1,300 miners from this state were kidnapped and brought to a neighboring state in the 1917 Bisbee Deportation. The westernmost battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Pichaco Pass, took place in this modern-day state. This state's "Silent Senator," Carl Hayden, was the first Senator to serve seven terms. John McCain served as a senator from this Southwestern state until his death in 2018. For the point, name this last contiguous state to be admitted to the union whose capital and largest city is Phoenix.
(6) This leader's navy was damaged when John Vassall was blackmailed into being a Soviet spy. Though this politician began the Polaris nuclear project, he ended the National Service and joined the USSR and United States as the third major country to sign the Partial Test Ban Treaty. This man's cabinet was rocked by the revelation that Christine Keeler had an affair with the Secretary of State for War, John Profumo. This Prime Minister's sub-Saharan tour of Africa is credited with speeding up decolonization. For the point, name this Conservative Prime Minister of the UK who gave the 1960 "Wind of Change" speech in South Africa
ANSWER: Harold MacMillan
(7) Fighting for this city included the second battle of the Odon and Verrieres Ridge. Defenses in this city were compromised after nearby Saint Lo was captured, and this city was finally abandoned after Allied troops launched Operations Cobra and Spring. Many retreating German troops were trapped in the Falaise Pocket after this city fell, paving the way for a push into central France. For the point, name this city in Normandy that was contested for three months following D-Day.
(8) After the president of a neighboring country, Sylvanus Olympio, was assassinated, a ruler of this country named Maurice Yameogo began removing government ministers. A ruler of this country fought the Agacher Strip war with its northern neighbor; that man was known as "the Che Guevara of Africa," Thomas Sankara. A 2014 uprising in this country ousted Blaise Compaore, who fled to the Ivory Coast. For the point, name this landlocked African country where Roch Kabore leads from Ouagadougou.
ANSWER: Burkina Faso
(9) This philosopher originated the image of a "tree falling in a forest" with nobody around to hear it as part of an argument that God must exist to percieve the whole universe at all times. That image, which later reappeared in a limerick, comes from this thinker's Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge. This thinker later wrote that "to be is to be perceived" in Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous. For the point, name this "immaterialist" Anglo-Irish philosopher who lends his name to a university city in Northern California.
ANSWER: Bishop George Berkeley ([BARK-lee], but be lenient)
(10) This monarch was forced to dismiss one mistress when she was blamed for a life-threatening illness while he was visiting troops in Metz. That woman, the Duchess of Chateauroux, was one of four Mailly sisters who were mistresses to this monarch, who appointed the Duc de Choiseul as prime minister due to the influence of his most famous mistress. A former courtesan, Madame du Barry, was the scandalous last mistress of, for the point, what French monarch, who also loved Madame de Pompadour?
(11) Four canvases featuring depictions of this figure had bullets driven through them by Dorothy Podber. The last professional photograph of this figure features a kiss blown on a Santa Monica beach. Replica artist Elaine Sturtevant used an original still from the film Niagara for a depiction of this woman that was inspired by fifty silk-screen prints created by Andy Warhol. The first cover of Playboy magazine featured, for the point, what actress, born as Norma Jeane Mortenson?
ANSWER: Marilyn Monroe
(12) Lu Haodong was executed for leading an insurgency in this city, the first of a series of uprisings prior to the Xinhai Revolution. This city's Thirteen Factories became integral to a trade monopoly run by the cohong guilds, which served this city's namesake system. Lin Zexu's attempt to destroy the opium trade in this city prompted Britain to send an expedition to nearby Hong Kong. The First Opium War was sparked in, for the point, what coastal city that names a major Chinese dialect?
ANSWER: Canton (or Guangzhou, do not accept or prompt on "Guangdong")
(13) While at the title location of this book, characters use spoons to steal malt syrup from a factory line. As a child, the protagonist of this book is thrown in a YMCA swimming pool by his father. That character later goes on to have a child with Montana Wildhack. The protagonist of this book is taken prisoner after the Battle of the Bulge and is displayed in a zoo by a race of aliens called Tralfamadorians. For the point, name this novel about Billy Pilgrim, written by Kurt Vonnegut.
ANSWER: Slaughterhouse-Five (or The Childrens' Crusade: A Duty Dance with Death)
(14) This politician was inspired by the Quakers to appoint Ely S. Parker as his Commissioner for Indian Affairs. Benjamin Bristow resigned as Secretary of the Treasury after a conflict with this man's personal secretary. Earlier in his career, this man had secured military successes at Vicksburg and Petersburg. For the point, name this 18th President of the United States, a decorated Union general.
ANSWER: Ulysses S. Grant
(15) This composer depicted the 1994 Los Angeles earthquake in I Was Looking at the Ceiling and Then I Saw the Sky. An opera by this composer begins with the "Chorus of Exiled Palestinians" and the "Chorus of Exiled Jews" and centers on the hijacking of the cruise ship Achille Lauro. The ballet "The Red Detachment of Women" is featured in an opera by this composer that begins with the title character stepping of The Spirit of '76. For the point, name this American minimalist composer of Nixon in China who shares his name with the second US President.
ANSWER: John Coolidge Adams
(16) Lynn Hunt argued that these concepts grew out of a shift in mentality influenced by reading popular novels. John Locke argued the divinity of humans as God's creations formed the basis for the natural kind of these concepts. One work named for these concepts argued that these concepts could never be revoked by IHBB European Championships Bee 2018-2019 Bee Round 4 Page 4 government, which was instead supposed to protect them, and was written by Thomas Paine. A 1948 UN Declaration tried to formulate, for the point, what basic universal freedoms?
ANSWER: Human rights
(17) A song about this structure included a chorus with the lines "And you'll always know your neighbor / And you'll always know your pal" and was written by Thomas Allen. Canvass White developed a new type of cement while working on this structure. Cities like May's Point and Lockport were along this structure, whose construction was opposed by the Bucktails. This structure, which opened in 1825, passed through the Mohawk Valley. DeWitt Clinton commissioned, for the point, what canal running from Buffalo to Albany?
ANSWER: Erie Canal
(18) This country's July Manifesto denounced the collaborative Blue Police. A strike in this country led to the 21 Demands of MKS, and in 1981, this country faced hunger demonstrations and a four-hour national warning strike. This country's April Novelization followed a 1989 arrangement where 35% of the seats in the Sejm [same] were to be freely elected. That Round Table Agreement was primarily negotiated by a union that formed after a strike at the Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk. For the point, name this country where Solidarity leader Lech Walesa became president.
ANSWER: People's Republic of Poland
(19) This man was forced to recognize Alexander III as pope after signing the Peace of Venice. In one battle, the "Company of Death" successfully defended Aribert's carroccio from this man. This man's attempt to control the papacy was thwarted at Legnano by the Lombard League. In another campaign, this man drowned in the Saleph River before he could join the forces of Philip Augustus and Richard I. Named for his red beard, for the point, identify this Holy Roman Emperor who died on the Third Crusade.
ANSWER: Frederick I (accept Frederick Barbarossa)
(20) A Vachel Lindsay poem titles one book about this state by Adam Hothschild which criticized its titular monarch for his personal greed in exploiting this state. The Force Publique cut off hands and otherwise mutilated slaves who failed to reach their quotas of rubber and ivory in this state. King Leopold's Ghost describes the atrocities in, for the point, what central African colony privately owned by Leopold II of Belgium centered on what is nowadays Kinshasha?
ANSWER: Congo Free State (accept Belgian Congo before "Belgium")
(21) Canadian aboriginal William Arnold Combes accused this person of kidnapping ten indigenous children. In 2017, the Paradise Papers revealed that this person's Duchy of Lancaster held offshore accounts to avoid paying taxes. This woman was criticized for not flying a flag at half-mast after the death of her daughter-in-law Princess Diana. For the point, name this queen who succeeded her father George VI as the monarch of the United Kingdom.
ANSWER: Elizabeth II
(22) James Knight captured Fort Albany for this company while in 1686, Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville captured this company's post of Moose Factory. As Chief Factor in this company's Columbia District, John McLoughlin became known as "father of Oregon". Indigo stripes called points were put on blankets that this company exchanged. The North West company encroached on this corporation, which was granted Prince Rupert's Land. Often employing First Nation trappers, for the point, name this company named for a bay in Canada.
ANSWER: Hudson's Bay Company (prompt on the Bay)
(23) The SB attempted to humiliate this man in the "Trianglo" action. Juan Maria Fernandez Krohn attempted to stab this man with a bayonet during his visit to Fatima. Another assassination attempt on this man was carried out by Grey Wolf member Mehmet Ali Agca. This man promulgated the Pastor bonus and the Catechism of the Catholic Church. A 1979 visit by this man to Warsaw helped inspire the creation of Solidarity. For the point, name this predecessor of Benedict XVI, a Polish-born Pope.
ANSWER: John Paul II (Accept Karol Jozef Wojtyla)
(24) While serving in this country's legislature, William Anderson secured a $500,000 loan from Britain. European traders labeled an area of what became this country as the Pepper Coast. Edward James Roye briefly served as this country's leader, its first from the True Whig Party that dominated its politics for a century. Joseph Jenkins Roberts was the first president of this country, which declared its independence in 1847 and was created with the help of Henry Clay and other members of the American Colonization Society. For the point, name this country, the first independent republic in Africa, whose capital is Monrovia.
(25) A chord made up of the notes F, B, D-sharp, and G-sharp is named for an operatic character of this composer. Ludwig II's design of Neuschwanstein Castle contains many references to the works of this composer. This composer, who wrote the controversial essay "Jewishness in Music," wrote an opera with excerpted numbers such as "Elsa's Procession to the Cathedral" and the "Bridal Chorus." The Bayreuth Festival honors the operas of, for the point, what composer of the Ring Cycle?
ANSWER: Richard Wagner
(26) In this state, Rafael Moneo designed a major postmodern cathedral to avoid right angles. Philip Johnson designed this state's huge all-glass Crystal Cathedral. This state was the center of Jim Jones's religious movement before the foundation of Jonestown in Guyana. Aimee Semple McPherson founded the Foursquare Church in, for the point, what US state where Spanish catholics established missions in cities like San Francisco and Los Angeles?
(27) Anton Drexler founded one predecessor to this political party, the Free Workers' Committee for a Good Peace. An extension of old-age pensions and land reforms to justify expropriating land were two of this political party's 25-Point Program, which were introduced in a speech at the Hofbrauhaus. This party's associated militia would occasionally beat up political opponents outside the beer halls where this party held rallies and were called the "brownshirts." Capitalism, Bolshevism, and Jews were frequent targets of, for the point, what party led by Adolf Hitler?
ANSWER: Nazi Party (accept Nationalsocializtische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP, accept National Socialist German Worker's Party)
(28) According to the Akal Takht, women are not allowed to sing hymns in the holiest temple of this religion. Members of this religion have a combination of sugar and water called "amrit" splashed in their eyes during the baptism ceremony. Many leaders of this religion were served by Baba Buddha. Members of this religion are required to keep the Five Ks when they are baptized into the Khalsa. Followers of this religion wear the "pagh" or "dastaar" to cover their "kesh," or uncut hair. For the point, name this South Asian religion founded by Guru Nanak.
(29) One leader of this country declared that "the revolution has no winners and no losers" and used the policy of Chehabism. Bashir Gemayel led the left wing Kataeb Phalange Party in this country, where a 1958 crisis prompted Dwight Eisenhower to authorize a U.S. intervention for Camille Chamoun in Operation Blue Bat. This country's 1943 National Pact shares power between Sunni and Shia Muslims, Greek Orthodox and Maronite Christians, and Druze in, for the point, what country centered at Beirut?
(30) Goldsmiths gave 76 paintings as annual offerings to this building, its Great Mays. The twelve apostles are placed in a circle around Christ at the center of this building's 84-panel western rose window, which was created by this building's first architect, Jehan de Chelles. A statue of Saint Thomas on this building's spire bore resemblance to this building's renovator, Eugene Viollet-le-Duc, who also replaced this building's gargoyles. That spire was destroyed in a 2019 fire that also largely destroyed this building's roof. For the point, name this cathedral in Paris.
ANSWER: Notre Dame de Paris Extra Question
(31) One side in this battle was bolstered by the arrival of John George's forces, though those Saxon troops were later routed. During this battle, Johan Baner's cavalry routed the Black Cuirassiers, who weren't given the proper authority to charge and attacked because of the myth that a Pappenheim would save Germany from an invading king. The losing side in this battle was forced to rehire Albrecht Wallenstein to cover for the wounded Count Tilly. For the point, name this 1631 battle fought near Leipzig, a great victory for Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years' War.
ANSWER: Battle of Breitenfeld
One man who held this position was killed in the 10.26 incident by the director of the KCIA. That man's daughter later became the first woman to hold this position until she was impeached in 2016. One man who gained this position in a coup carried out the Gwangju massacre and was named Chun Doo-‐Hwan. The first man to hold this position led his country through a conflict with a northern neighbor and was named Syngman Rhee. Park Chung Hee and Park Geun-‐Hye held, for the point, what position whose holders live in the Blue House in Seoul?
ANSWER: President of South Korea (Accept President of the Republic of Korea, accept Daehan Minguk Daetongnyeong)
This country's tourism industry was damaged when war criminal Milan Martic [mar-‐tich] set up a series of road blockades in the Log Revolution. The state of Krajina [kry-‐ee-‐nah] failed to break away from this country, which secured its independence after winning the Battle of Drvar in Operation Storm. Franjo Tudman led this country to victory against Slobodan Milosevic's forces, then pushed into Bosnia in 1995. For the point, name this country that gained its independence after the breakup of Yugoslavia and established its capital at Zagreb.
This battle took place near the Springs of Turan. After the battle, the loser was given an alcoholic drink as a symbol that he would be spared, which he misinterpreted by passing the glass to his ally, Reynald of Chatillon. Five months after this battle, Baldwin IV routed the winner of this battle at Montgisard. This battle, which was named for an extinct volcano that had two peaks, allowed its winner to recapture Jerusalem later that year. For the point, name this 1187 battle where Saladin crushed the crusaders. ANSWER: Battle of (the Horns of) Hattin
The first one of these locations in New York City was established by a man who opened a major cigar store on Park Row. In the 1870s, one of these locations was plagued by a series of wars between tongs. Immigration to these locations temporarily fell following the passage of an 1882 "Exclusion Act" A 1906 earthquake leveled San Francisco's example of, for the point, what urban neighborhood where Mandarin is frequently spoken?
(5) A failed raid on Richmond Hill Prison occurred during this conflict while a separate attack on Fort Rupert was successful. Governor General Paul Scoon was rescued during this conflict, in which US Rangers led a successful attack on Point Salines. The presence of 600 medical students was used to justify this conflict, which began after the execution of Maurice Bishop and led to the overthrow of Hudson Austin's government. American action in this conflict was code-‐named Operation Urgent Fury. For the point, name this 1983 American invasion of a Caribbean island.
American Invasion of Grenada (accept Operation Urgent Fury before mention, accept just
Grenada after "invasion")
(6) Suetonius relates that, after this man noticed that he had not helped anyone that day, he lamented "Friends, I have lost a day." This man commanded the Fifteenth Legion during the Siege of Yodfat, where he served under his father. An Amazon carried this man in a four-‐horsed chariot in a monument that commemorates his success at the Siege of Jerusalem. Mount Vesuvius erupted during the reign of this man, whose namesake arch was built two years after he completed the Colosseum. For the point, name this Flavian emperor who succeeded his father Vespasian.
Titus Flavius Caesar Vespasianus Augustus
(7) In this country, the Committee for Peasant Unity led a burning of the Spanish Embassy. A leader of this country nicknamed "Number 5" was overthrown in a revolution called the Ten Years of Spring. That leader of this country, Jorge Ubico, was succeeded by a man later deposed in a 1954 CIA-‐backed coup. Efrian Rios Mott was indicted for war crimes during this country's civil war, which began after that overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz. For the point, name this Central American country where Rigoberta Menchu publicized its genocide against Mayan peasants.
(8) This man began one conflict after a failed assassination of the ambassador Argov; that war allowed him to install a friendly government led by Bachir Gemayel. This man led the Herut party, which comprised many members of his former Irgun militia. This man launched Operation Opera, bombing the Osirak reactor to cripple Iraq's nuclear capabilities. One of this man's peaceful gestures involved the return of the Sinai to Anwar Sadat. For the point, name this founder of the Likud Party, the Israeli signatory of the Camp David Accords.
(9) Lyrics added to accompany this piece in 1941 include a line claiming that the central location's "daylight now is dawning." One section of this musical work depicts a scene in the court of King John III. This piece, which was written to commemorate the 1899 Press Celebrations, was originally known under different names to evade censorship efforts. The first tableau of this piece pays homage to a national hero, "The Song of Vainamoinen." For the point, name this nationalist tone poem by Jean Sibelius.
(10) This man's first act as governor was to execute Suleiman Zobeir to end the slave trade. A famous depiction of this man's final battle shows him staring at his watch as he is about to be speared. This man rose to prominence after succeeding Frederick Ward as head of the Ever Victorious Army. William Gladstone's government fell after failing to rescue this man from a Mahdist rebellion in the Sudan. For the point, name this British army general, known as "Chinese" for his role in the Taiping Rebellion.
Charles George "Chinese" Gordon
(11) This city's St. Lawrence's church was destroyed in a bombing commemorated by Ossip Zadkine's sculpture The Destroyed City. Colonel Scharoo's successful defense of a river flowing through this city prompted it to be bombed by the Germans in 1940. A famous resident of this city, who wrote In Praise of Folly, is commemorated as the namesake of a bridge that crosses the New Meuse River. For the point, name this largest port in Europe and second-‐most populous Dutch city, the birthplace of the philosopher Erasmus.
(12) This person dismissed artificial intelligence by stating that one machine could never originate anything. Section G of one set of this person's notes includes a complete method for calculating a sequence of Bernouilli numbers using that machine. This person was first introduced to the Difference Engine by Charles Babbage, and this person wrote what might be considered an algorithm for Babbage's proposed Analytical Engine. For the point, name this daughter of Lord Byron, often considered to have been the first computer programmer.
Ada Lovelace (accept Augusta Ada King)
(13) In 1994, this institution's director Nicholas Serota launched Operation Cobalt to negotiate with Yugoslavian Mafia members, whose theft of Light and Color and Shade and Darkness from a Frankfurt museum allowed this museum to profit from the insurance. This museum's Clore Gallery features the largest collection of the works by a painter whose namesake "Bequest" was initially divided between this museum and the National Gallery. The largest collection of J.M.W. Turner's works can be found in, for the point, what London art museum?
Tate Gallery (accept Tate Britain)
(14) A movement named for its leaders' shoes inspired one side's goals during this conflict, which included the Battle of Frankenhausen. After a leader of this uprising forced the Count of Helfenstein to run the gauntlet, he was replaced by a knight who had a iron prosthetic hand, Gotz von Berlichingen. During this conflict, the Swabian League was presented with the Twelve Articles. Supporters of this war were condemned as "murderous, thieving hordes" by Martin Luther. For the point, name this 1524 war fought against the Holy Roman Empire by namesake agricultural laborers.
German Peasants' War (or Revolt; accept any description of a war involving German peasants; accept Muntzer's Revolt; prompt on "Peasants' War" and similar partial answers)
(15) This event's perpetrators rose to prominence after attacking the Senluo Temple, causing its support to peak. Supporters of this event perpetrated the Juye Incident, in which missionary Richard Henle was murdered. This event included the siege of the Legations, which ended only when the Eight Nation Alliance was deployed. The New Policies were enacted by the Qing [ching] to address their failures during, for the point, what anti-‐foreigner rebellion that began in 1899 and was led by the Righteous and Harmonious Fists in China?
Boxer Rebellion (accept Yihetuan Movement; accept Quan Luan Rebellion; accept the movement of Righteous and Harmonious Fists before mentioned)
(16) In the aftermath of this event, Captain Edward York was interned in Ashgabat and staged a successful escape into neighboring Iran. John Birch aided the survivors of this event who were the targets of the Zhejiang-‐Jiangxi Campaign. To prepare for this operation, auxiliary fuel tanks were installed on each participating aircraft because the B-‐25 bombers could not reach the required 750-‐ mile range unaided. For the point, name this April 1942 mission launched from the USS Hornet, which aimed to deliver a first strike on the Japanese mainland.
Doolittle Raid [accept Tokyo Raid]
(17) The founder of this royal house had a spat with the Count of Auvergne, who once yelled "Who made you king?" This royal house was struck by a succession crisis in the Tour de Nesle affair, in which Salic Law was used to prevent the ascension of Joan. Members of this house were formerly known as Robertians, after Robert the Strong. This house's rulers included John the Posthumous and Charles IV, the last king from this house to rule before it was replaced by the House of Valois. For the point, name this French royal house that was founded in 987 by Hugh.
House of Capet (accept Capetians)
(18) This thinker originated the argument that, since one cannot cross an infinite stretch of time, the universe must have a beginning and thus there must be a God, the so-‐called "Kalam Cosmological Argument." This thinker's major work employs the standard of burhan or "demonstrative proof," and is a refutation of Neoplatonism and the Aristotelian philosophy of Ibn Sina and al-‐Farabi. For the point, name this 11th century Persian philosopher who wrote The Revival of the Religious Sciences and The Incoherence of the Philosophers.
al-‐Ghazali (or Algazelus)
(19) During this war, Aliceres Mango was dragged from his car and shot in the Halloween Massacre. This war was exacerbated by a concurrent war of independence from the exclave Cabinda, and it was briefly halted by the failed Lusaka Protocol. Because of their costly intervention in Operation Carlota, this war is often described as "Cuba's Vietnam." The 2002 death of Jonas Savimbi, head of UNITA, ended, for the point, what civil war in a former Portuguese colony with capital Luanda?
Angolan Civil War (accept Angola alone after "civil war" is read)
(20) In this region, the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Cave was built by the Qocho kingdom near Gaochang. During the 1750s, an uprising led by Amursana caused Emperor Qianlong to "pacify" this region, wiping out almost 80% of its Dzungar population. After Sheng Shicai was ousted as governor, the East Turkestan Republic was established in this region. In 1997, Uyghur [we-‐gur] separatist groups bombed Urumqi [oo-‐room-‐chi], the capital of, for the point, what predominantly-‐Muslim region in northwest China?
(21) Paul Dessau composed incidental music for many of this author's works, including one where Jessup feigns illness to avoid fighting in a civil war instigated by the Fat Prince. In that play by this man, the Ironshirts spare Adzak, who sheltered a peasant disguised as the Grand Duke. Eilif, Kattrin, and Swiss Cheese are killed during the Thirty Years' War in a play by, for the point, what German playwright of The Caucasian Chalk Circle and Mother Courage and Her Children?
(22) This battle was preceded by a clash at Lake Borgne that resulted in British troops establishing a garrison on Pea Island. A convent of Ursuline nuns legendarily saved the target of this battle from the forces of Edward Pakenham. In exchange for pardons, Jean Lafitte and his privateers supported American forces in this battle. The Treaty of Ghent was signed before, for the point, what 1815 battle in Louisiana that made Andrew Jackson a national hero?
Battle of New Orleans
(23) This general's victory at Petrovardin allowed him to impose the Treaty of Passarowitz over his enemies. This man mentored a young Frederick the Great at the Battle of Phillipsburg, one of his last battles in the War of Polish Succession. This man expelled the Ottomans from central Europe at Zenta, and his alliance with the Duke of Marlborough helped win the Battles of Blenheim and Malplaquet. For the point, name this Hapsburg prince, an Imperial commander during the War of the Spanish Succession.
Eugene of Savoy
(24) This group's purchases in the Treaty of Soldin were confirmed by the Treaty of Kalisz, in which they gave up Dobrzyn in exchange for Pomerelia. King Albert of Sweden ceded Gotland to this group in exchange for their expelling the Victual Brothers. This group managed to defend its capital at Marienburg despite losing Grandmaster Ulrich von Jungingen in a defeat to Polish-‐Lithuanian forces at the Battle of Grunwald. The Prussian Crusade provided lands for, for the point, what Germanic Crusader order?
Teutonic Order (or Teutonic Knights; accept Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem)
(25) This man allegedly justified using government funds for a Tunisian envoy's concubines since they were "appropriations for foreign intercourse." This man's first vice president was the first to die in office and was named George Clinton. A group of Federalists organized the Hartford Convention during this president's second term. This man's dinner was allegedly eaten by British troops, who burned Washington D.C. during his tenure. For the point, name this fourth President of the United States.
(26) Walter Duranty was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for his reporting on this initiative, which began after an earlier initiative was abandoned in the Great Turn. A square in Yekaterinburg is named after this initiative, one of whose goals was the creation of the Dnieper Dam. The Holodomor famine may have been a result of this initiative, which aimed for a 200% increase in iron production and a 110% rise in coal production. For the point, name this economic initiative organized by Stalin from 1928 to 1933.
the USSR's first Five Year Plan (prompt on "Five Year Plan(s)")
(27) Some of the earliest American projects created with the terms of this agreement taken into account were the Pensacola and the Salt Lake City. One side in this agreement allowed another to build projects similar to the Mutsu, which had been partly funded by donations from children. This agreement that called for 10,000 ton displacement limits on cruisers and submarines. This agreement was followed up by a similar 1930 treaty, signed in London. For the point, name this treaty that set international sea power restrictions.
Washington Naval Treaty (accept Nine-‐Power Treaty)
(28) A saint from this country wrote "The Dark Night of the Soul," and another saint from this country wrote "The Interior Castle." The Ladino language originates from the Sephardic Jewish community originally of this country. In this home country of St. John of the Cross and St. Teresa of Avila, pilgrims follow the Way of St. James to the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela. For the point, name this country where the Sagrada Familia basilica has been under construction for over 100 years in Barcelona.
(29) In this colony, V Force aided a British contingent at Fort Hertz. Operation U Go was launched from this colony, causing the Battles of Imphal and Kohima. A road named for this colony was cut off, forcing the Ledo Road to be built. Merril's Maruaders and Orde Wingate's Chindits operated out of this colony, where Aung San had originally supported a Japanese invasion. For the point, name this former British colony that fell when Japan conquered Rangoon.
British Burma (do not accept or prompt on "Myanmar")
(30) During this war, one side launched Operation Unceasing Waves I, II, and III as the capital of Kilinochchi changed hands multiple times. One side initiated this conflict after ambushing army patrol Four Four Bravo and lost support after a suicide attack killed foreign leader Rajiv Gandhi. A desire to create the state of Eelam led to, for the point, what war that lasted from 1983 to 2009, in which the Tamil Tigers fought against government forces on an island in the Indian Ocean?
Sri Lankan Civil War (prompt on partial answers)
(31) Taormina was the last holdout on this island against the Aghlabid Emirate. George Maniakes was assisted by Harald Hardrada in his incomplete attempt to conquer this island. That attempt would be completed by the Hauteville family, led by Robert Guiscard and Count Roger I of this island. Nearly all Frenchmen on this island were slaughtered in this island's namesake Vespers. For the point, Muslim and Norman rule were centered at Palermo on what island south of mainland Italy?
(32) This leader constructed the "Versailles of the Jungle" at Gbadolite and frequently traveled to Paris on shopping trips via Concorde. This leader changed both his own name and that of his country in his decolonization program, Authenticite. The MPR was the only legal party during this leader's rule, which was overthrown by AFDL rebels led by Laurent-‐Desire Kabila. This leader seized power from Joseph Kasa-‐Vubu in a coup and arranged the assassination of Patrice Lumumba. For the point, name this former president who renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Zaire.
Mobutu Sese Seko (Accept Joseph-‐Desire Mobutu)
(33) This man's alleged last words were "The battle is at its height -‐ wear my armor and beat my war drums. Do not announce my death." After his death, this man was given the title Chunmugong. A double agent plot led to the removal of this man in favor of a commander who was decisively defeated at the Battle of Chilchonryang. This man was killed during his final victory at the Battle of Noryang, after he defeated 330 Japanese ships with 13 at the Battle of Myeongnyang. For the point, name this "Nelson of the East", a Korean admiral who championed turtle ships.
(34) After a soothsayer proclaimed this man's destiny, he was raised by consort Ruqaiya, who was childless; this man later had a wife named "the Exalted One of the Palace". The Rajput state of Mewar fell to this man, who was called "King of the World". One son of this man defeated another son, Dara Shikoh, at the Battle of Samugarh; the victor of that battle was Aurengzeb. The Peacock Throne and the Red Fort were constructed during this man's reign. Married to Mumtaz Mahal, for the point, what Mughal leader built the Taj Mahal?
Shah Jahan (or Shah Jahan I or Shahab-‐ud-‐din Muhammad Khurram)
(35) The Alabama Letter was issued by this man to explain his stance on the annexation of Texas. In 1832, this man lost to Andrew Jackson as a member of the National Republican Party, which then merged with other parties to create the Whigs. This man was accused of striking a "corrupt bargain" with John Quincy Adams that led to him becoming Secretary of State. For the point, name this Kentucky politician labeled the "Great Compromiser."
(36) This empire founded the Buddhist Nalanda University during the rule of Kumara. Much of this empire's administration was chronicled in the writings of Faxian [fa-‐shee-‐ahn], a visiting Buddhist monk. This empire's conquests were chronicled in the Allahabad Pillar, which describes how Samudra brought this empire to its height. Repeated attacks by the Hephthalites, or White Huns, brought an end to this empire and the "Golden Age" of Indian culture. For the point, name this Indian empire that was founded in 390 AD by Chandra.
(37) This region is the origin of the Chod ritual, where practitioners attempt to "cut through the ego" through symbolic actions like offering themselves up to be eaten. People from this region inherited, from the native Bon religion, the practices of spinning prayer wheels and flying colorful prayer flags. Vajrayana Buddhists from this region are divided into "Red Hat" and "Yellow Hat" lineages. For the point, name this region controlled by China since the 50s, whose Buddhists are led by the Dalai Lama in exile.
Tibet (prompt on China before mentioned)
(38) This ruler was able to gain the support of the Trinovantes after a heavy temple tax was levied on civilians. Suetonius' travels to Anglesey presented an opportunity to this ruler, who took action after the will of Prasutagus was ignored. The Ninth Legion was destroyed by this ruler during the sack of Camulodunum, but she was eventually defeated at the battle of Watling Street near Londinium. For the point, name this Iceni queen who launched a 60 AD revolt in Britain.
Boudicca (or Boadicea; accept Buddug)
(39) Over 800 workers died in this country while building the Faux-‐Namti bridge. A "second special district" was formed out of territory in this country conceded by Austria and Hungary. A flag signifying "Five Races under One Union" was flown in what is now this country. Many Russians moved to this country's city of Harbin in the early 20th century, but fled after the People's Liberation Army received the city in 1946. Concessions like Guangzhouwan and parts of Tianjin were located in, for the point, what country where the British colonized the Pearl River's region of Hong Kong?
People's Republic of China (accept Republic of China; do not accept Taiwan)
(40) At this location, a general's victory at Thoroughfare Gap allowed two armies to link up and force the withdrawal of John Pope. A commander successfully defended Henry House Hill at this location, prompting his comrade Barnard Bee to declare, "there [he is], standing like a stone wall." Joseph Johnston's arrival allowed P.G.T. Beauregard to force Irvin McDowell from this Virginia location. For the point, name the location of the first major land battle of the Civil War.
Bull Run or Manassas (prompt on Virginia before mentioned)
(41) After this man recovered from an injury sustained in a bath, he was allowed to "rule," even though he had already been removed from power. During World War II, this leader's ambassador Carlos Garrido saved Jews in Hungary. The Tarrafal "camp of the slow death" was established by this ruler, who was targeted in a bombing by Emidio Santana. This leader used Gilberto Freye's idea of Lusotropicalism and was succeeded by Marcelo Caetano. The Carnation Revolution ousted, for the point, what dictator of the Estado Novo in Portugal?
Antonio de Oliveira Salazar
(42) A work addressed to this man tells him "now it is your turn to be the listener." Quintus Hortensius opposed this man during an event involving a corrupt governor of Sicily. A work framed as a three day long debate primarily focuses on Scipio Aemilianus and argues that pragmatic statesmanship is superior to political theory. Quintillian once claimed that this author of De Re Publica had a name synonymous with "eloquence itself." For the point, name this famous Roman orator of the Philippics.
Marcus Tullius Cicero
(43) These places were the subject of Minersville v. Gobitis and West Virginia v. Barnette, which dealt with the rights of Jehovah's Witnesses in them. A sexually explicit speech made in one of these locations was the center of Bethel v. Fraser. The wearing of black armbands in these places was the focus of Tinker v. Des Moines, in which Abe Fortas declared that "rights do not end at" these places' "door". Abingdon v. Schempp banned sponsored Bible reading in, for the point, what institutions whose desegregation was the center of Brown v. Board of Education?
(44) When faced with a difficult situation at this battle, one leader said "To escape is impossible, to surrender is unthinkable." Alvis Loredan's fleet blocked the Dardanelles in preparation for this battle, where cardinal Julian Cesarini died. A twelve-‐year old leader wrote a letter calling on his father, Murad II, to lead the armies at this battle, in which Transylvanian forces were under the command of John Hunyadi. For the point, name this 1444 battle, a decisive victory for the Ottomans in eastern Bulgaria.
Battle of Varna
(45) This scientist pooled his research with Olga Lepeshinskaya in order to prove that cells could be created from egg yolk. This scientist, who claimed that well-‐treated cows would produce more milk, gave criticism of Nikolai Vavilov that led Vavilov to be executed for dissent. Using a process that he called "jarovization," this man exposed wheat seeds to winter cold in order to make them more productive. For the point, name this pseudoscientist who won the favor of Joseph Stalin.
(46) This party launched the Six-‐Point Movement, which protested the One Unit division of one country into east and west provinces. This partly briefly merged with three others to form BAKSAL, and one leader of this party, Sheikh Mujibar Rahman, was abducted in Operation Searchlight. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina is a member of, for the point, what political party that was instrumental in the Bangladeshi independence movement?
Bangladesh Awami League (or BAL)
(47) This man reclaimed his throne after his troops were victorious in the Rout of Winchester. His forces successfully repulsed an invasion from David of Scotland at the battle of the Standard. After William Adelin was killed aboard the White Ship disaster, this man took control of the country. He agreed to sign the Treaty of Wallingford to end his feud with empress Matilda and confirm Henry II as his successor. For the point, identify this English king who ruled during the Anarchy, a member of the house of Blois.
Stephen of Blois
(48) This writer presented the dubious story that Pharaoh Sesostris led a campaign in Europe, but he also accurately described the flooding of the Nile. This writer's most famous work begins by describing the rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea. That work by this writer also details the rise of the Persian Empire and the battles of Mycale, Plataea, and Marathon. For the point, name this ancient Greek writer from Halicarnassus who wrote The Histories and is known as "The Father of History."
(49) This thinker organized formal systems in a ranking from "recursively enumerable" to "context free" and "regular" in his namesake hierarchy. This thinker argued that American mass media controls public opinion to support its governmental system in a book he co-‐wrote called Manufacturing Consent. This activist against the Vietnam War used the phrase "colorless green ideas sleep furiously" in his landmark book Syntactic Structures. For the point, name this MIT professor, the founder of modern linguistics.
(Avram) Noam Chomsky
(50) This city's Wadi Musa was said to be the location where Moses made water spring up from rock. The most famous building in this city was constructed by King Aretas IV and can be accessed through a narrow gorge. This city's largest monument is dedicated to the deified king Obodas I and is El Deir, or the Monastery. The Siq leads to the Khazneh Treasury carved into red sandstone cliff in, for the point, what capital of Nabatea that is located in Jordan?
Petra (accept Raqmu
(51) Seqenenre Tao fought these people's leader Apophis. These people's capital Avaris was attacked by Kamose and Ahmose, and their appearance was posited to be part of the Exodus by the Egyptian historian Manetho. The Second Intermediate Period began after an invasion of these people, which took place four centuries before the Sea Peoples' invasion. The term "Shepherd Kings" has often been used to describe, for the point, what group that conquered Ancient Egypt and ended the Middle Kingdom?
(52) Benito Garcia was killed by this institution for supposedly tearing out the heart of the Holy Child of La Guardia. This institution conducted auto-‐da-‐fe ceremonies where they burned marranos and moriscos. This institution was led by a man who advocated for the expulsion of the Jews through the Alhambra Decree, Tomas de Torquemada. For the point, name this fanatical institution which persecuted heretics in an Iberian country.
Spanish Inquisition (prompt on just "Inquisition")
(53) Eulji Mundeok defeated this dynasty when it tried to attack Pyongyang. This dynasty's ruler Yangdi invaded Vietnam, and is accused of killing the founder of this dynasty, Emperor Wen. The Battle of the Salsu River was a major defeat for this dynasty, which completed construction on a waterway connecting Hangzhou to Beijing. For the point, name this dynasty that fought a series of wars against the Goguryeo Dynasty of Korea, built the Grand Canal, and was succeeded by the Tang in 618 AD.
(54) This king asked Pope Celestine III to annul his first marriage and later married Agnes of Merania. The chronicler Rigord gave this man his nickname. This king insisted that a dowry should be returned to him in conferences with Henry II under an elm tree at Gisors. This king, who married Ingebourg of Denmark, traveled with Frederick Barbarossa and Richard I in the Third Crusade and defeated Otto IV and John I at the Battle of Bouvines. For the point, name this French king known as Augustus.
Philip II Augustus of France
(55) One speech about this event claims it was made possible by "false statements and expressions for hope of a continued peace." The decision to carry out this event was taken when a prime minister received the Hull Note. This event's planner claimed "I can run wild for six months [after this event]" but did not expect to defeat the Pacific Fleet. December 7 was declared a "date that will live in infamy" by President Roosevelt after, for the point, what surprise attack in which Japan attacked a Hawaii naval base?
Attack on Pearl Harbor
(56) The moustache of a pilot involved in this conflict has recently become a fashion trend in his home country. The Balakot airstrike occurred during this conflict in retaliation against the 2019 Pulwama attack. Fighting in this conflict frequently occurred on the Siachen glacier and the Kargil War was a part of this conflict. The Simla Agreement established the Line of Control which separates two sides in this conflict. For the point, name this long running territorial conflict over a mountainous former Princely State between India and Pakistan.
Kashmir Conflict (Prompt on India-‐Pakistan Conflict)
(57) A member of this family served as the final governor of the Baltic governorates. Another member of this family initiated the Battle of Saltanovka in an attempt to link up with Barclay de Tolly. The 1944 Soviet offensive that destroyed Army Group Centre was named for the most famous member of this family, who employed namesake fleches in the 1812 Battle of Borodino, where he was slain. For the point, name this Georgian royal family whose ranks included Pyotr.
(58) This man's plans were leaked to Henry Wilson by Hugh Forbes which resulted in him losing contact with his Canadian allies. Heyward Shepherd was killed by troops led by this man, an action used by Lost Cause advocates to combat his legacy. The Secret Six funded this man who had earlier received support from William Lloyd Garrison. This man was aided by "General Tubman" who was unable to join him in an attack in Virginia. For the point, name this abolitionist who led a raid on Harpers Ferry.
(59) In one part of this work, its probable commissioner is shown saying grace as chicken is being skewered over an open fire. The final caption of this work, which says that one group "is fleeing," is thought to be false. A poem by the Bishop of Dol made one of the earliest references to this work, which was commissioned by either Matilda of Flanders or Bishop Odo. Halley's Comet appears in, for the point, what embroidery depicting the Norman Conquest?
(60) This piece was inspired after its composer heard a tune being sung by the 6th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry. Its chorus may have developed from an earlier song called "Canaan's Happy Shore," and that chorus echoes "Glory, glory hallelujah" thrice. Written by Julia Ward Howe and set to the music of "John Brown's Body," it opens with the refrain, "Mine eyes have seen the glory / of the coming of the Lord." For the point, name this religious-‐patriotic song popularized during the Civil War.
The Battle Hymn of the Republic
(61) An author from this country wrote a work in which Janet Hayakawa sets the techie John up with his girlfriend, Liz. The twins Estha and Rahel are separated for decades in a Booker Prize-‐winning novel set in this country. The Golden Gate and The God of Small Things are set in this country, the home of an author who adopted the pseudonym "Joseph Anton" after a fatwa was issued against his novel Satanic Verses. For the point, name this home country of Arundhati Roy, Vikram Seth, and Salman Rushdie.
(62) Description acceptable. This event led to the death of journalist Roger East, who was executed at a cliffside after reporting on the Balibo Five. Max Stahl videotaped the violent suppression of protests in a Santa Cruz cemetery during this event. TThe United States adopted a "policy of silence" as the FRETILIN government was overthrown in this event. Dili fell to Suharto's forces during, for the point, what 1975 event in which Indonesia seized half of an island country?
Indonesia's 1975 invasion (or attack, annexation, etc.) of East Timor (accept Operation Lotus)
(63) One woman during this period was strangled after her infant son, nicknamed "offspring of the thief," was hanged. Jacob De La Gardie helped defeat the Rebel of Tushino during this period, but defected when Dmitri Shuisky failed to lift the Siege of Smolensk after being defeated by winged hussars at the Battle of Klushino. This period began after Feodor the Bellringer was briefly succeeded by Boris Gudonov. At least four pretenders to the throne named False Dmitris appeared during, for the point, what tumultuous era which ended with the accession of Michael Romanov?
Time of Troubles
(64) This ruler survived assassination from a 25 barreled gun, an "infernal machine" built by Giuseppe Fieschi. Popular discontent against this ruler grew after Francois Guizot prevented enemies of the Doctrinaires from meeting. This leader of the Orleanists was opposed by the Legitimist faction, which sought to restore the Bourbon monarchy. This man took power after Charles X was forced to abdicate. For the point, name this monarch who ruled over the July Monarchy in France.
Louis Philippe I
(65) Sir Leonard Woolley discovered a golden helmet belonging to this civilisation's King Meskalamdug. This civilisation's "King List" describes one city as the first in the world; that city, Eridu, was founded in the Ubaid period of this civilization. Eannatum of Lagash conquered an empire across most of this civilization, which built a "Great Ziggurat" in one of its cities and invented cuneiform. The cities of Uruk and Ur formed part of, for the point, what earliest known civilization, which was based in Southern Mesopotamia?
(66) Richard Talbot led one side's army in this battle, while the other side's army suffered in the Dundalk camp. George Walker was killed in this battle near Oldbridge, where the Blue Guards held off cavalry attacks. Two days before this battle, Anglo-‐Dutch forces lost to the Comte de Tourville at the Battle of Beachy Head. The Orange Institution commemorates this battle with yearly parades on The Twelth. For the point, name this battle in the Williamite War in Ireland, where William III defeated James II's forces on a namesake river.
Battle of the Boyne
(67) Many of this city's inscriptions were illegally removed by Harald Wagner. Another inscription in this city tells of Spearthrower Owl, who reigned for sixty years as king. The Ciudadela of this city contains a pyramid filled with snake-‐heads at each level, leading archaeologists to name it after a later deity, Quetzalcoatl. The Temple of the Sun is located along this city's Avenue of the Dead. For the point, name this pre-‐Columbian Mexican city whose heyday preceded that of the Aztec Empire.
(68) This politician's influence diminished after he tried to commute John Porteous' sentence for firing on protestors. The Licensing Act was passed to prevent enemies of this man from expressing dissent in theatre. This man's tenure was dubbed the "Robinocracy" and included the introduction of a "sinking fund" to combat the South Sea Bubble. He oversaw the War of Jenkin's Ear in his 21 years of service, the longest ever for a prime minister. For the point, identify this prime minister to George I and II, the first to hold the role.
(69) To disprove Georges Urbain's claim that element 72 was a rare-‐earth metal, this man hired George de Hevesy and Dick Coster to isolate hafnium from zirconium ores. He's not Rutherford, but a model named for this man is a violation of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle because it is impossible to know both a particle's radius and momentum at the same time. This man applied Planck's theory of quantization to electronic transmissions and used the Rydberg formula to calculate "allowable" energy levels for a hydrogen atom. For the point, name this Danish physicist.
(70) This man remarked he went to Athens "not to take lessons, but to reduce rebels to obedience," before defeating Aristion's forces. Quintus Sertorius led a revolt against this man in Hispania. This Optimate captured Jugurtha, but his commanding officer claimed credit. After this man marched on Rome for the second time, he eliminated rivals, forcing men like Julius Caesar to flee. For the point, name this Roman dictator, who used proscription to target supporters of his rival, Gaius Marius.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix
(71) The art of this country inspired the color scheme of the work Rose and Silver. This country influenced James Whistler's works that are housed in the Freer Gallery's Peacock Room. French impressionists purchased wood-‐block prints from this country, which inspired the style of bridge used in Claude Monet's Water Lilies series. European art was influenced by, for the point, what Asian country after the Convention of Kanagawa opened its borders?
(72) This man refused to marry the daughter of Megacles [mega-‐kleez], causing a rivalry between the two. One of this man's sons was killed by Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who were collectively called the "tyrannicides." This brother-‐in-‐law of Cleisthenes [klyce-‐then-‐eez] and father of Hippias and Hipparchus strengthened the olive trade and focused on economic growth. For the point, name this sixth century BC tyrant of Athens.
Peisistratos (accept Pisistratus)
(73) Agnes, a queen of this kingdom, founded the religious order Knights of the Red Cross with the Red Star. Sigismund, who later ruled this kingdom, feuded with the Ultraquists and Taborites after a follower of John Wycliffe was condemned at the Council of Constance; that man was supported by Wenceslas IV, a ruler of this kingdom. For the point, name this Central European kingdom where Jan Hus led the Hussite Wars in Prague.
(74) This city's Monumental Axis houses administrative buildings and joins with the Residential Axis to form an airplane shape. This city became the largest in the Federal District after it was developed under the "fifty years of progress in five" plan of Juscelino Kubitschek. Lucio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer were responsible for developing, for the point, what planned city that replaced Rio de Janeiro as its country's capital in 1956?
(75) An 18th century religious figure in this kingdom, Dona Beatriz, claimed to be an incarnation of St. Anthony. This kingdom was ruled by kings called manis; one such king was Nzinga a Mvemba, who became known as Afonso I upon his conversion to Christianity. This kingdom was administered from towns called mbanzas, the largest of which shared its name with this kingdom. In 1914, Portugal abolished the monarchy of, for the point, what kingdom that flourished from the 14th century along a namesake river in central Africa?
Kingdom of Kongo
(6) George Gay was sole survivor of one bomber squadron that fought in this battle, which occurred at the same time as an attack on Dutch Harbor. The breaking of the JN-‐25 code allowed one side to intercept the other at this battle, where Tamon Yamaguchi went down with the Hiryu. The USS Yorktown was torpedoed during this battle, where the Japanese lost four aircraft carriers. For the point, name this decisive American naval victory which turned the tide in the Pacific theater.
Battle of Midway
(7) Before a controversial budget proposed by Hugh Gaitskell forced this man to resign, he negotiated the end of the occupation of Mandatory Palestine. This man established the National Health Service after winning a shock victory in the 1945 general election. For the point, name this Labour leader who succeeded Winston Churchill and thus attended the Potsdam Conference in his place.
(8) Legends about this man state that he tricked his brother into a pit of live coals in order to become king, but this man felt great remorse after seeing rivers run red during the Kalinga Wars and converted religions. This ruler later constructed lion-‐topped rock edicts where laws inspired by dharma were written. For the point, name this Mauryan emperor who became a Buddhist.
Ashoka the Great (or Asoka the Great)
(9) After renovating Trier as ruler of the West, this leader won the Battle of Chrysopolis against Licinius, a man he had earlier ruled with as part of the Tetrarchy. This man used a tub of boiling water to kill his wife Fausta. During a civil war with Maxentius, this man, inspired by a vision of the letters chi [kye] and rho in the sky, won the Battle of Milvian Bridge. The Edict of Milan was signed by, for the point, what Roman emperor who renamed Byzantium after himself?
Constantine the Great (accept Constantine I)
(10) Following this event, Edmund Andros was deposed in Boston, and this event also removed a leader who lost the Battle of the Boyne. The English Bill of Rights was passed after this event, which was caused by the birth of a Catholic heir to James II. For the point, name this revolt which put William and Mary on the English throne.
(11) This religion's founder legendarily vanished after dying surrounded by flowers in 1539. Uniquely, this religion reveres its scripture as its final and eternal prophet and leader; that text is called the Granth Sahib. Langar halls attached to this religion's Gurdwara temples provide free food to their community. For the point, name this Indian religion whose followers often take the last name Singh and follow the Five Ks.
(12) This man began the Four Modernizations and once summarized his favorable attitude towards capitalism by saying that the color of a cat doesn't matter as long as it catches mice. This leader is generally credited with China's economic rise and transition to a mixed economy during the 1980s. For the point, name this Chinese leader who established Special Economic Zones in an effort to modernize its economy.
Deng Xiaoping (pronounced "dung", but accept that or the way it appears to sound)
(13) A philosopher from this island proposed love and strife as additions to the four classical elements. The philosopher Empedocles legendarily died by throwing himself into a volcano on this island. Another philosopher was killed on this island after allegedly telling a Roman soldier "do not disturb my circles." Archimedes died on, for the point, what Mediterranean island during the siege of Syracuse?
(14) A Native American attack in what is now this state destroyed Henricus in 1622. Much of the land that became this state was originally controlled by the Powhatan Confederacy. A Native American was claimed as the ancestor of many of this state's "First Families" through Thomas Rolfe, son of John Rolfe and the Powhatan Pocahontas. For the point, name this first enduring English colony in the New World, now a state with historical sites at Williamsburg and Jamestown.
(15) A remark that "there are 47 percent of Americans who will vote for the President no matter what" hurt the Republican Presidential challenger in this year, who ran on a ticket with Paul Ryan. This year saw the Summer Olympics return to London for the third time, four years after they were held in Beijing. For the points, name this year in which Mitt Romney ran against Barack Obama, who won a second term as US President.
(16) This war included the Battle of the Chinese Farm, where Ariel Sharon's troops attempted to defend a bridge crossing. After this conflict began with the surprise attack Operation Badr, Henry Kissinger conducted "shuttle diplomacy" to secure a ceasefire. The Camp David Accords brought an end to this conflict with Egypt and Syria. For the point, name this conflict in which Israel was attacked on the Day of Atonement.
Yom Kippur War (accept Ramadan War; accept October War; accept 1973 Arab-‐Israeli War)
(17) This man's raiding of Darien resulted in the capture of 20 tons of gold and silver during an attack on Nombre de Dios. On another expedition, this man left a bronze plaque to claim the San Francisco Bay area after landing in New Albion. This man boasted of "singeing the beard of the king of Spain" after he successfully launched a raid on Cadiz. For the point, name this English captain of the Golden Hind who completed the second circumnavigation of the globe and fought the Spanish Armada.
Sir Francis Drake
(18) This material is one of the nicknames of a Duke who won the Peninsular War and part of the nickname of a British Prime Minister that won the Falklands War. This was one of the two materials that, according to Bismarck, would solve the great problems of the day. An age named after this material came after the Bronze Age. For the point, name this metal that comes in wrought variety and is used to make steel.
(19) The current president of this country owns a large confectionary company, which has led to him being nicknamed "the Chocolate King." A recent leader of this country had his face disfigured after being poisoned with TCDD dioxin. Petro Poroshenko currently leads this country, where carousel voting was one of the fraudulent tactics used by Viktor Yanukovich in an election that caused the Orange Revolution. For the point, name this country where, in 2014, Russia annexed the Crimea.
(20) A writer from this island wrote a work that dismisses finding uses for the elderly since "they are every day dying"; that work was titled "A Modest Proposal For preventing the Children of Poor People From being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country". That writer from this island also wrote a work in which the title character visits Brobdingnag and Liliput, Gulliver's Travels. For the point, name this island where Jonathan Swift was born in Dublin
(21) This event ended plans to create the agricultural empire of New Helvetia. This event was publicized by Samuel Brannan, who ran down streets shouting the news about it. A dry goods business was operated by Levi Strauss during this event, which began after John Marshall made a discovery at Sutter's Mill. The "49ers" raced to, for the point, what economic boon in which miners flocked to Sacramento to find riches?
California Gold Rush (prompt on partial answers)
(22) This man ordered his secret police to massacre the city of Novgorod after it was accused of working with Poland, and this man once blinded the architect of St. Basil's Cathedral to prevent him from making anything as beautiful again. The incapable Feodor succeeded this man after this man had killed his son in a rage. For the point, name this Russian tsar known for his cruelty.
Ivan the Terrible (accept Ivan IV; accept Ivan Grozny; prompt on Ivan)
(23) This man was forced out of a window by his lover Manuela Saenz to avoid assassins in the September Conspiracy. Peninsulares who opposed this man were subject to murder after this man issued the "Decree of War to the Death" during the Admirable Campaign. This man attended the Guayaquil Conference with Jose de San Martin after engineering a victory at Boyaca to secure independence from Spain. For the point, name this general, known as the "Liberator" of South America.
(24) Debris from one tragedy involving this company have been found on La Reunion and Madagascar. Four months later, in another event involving this company, another of its planes was lost due to a surface to air missile launched by Russian forces. One of this company's planes vanished in 2014 and is presumed to have crashed in the Indian Ocean. For the point, name this company whose planes often use Kuala Lumpur International Airport.
(25) This man claimed that his mechanical oscillator managed to cause an earthquake in downtown New York City, and he postulated that electricity could be used to locate submarines. In 1934, this scientist claimed to have invented a superweapon called the Teleforce which is commonly known as his death ray. He invented a namesake coil and feuded with Thomas Edison in the "War of the Currents". For the point, name this Serbian-‐American inventor and namesake of an electric car brand
(26) This event was avenged during the Liberators' Civil War, in which the Battle of Philippi led to the suicide of the perpetrator Cassius. The target of this event had been stopped near Pompey's Theater and stabbed 23 times by a group led by Brutus. For the point, name this 44 BC attack on the Ides of March against a Roman ruler.
assassination (or murder, stabbing, etc.) of Gaius Julius Caesar (prompt on partial answers)
(27) According to legend, one of this artist's works was damaged when he hit it with a hammer and commanded it to speak; that sculpture was created for the tomb of Pope Julius II. Another of this artist's works contains a self-‐portrait as St. Bartholomew holding his flayed skin during the Last Judgment. God touches fingertips with the first man in The Creation of Adam by, for the point, what Italian artist who was commissioned to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel?
(28) This civilization's name comes from the Greek for 'purple people' due to the fact that they produced purple dye for Mesopotamian royalty. Sidon and Tyre were both major cities of this civilization, and a famous supposed member of this civilization fled after her husband was murdered and established a new city at Carthage. For the point, name this ancient eastern-‐ Mediterranean civilization that was centered in modern Lebanon.
(29) This empire was attacked by foreign troops after its ruler threw a Bible at the ground, insulting friar Vicente. A civil "War of Two Brothers" weakened this empire and led to the defeat of Huascar. This empire's final ruler was ransomed for a room full of gold. Before this empire fell to the conquistador Francisco Pizarro, it housed large population centers at Cuzco and Machu Picchu. For the point, name this pre-‐Columbian empire based in Peru.
(30) During this battle, one side's lack of rations prompted Kurt von Zeitzler to begin starving himself as a sign of solidarity. One side took advantage of this battle to launch the Little Saturn attack plan and target Rostov. This battle culminated with Operation Uranus, which led to the encirclement of the Sixth Army and the eventual surrender of Friedrich Paulus. For the point, name this 1942 battle on the Volga that is cited as the Eastern Front's turning point.
Battle of Stalingrad
(1) This man organized the car bombing of diplomat Orlando Letelier on the streets of Washington D.C. The Caravan of Death began executing political prisoners under this man's regime, and his DINA secret police spearheaded Operation Condor to purge left-‐wing elements in his country. This man came to power with CIA aid after his predecessor attempted to nationalize the copper industry. For the point, name this successor of Salvador Allende, a dictator of Chile.
(1) This civilization's Mehrgarh period provided early evidence of animal herding. Chickens may have been bred for religious cockfights under this civilization. The Great Granary and the ancient world's first public bath were built by this civilization at the Mound of the Dead. This civilization was centered around the Sindh province of Pakistan and included cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-‐Daro. For the point, name this Bronze Age civilization, named for a river valley.
Indus (River) Valley Civilization
(2) After ascending to the throne, this man reduced the role of the Potsdam Giants. This man was briefly imprisoned at Kustrin fortress after attempting to flee to England with his alleged lover Hans von Katte. This monarch was victorious at the battle of Hohenfriedberg, leading to the Treaty of Dresden. He secured his claim on Silesia, which he had seized from Maria Theresa in 1742. For the point, name this "enlightened despot" of Prussia.
Frederick the Great (accept Frederick II; prompt on Frederick)
(3) The Schwedagon Pagoda is found in this nation, and the "National League for Democracy" political party of this nation is led by a politician who has recently faced calls to have her Nobel Peace Prize revoked. That politician, Aung San Suu Kyi (pr. CHEE), has done little to help the plight of the Rohingya people within this nation. For the point, name this nation formerly known as Burma.
Myanmar (Accept Burma until mentioned)
(4) McClure's magazine helped expose the business practices of this man by publishing the work of muckraker Ida Tarbell. After adjustment for inflation, this man still stands as the richest American ever. The Sherman Antitrust Act created corporations like Chevron and Shell by breaking up a company founded by, for the point, what American industrialist who founded Standard Oil?
John D. Rockefeller
(5) In one of this man's novels, a general is thought to be the "beast prophesied in the Apocalypse" after his name is found to correspond to the number 666. This author, whose Sevastopol Sketches were set during the Crimean War, wrote about Pierre Bezhukov watching the Battle of Borodino during Napoleon's invasion of Russia. For the point, name this Russian author of War and Peace.
(6) Two ships deployed in this conflict were initially named Dog and Cat by Geoffrey Spicer Simpson. Askari troops led by Paul Von Lettow Vorbeck fought in this conflict, during which the Battle of Lake Tanganyika took place. An Arab revolt against the Ottomans during this conflict was assisted by Lawrence of Arabia, while Mustafa Kemal Ataturk came to prominence during this war's Gallipoli campaign. For the point, name this war which ended with the Treaty of Versailles.
World War I (or the Great War)\
(7) This structure is unusually built on an east-‐west orientation, suggesting it may have originally been meant for a royal funeral, and this structure has reservoirs called barays. This structure sits on the Siam Reap River, and it was constructed by Suryavarman II. It appears on the flag of the modern country in which it is located, and it was constructed by the Khmer Empire. For the point, name this monumental religious structure in Cambodia.
(8) Prior to this battle, the losing commander allegedly fired an arrow into the heavens and vowed to avenge the burning of Sardis by destroying Eretria. Groves of trees protected the flanks of this battle's winning side, who had waited five days to attack and finally made the decision to strike after Callimachus broke a vote. For the point, name this 490 BC victory over the Persians which preceded Pheidippides' 26-‐mile run to relay the news to Athens.
Battle of Marathon
(9) This man joined with Francis I in the "Unholy Alliance" after losing the city of Tunis. The Mediterranean fell under this man's control after his corsair Barbarossa won the Battle of Preveza. This man, who fell sick and died shortly after the siege of Szigetvar, scored his most famous victory over Louis II of Hungary at the Battle of Mohacs [moh-‐hotch]. For the point, name this longest reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
Suleiman the Magnificent (accept Suleiman I; prompt on Suleiman)
(10) The 11th Indian Infantry division was decisively defeated at the Battle of Silm River during this campaign. Invading forces famously advanced on bicycles during this campaign. The HMS Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk by air attack during this campaign, which culminated in a retreat to an island across the Johor strait. For the point, name this World War II campaign where an Axis power invaded a Southeast Asian British colony.
Malayan Campaign (Accept Japanese Invasion of Malaya or Malaysia)
(11) On the "Day of the Dupes," this man nearly lost power when Marie de Medici asked for his removal. This man successfully organized the capture of La Rochelle, a rebel stronghold, and led French diplomatic efforts for much of the Thirty Years' War. He was replaced by Jules Mazarin. For the point, name this chief advisor of Louis XIII, a cardinal who was nicknamed the "Red Eminence."
Cardinal Richelieu (or Armand Jean du Plessis)
(12) This man legendarily said "to the strongest" prior to this death in Babylon. This leader defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes River but later ended his invasion of India when his troops revolted. This leader won the Battles of the Granicus River and Issus before decisively defeating Darius III of Persia at the Battle of Gaugamela. For the point, name this Macedonian conqueror often nicknamed "The Great"
Alexander the Great
(13) During this conflict, Lord Roberts was replaced by Horatio Kitchener, who expanded the usage of concentration camps. This conflict ended after the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed between the Orange Free State and Great Britain. For the point, name this 1899 conflict involving Dutch-‐speaking farmers in South Africa.
Second Anglo-‐Boer War
(14) One side in this battle was criticized for initiating the "run to the south." Five battlecruisers were deployed by Franz Hipper to entice David Beatty's squadron into attacking to start this battle, in which the High Seas Fleet engaged John Jellicoe's Royal Navy. For the point, name this naval battle of World War I that was fought off a Danish peninsula.
Battle of Jutland
(15) This battle is alternatively known as Operation Watch on the Rhine. During this battle, George Patton claimed he could relieve Bastogne in just 48 hours. One side in this battle launched an attack through the Ardennes Forest in an attempt to recapture Antwerp. For the point, name this 1944 battle named for the shape made in the American front lines.
Battle of the Bulge (accept Ardennes Counter-‐offensive before "Ardennes" is read)
(16) Howard Florey and Ernst Chain employed a group of girls at Oxford to grow this substance on the surfaces of bathtubs before improved methods of growing it in submerged culture were developed. A British police officer with a face wound became the first patient treated with injections of this substance in 1941. An accidentally-‐uncovered Petri dish helped Alexander Fleming discover, for the point, what mold that became a massively successful antibiotic in the mid-‐20th century?
(17) A "fortress in the sky," Sigiriya, was built in this country, where Anula became the first woman to be president of an Asian nation. A famous tooth relic of the Buddha is located in this country's city of Kandy. Adam's Bridge connects the mainland to, for the point, what island country where the Tamil Tigers fought a lengthy civil war in the Indian Ocean?
(18) This program was introduced in a speech that declared "millions cannot and shall not hope in vain." One of this program's initiatives was ruled unconstitutional in the Schechter Poultry case. This program began with a bank holiday and the passing of the Glass-‐Steagall Act. The Tennessee Valley Authority was established as part of, for the point, what domestic program by Franklin Roosevelt that fought to end the Great Depression?
(19) The Battle of Lake Poyang led to the establishment of this dynasty under its first emperor, Hongwu. This dynasty built the Forbidden City and brought back giraffes after sending admiral Zheng He on a series of voyages. It eventually fell to Manchu invasions. For the point, name this last ethnically Han Chinese dynasty, which fell in 1644.
(20) Foreign enemies of this man formed the Grand Alliance to oppose his expansionism, and this king was targeted domestically in the Fronde revolt. This man revoked the Edict of Nantes with the Edict of Fontainebleau, ending toleration for Huguenots, and he defended his policies by declaring "I am the state." For the point, name this despotic French monarch known as the Sun King.
Louis XIV  (prompt on the Sun King before mentioned; prompt on Louis)
(21) On this river, Union forces under Andrew Foote and John Pope captured the strategic Island Number 10. The New Madrid [MAH-‐drid] Earthquake, which drew support for Tecumseh, caused this river to flow backwards. For the point, name this river that travels past New Orleans into the Gulf of Mexico.
(22) This leader was forced to resign after facing an internal party challenge from Michael Heseltine. James Callaghan was replaced by this leader after facing the "winter of discontent." The Poll Tax riots began after this politician instituted the unpopular Community Charge. After removing free dairy products for schoolkids, this leader was disparaged as a "milk snatcher." For the point, name this conservative Prime Minister of the UK, known as the "Iron Lady."
(23) Progressives rallied under this man after the president fired Forest Bureau head Gifford Pinchot. This third party candidate split votes with William Howard Taft, allowing Woodrow Wilson to take victory in the Election of 1912. For the point, name this founder of the Bull Moose party, a former trust-‐busting president.
Theodore (or Teddy) Roosevelt (prompt on Roosevelt)
(24) The composer of this work noted that "Joy follows sorrow" when he explained why this work ends in C major despite its Allegro con brio first movement being in C minor. The Morse code for the letter V coincidentally mimics the rhythm of this work's primary motif, leading this piece to be a Allied symbol for "Victory" in World War II. For the point, name this symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven that opens with an iconic "short-‐short-‐short-‐long" motif.
Ludwig van Beethoven's 5th Symphony ("symphony" not needed after it is read; "Beethoven" not needed after it is read)
(25) This event led to the banning of the RSS party for the first time and the false arrest of Vinayak Savarkar. A young girl tried to stop this event's perpetrator by saying "Bapu is already late." This event took place as its target went to the Birla House for morning prayer. The prime minister declared "the light has gone out from our lives" after Nathuram Godse carried out this event. For the point, name this January 30, 1948 event in which a non-‐violent Indian independence leader was killed.
assassination (or murder, shooting, etc.) of Mohandas Gandhi (or of Mahatma Gandhi) (prompt on partial answers)
(26) After viewing one painting featuring this man, Arthur George commissioned a more realistic version that included a mule borrowed from a peasant. The names of "Karolus Magnus" and "Hannibal" appear in another painting featuring this man, which shows this man pointing to the sky as his horse lifts its legs to continue a climb. Jacques-‐Louis David painted a depiction of, for the point, French general crossing the Alps?
Napoleon I or Napoleon Bonaparte
(27) Pre-‐Christianized Baltic mythology reveres a god of this domain called Saule, and in Hinduism, this domain is identified with the god Surya. In the 14th century BC, Amenhotep IV advanced the monotheistic worship of a god of this domain and adopted a new name based on it; that god, Aten, replaced another deity of this domain which was fused with the patron deity of Thebes, Amun. For the point, give this celestial entity worshiped in the form of deities like Ra and Helios.
the Sun (accept sun gods, solar deities, etc.)
(28) In The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith argued that this country should be solely agricultural. Friedrich List praised this country's namesake System consisting of tariffs, infrastructure subsidies, and a national bank; that system was based on the work of an author from this country who wrote a Report on Manufactures. The re-‐chartering of this country's second national bank was vetoed by Andrew Jackson. For the point, name this country whose author Alexander Hamilton served as its first Secretary of the Treasury.
United States of America (or USA; accept America)
(29) The samosely are people who refused to leave a Zone of Alienation created by this event, for which an iron sarcophagus was built to contain the aftermath. Weather changes in Sweden led to the discovery of this event, which rendered the town of Pripyat uninhabitable. For the point, name this 1986 nuclear disaster in Soviet Ukraine.
Chernobyl nuclear meltdown (or disaster, etc.)
(30) The U.S. signed the 1800 Treaty of Mortefontaine with this country, ending the Quasi-‐War. This country's forces were defeated by the Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu ending their colonization of Vietnam. A marquis from this country commanded a contingent of troops at Yorktown. For the point, name this home country of the Marquis de Lafayette who aided the USA in the American Revolution.
(1) Axel Oxenstierna ruled as chancellor after this man was fatally shot in a cavalry charge. After leading Protestant forces to victory at Breitenfeld, this man was killed at Lutzen. This "Lion of the North" was succeeded by his daughter Christina Vasa. For the point, name this Swedish king in the Thirty Years' War.
Gustavus Adolphus (accept Gustav II Adolf)
(1) "Nassau" was an example of a successful operation during this conflict. Sir Henry Gurney was assassinated during this conflict, and this conflict was won by the British under the leadership of Field Marshal Gerald Templer. The Batang Kali massacre occurred during this conflict in which Agent Orange was first used against the MPLA guerillas. For the point, name this conflict which ended with the defeat of Chin Peng's Malayan Communist Party.
Malayan Emergency (Accept Anti-‐British National Liberation War)
(2) This American politician wrote the First Report on Public Credit. He served as George Washington's Aide de Camp, and in his public career he championed the formation of the First National Bank. This man was later killed in a duel by the third Vice President of the United States. For the point, name this politician, the first Secretary of the Treasury who was killed by Aaron Burr, and who is now the subject of a popular musical.
(3) In this country, a recent convert to Catholicism was publicly executed and fired out of a cannon in the general direction of Poland. During one period in this country's history, the de la Gardie unit upheld the rule of Prince Shuisky before it was completely destroyed at the Battle of Klushino, which led to Gustavus Adolphus waging the Ingrian War. Men pretending to be the dead prince Dimitri arose during, for the point, what European country's Time of Troubles that ended in 1613 with Michael Romanov taking the throne?
(4) The sniper Timothy Murphy legendarily shot a general during fighting for Bemis Heights during this conflict. This conflict saw battles at Monmouth, Trenton, and Princeton in New Jersey. Benedict Arnold was incensed that Horatio Gates received credit for the surrender of John Burgoyne in, for the point, what conflict during which the Battle of Saratoga took place?
American Revolutionary War (Accept American Revolution)
(5) The former USS Serene was sunk during a battle in this body of water. That battle in this body of water led to the capture of American liaison officer Emil Kosh by victorious Chinese forces. The Johnson South Reef Skirmish and Battle of Paracel Islands occured in this body of water, and the nine-‐dash line reflects China's claim to this body of water. For the point, name this body of water where many Asian countries are involved in the Spratly Islands dispute.
South China Sea
(6) One Asian country recently became the first to land a craft on the far side of this astronomical body. This body is where Alan Shepard hit a golf ball to demonstrate a principle of physics to millions of viewers. This astronomical body is home to the Sea of Tranquility which Buzz Aldrin explored after disembarking from the Eagle. For the point, name this astronomical body which men first landed on in 1969.
(7) A general died in a plane crash during this war after exceeding his plane's weight limit by packing too many dress uniforms. The "Valley of the Fallen" memorial was created to honor the dead of this war, whose winner may have killed generals Jose Sanjurjo and Emilio Mola after serving in the Rif War. For the point, name this war in which Nationalists led by Francisco Franco took cities such as Seville and Barcelona.
Spanish Civil War (accept Guerra Civil Espanola)
(8) During this period, educated members of the youth were sent to farm in rural villages in the "Countryside movement." This period began with an order to "bombard the headquarters" and the political downfall of Liu Shaoqi. This movement tried to destroy the "Four Olds" of Western thought, and it was carried out by student revolutionaries in the Red Guard. For the point, name this 1960's "revolution" that sought to strengthen Communist ideology in China.
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution ("revolution" not needed after mentioned)
(9) Warren Jeffs, the leader of a "Fundamentalist" offshoot of this religion, was on the FBI Most Wanted list until his arrest in 2011. This religion, which teaches that spouses live together in the afterlife after Celestial Marriage, notes that Adam lived at a location near Jameson, Missouri after expulsion from the Garden. For the point, name this religion whose scriptures were legendarily translated from golden plates by Joseph Smith.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-‐Day Saints (or LDS Church; accept the Mormons; accept
(10) This ruler fought the battles of Chanderi and Khanwa to consolidate his rule against Rana Sanga. This ruler's early career was marked by constant wars with Mohammed Shaybani over Kabul and Ferghana. The governor of Lahore, Daulat Khan, invited this man to launch an invasion force against Ibrahim Lodi. This man was subsequently victorious at the Battle of Panipat. For the point, name the founder of the Mughal Empire.
(11) These people are the group that is being apologized to in the holiday "National Sorry Day" which a Southern Hemisphere country observes. Due to recent lobbying from these people, beginning this year, tourists will not be allowed to climb Uluru. These people's children were often taken from them in the 20th century, resulting in the Stolen Generations. For the point, name these indigenous people, many of whom live in Alice Springs, Brisbane, and other Australian cities.
(12) This man motivated his soldiers by telling them, "I do not order you to fight, I order you to die" during a defense of his homeland. Anger over the Treaty of Sevres prompted this man to lead a war of independence, leading his country to be recognized in the Treaty of Lausanne. This man later implemented "reformism" as part of the Six Arrows ideology, which banned the fez in an attempt at westernization. For the point, name this founder of modern Turkey.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (accept either or both names)
(13) Sayyid bin Barghash, the Sultan of Zanzibar, was exiled to this island, as was the son of Cetshwayo. On this island, Sir Hudson Lowe served as a jailer for another famous prisoner, who had previously escaped from Elba to lead the Hundred Days restoration in France. For the point, name this island that served as the final prison for Napoleon.
(14) William Alden Smith led an inquest into the causes of this event, in which reporters incorrectly noted that its victims had been saved by the Virginian. Benjamin Guggenheim, John Jacob Astor, and captain Edward Smith were killed during this event, which occurred during a journey between Southampton and New York City. The White Star Line's claims were proven false in, for the point, what 1912 disaster that killed more than 1,500 people in the cold North Atlantic ocean?
sinking of the RMS Titanic
(15) This man's forces were victorious at Ad Decimum against Gelimer, allowing for the reconquest of North Africa from Vandal hands. This man was asked to dismiss Tribonian during a revolt of the Blue and Green factions, but instead sent Belisarius and Narses to crush the Nika riots. This man's achievements include the construction of the Hagia Sophia and the codification of Roman law. For the point, name this great Byzantine emperor who was married to Theodora.
Justinian I (accept Justinian the Great)
(16) During this period, a nation's army was buried alive after it was led into an ambush by at commander only skilled in "paper warfare". The name of this period is derived from a book titled Strategies of "this period", and it lends its name to an era of Japanese history. The rule of the Zhou dynasty officially came to an end during this period. For the point, name this period of conflict in Chinese history that ended with the military unification of China by Qin Shihuang
Warring States (Do not accept Spring and Autumn Period, Accept Zhan Guo)
(17) Prior to this battle, Anne Savary was sent to Olmutz to ask for a ceasefire. The winning general declared, "never interrupt your enemy when he is making a mistake" during this battle, where a heavy fog helped obscure Nicholas Soult's attack up the Pratzen Heights. This battle led to the Treaty of Pressburg and the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine. For the point, name this 1805 battle in which France decisively defeated the Russian and Austrian armies.
Battle of Austerlitz (or the Battle of the Three Emperors)
(18) This leader oversaw the "Smiling Buddha" nuclear test and ruled by decree in a period called "the emergency." This politician ordered an assault on the Golden Temple in Operation Blue Star, which led to her eventual assassination at the hands of her Sikh body guards. For the point, name this Prime Minister of India, the only woman to hold that post and the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru.
Indira Gandhi (prompt on Gandhi)
(19) A group of these people were rounded up in the Drexel Mission Fight. James Forsyth's men perpetrated an attack on these people, which was stoked by fears that Wovoka's "ghost dance" movement meant imminent attack. That attack on these people began when the deaf man Black Coyote refused to hand over his rifle, leading army troops to fire upon the Pine Ridge reservation. For the point, name these people who were targeted in the Wounded Knee Massacre, the original inhabitants of the United States.
Native Americans (Accept Lakota)
(20) This man used a collapsing raft in an attempt to kill his mother, Agrippina the Younger, and he exiled his tutor Seneca. This man was accused of intentional sabotage to clear space for his Domus Aurea project and instead shifted the blame onto the Christians, whom he began persecuting. This man's assassination in 68 AD prompted the Year of the Four Emperors. For the point, name this emperor who was said to have fiddled while Rome burned.
(21) This god served the King Admetus for a year. During the Trojan War, this god encouraged Hector to attack Patroclus and guided the arrow that killed Achilles. He killed the sons of Niobe after she boasted of her superiority to this god's mother Leto. This god famously slew the Python and established the Oracle at Delphi. For the point, name this Greek god of Music, Prophecy and the Sun, the twin brother of Artemis.
(22) One modernizing president of this nation banned the wearing of the fez and instituted the Latin alphabet to be used instead of Arabic script. This country contains the former seat of the Ottoman Empire, and it has recently by led by the increasingly authoritarian Reçep Erdogan (pr. REJ-‐ep AIR-‐doe-‐wan). For the point, name this Eurasian country which established a capital at Ankara.
(23) One holder of this position who was also an accomplished marine biologist was the subject of the movie entitled The Sun. The Showa era is named for one holder of this position, who was forced to renounce his divinity after World War II. For the point, name this imperial position whose current holder, Akihito, plans to abdicate this year in Tokyo.
Emperor of Japan (or Japanese Emperor, prompt on Hirohito)
(24) This monarch may have prompted Robert Dudley to push Amy Robsart down a flight of stairs. The Babington and Ridolfi plots sought to assassinate this ruler but were thwarted by the advisor Francis Walsingham. This ruler rallied the troops at Tilbury, where she declared she had the "heart and stomach of a king" in opposition to an invasion of the Spanish Armada. For the point, name this daughter of Henry VIII, a "Virgin Queen" of England.
Elizabeth I (prompt on Elizabeth)
(25) This period featured the widespread usage of the phrase "the people want to bring down the regime" in graffiti and chants. The "Revolution of Dignity" took place against Ali Saleh during this period. After his vegetable cart had been seized by government officials, Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire; that incident sparked this period, which led to the downfall of the Gaddafi and Mubarak governments. For the point, name this 2010 period in which uprisings commenced across the Middle East.
Arab Spring (prompt on descriptions of revolutions in Tunisia, Yemen, Libya, and/or Egypt)
(26) The Battle of Hattin was a major engagement in the third of these campaigns. Frederick Barbarossa, died en route to one of these campaigns, where forces under Saladin fought forces from Western Europe. For the point, identify this set of religious conflicts, the first of which led to a kingdom being declared in Jerusalem.
Crusades (accept Third Crusade)
(27) This painting's artist insisted that it never be returned to its home country until a republic was re-‐established; in 1992, it was transferred to a museum known as "the Sofia." A flower grows on a sword being held by a detached hand in this painting. In this painting, a bull's head and a horse being impaled serve as symbols of Spain, which was at the time embroiled in civil war. For the point, name this Pablo Picasso painting inspired by the bombing of a Basque town.
(28) One mayor of this city unseated David Dinkins in a 1993 election. Another mayor of this city became a billionaire in the finance industry; that mayor of this city was succeeded by the incumbent Bill de Blasio. For the point, name this city where an airport is named for its former mayor Fiorello La Guardia, and where Mayor Rudy Giuliani won acclaim for his handling of the September 11 attacks in Manhattan.
New York City (or NYC)
(29) Holy Roman Emperor Charles V's attempt to invade what is now this country was defeated by the Lombard League, and Francis I was captured at the Battle of Pavia in this country. A city in this country was ruled by the Guelphs when it faced the Ciompi (pr. CHOMP-ee) revolt of wool workers; that city was later ruled by Cosimo and Lorenzo the Magnificent. For the point, name this country where the Medici family dominated the politics of Florence.
(30) One event in what is now this country saw Colin Campell led a defense during the Siege of Lucknow. This country conducted Operation Vijay against Portuguese forces to take the city of Goa. For the point, name this country which Britain controlled through a system known as the raj, and where after independence, a capital was established in New Delhi
(1) Description acceptable. Although it's not Italian, this legislation was passed with the support of the Squadrone Volante [squad-‐roh-‐nay voh-‐lan-‐tay]. One country entered into this legislation in part due to crippling financial losses in the Darien Scheme. These acts forced one country to acknowledge succession laws established in the earlier Act of Settlement. For the point, name this set of acts, passed in 1706 and 1707, that merged Scotland and England into Great Britain.
1706/7 Act(s) of Union (until "merged" is read, accept descriptions of the creation of Great Britain, or the union (or merger, etc.) of Scotland and England, or similar; after
"merged" is read, you can still accept descriptions, but they must say the word union)
(1) This man's fatal stabbing allegedly prompted his scheming wife Olympias to place a crown on the assassin's body. This man received the one word reply "If" after issuing a series of threats to Sparta. After this man pacified Greece, he organized cities into the military League of Corinth. This ruler's introduction of the sarissa contributed to a great victory over Thebes at Chaeronea. For the point, name this Macedonian king, the father of Alexander the Great.
Philip of Macedon (accept Philip II; prompt on Philip)
(2) This man was finally overthrown after a failed attempt to annex the Kagera province from Tanzania. During his administration, he invited Palestinian terrorists to land a hijacked plane at Entebbe airport and expelled all Asians from his country. This man had seized power from Milton Obote in 1971. For the point, name this dictator of Uganda.
Idi Amin Dada
(3) The most famous work of one artist from this country shows a white-‐shirted man before a French firing squad. This country was also home to a man who painted melting watches in the surrealist masterpiece entitled The Persistence of Memory. This country became home to an artist who went by a nickname meaning "the Greek" who painted a view of its city of Toledo. For the point, name this country home to painters such as Goya, Dali, and El Greco, who worked in cities such as Barcelona and Madrid.
(4) The decisive Battle of Kumanovo occurred during the first of these conflicts, which began while the losing side was embroiled in a war with Italy. Tensions over Thessaloniki led to dissatisfaction among the victors of the first war, which was ended by the Treaty of London. In the second of these conflicts, Bulgaria lost the land gained in the first war to her former allies of Greece, Romania, and Serbia. For the point, name these early twentieth century conflicts over a southeastern European peninsula.
(5) Simo Hayha, a native of this country who was given the nickname, the White Death, accumulated 250 sniper kills for this country in a 20th century war. This country was forced to give up Karelia after its defenses at the Mannerheim Line failed. This site then fought the Continuation War with the Soviet Union after its defeat in the Winter War. For the point, name this Nordic country where fighting took place in and around Helsinki.
(6) One invasion of this country was justified as an attempt to restore order after the Saur Revolution. That campaign in this country was opposed by Operation Cyclone, a United States effort to provide Stinger missiles to the mujahideen. The Brezhnev Doctrine was used to justify an invasion of this Central Asian country, which led to a boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics. For the point, name this country which saw the Soviet Union try and impose order in cities such as Kabul.
(7) This religion teaches a virtue exemplified by an un-‐carved block and emphasizes a paradoxical concept of "effortless action." This religion's mythology includes the Three Pure Ones and the Jade Emperor. A thinker from this religious tradition wrote that he couldn't be sure if he was dreaming he was a butterfly or if the butterfly was dreaming; that thinker, Zhuangzi [JWANG-‐tsuh], is one of the great sages of this religion alongside Laozi [LAO-‐tsuh]. For the point, name this Chinese religion whose namesake concept is sometimes translated "The Way" and which is often represented with a taichi symbolizing yin and yang.
Daoism (or Taoism; prompt on "Chinese Religion" or "Chinese Folk Religion" before mention)
(8) This man and Russ Feingold co-‐sponsored a bipartisan campaign finance law that was passed in 2002. This man, the only Republican member of the Keating Five, became Chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee in 2015. Push polls in South Carolina tanked this man's 2000 presidential primary campaign, and his later Presidential run fell apart after choosing Sarah Palin as his running mate. For the point, name this runner-‐up in the 2008 Presidential Election, an Arizona senator who died in 2018.
(9) This man turned on his former ally, Rim Sin I, after the city of Larsa failed to aid this man in his fight against Elam. This member of the Amorite First Dynasty completed a campaign begun by his father Sin-‐Muballit. This man is depicted receiving instruction from Shamash at the top of a stele where 282 of his decrees were inscribed. Under this man's rule, punishments were based on the idea of "an eye for an eye." For the point, name this Babylonian king known for his law code.
(10) This dynasty began to collapse after the rise of jiedushi military governors. Papermaking spread to the Western world when soldiers from this dynasty were captured at the Talas River. This dynasty was briefly interrupted when a competing Zhou dynasty was established by Wu Zetian. A sixth of the world's population may have died when this dynasty faced the revolt of An Lushan. For the point, name this Chinese dynasty in which the poets Du Fu and Li Po were active in the 8th century AD.
(11) An admiral was so frustrated with his side's poor luck during this battle that he wanted to quit the navy. That admiral, Chuichi Hara, commanded the 5th Carrier Division during this battle which occurred during Operation MO. The Shokaku was crippled during this battle, while the Lexington was lost. For the point, name this first naval battle in history where neither side's ships directly saw each other, which took place in a namesake body of water off northeastern Australia.
Answer: Battle of Coral Sea
(12) A dreaming character in this work sees a house where people eat clay in the house of dust of the underworld. Seven progressively staler loaves of bread indicate that the protagonist of this work failed to stay awake for seven days, preventing him from receiving the secret of immortality from Utnapishtim. This work was rediscovered in its 12-‐tablet form in the 19th century in excavations of the library of Ashurbanipal. A one-‐third mortal, two-‐thirds immortal Sumerian king is the namesake protagonist of, for the point, what ancient Mesopotamian epic poem?
Epic of Gilgamesh
(13) This goddess emerged from her father's left eye, and her brother once threw a flayed horse through the roof of her weaving hall. She was lured out of a cave by the lewd dancing of Uzuwe, and then was mesmerized by her own reflection in a mirror. She gave the Yasanaki Gem to her grandson, the first Emperor of Japan. For the point, name this chief sun goddess of the Shinto religion.
(14) Ernst Forstemann deciphered arrangements of shells, dots, and bars on one of these systems that is contained in the Dresden Codex. People recuperated during Wayeb' periods on the Haab' type of these systems. Base 20 and Base 18 are used in the "Long Count" type of these systems, which was unearthed on the side of Stela C at Tres Zapotes. An apocalypse was falsely believed to occur in 2012 due to the conclusion of a 5,126 year-‐long cycle in, for the point, what type of system that was used by a certain Mesoamerican civilization to keep track of days?
Mayan calendars (prompt on partial answers)
(15) This country was invaded in Operation Countenance, a joint operation of the UK and USSR. After this country's monarchy gave away massive business concessions named for D'Arcy and Reuters, the Constitutional Revolution forced it to adopt a parliament. Operation Ajax overthrew a popular Prime Minister of this country, Mohammad Mossadegh. The last monarchial ruler of this country tried to emancipate its women in the White Revolution. For the point, name this Middle Eastern country that was ruled by the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasties from Tehran.
Iran (accept Persia)
(16) This man was captured by John de Menteith shortly after resigning his post in favor of John Comyn. During the "Action at Lanark," this man rose to infamy by murdering the sheriff William Heselrig. Though this man was forced to abdicate the title of Guardian after losing at Falkirk, this man's alliance with Andrew Moray had scored a great victory over the Earl of Surrey in 1297. For the point, name this hero of Scotland who was victorious at Stirling Bridge.
(17) In a work from this discipline, G.E. Moore introduced the naturalistic fallacy; that work is titled the "Principia" of this discipline. Philippa Foot introduced a popular thought experiment to this philosophical discipline involving a trolley. Baruch Spinoza's magnum opus is titled for this concept, "Demonstrated in Geometrical Order." One movement in this field emphasizes the primacy of "virtues." For the point, name this field of philosophy concerned with right and wrong.
Ethics (accept Ethica; prompt on moral philosophy or morals)
(18) A group of advisors to this king were dubbed "the ministry of all the talents" and included Lord Grenville. This king was once served by Spencer Perceval, the only British Prime Minister to have been assassinated. Under this king, William Pitt was able to merge Ireland with England in the Act of Union. This king allowed his son to rule through the Regency Act, which was set up to combat this king's growing insanity. For the point, name this English king who lost control of the 13 American colonies.
(19) This man constructed the highest gateway in the world, Buland Darzawa, to commemorate victory over Gujarat. The reign of this man was chronicled by Abu Fazl and included a regency period where the kingdom was ruled by Bairam Khan. "Nine Jewels" of this man's court included Faizi and Birbal, who aided this man in establishing a syncretic religion known as Din-‐i-‐ilahi. This man's other religious reforms included abolishing the jizya tax on non-‐Muslims. For the point, name this great Mughal emperor, the son of Humayun.
Akbar the Great (or Akbar I; accept Abu'l-‐Fath Jalal-‐ud-‐din Muhammad Akbar)
(20) This country is home to the Tuat, a region with a string of oases that were vital to traveling Tuareg caravans. Mount Tahat in the Hoggar Mountains is the tallest mountain in this country, which has the largest land area of the countries in the Maghreb. This country's president Abdelaziz Bouteflika withstood the Arab Spring protests that toppled the Ben Ali regime in neighboring Tunisia. For the point, name this North African country from which French refugees fled cities like Oran during its war for independence.
(21) Over 20,000 people were killed in one of these facilities in 27 AD in Fidenae, just outside Rome, causing the Senate to regulate the inspection of these facilities. In 1964, 328 people died in one of these buildings in Lima after police fired tear gas to stop a pitch invasion. Crushes are a common cause of death in disasters involving these buildings, as happened at Heysel in 1985 and Hillsborough in 1989; both of those disasters involved Liverpool FC. For the point, name this type of entertainment facility where "hooligan" fans have clashed during European football matches.
stadiums (accept amphitheater, as the Roman example was somewhat both; accept football/soccer stadiums and equivalents after the first sentence is over; prompt on "arena;" prompt on "theater" during first sentence only)
(22) This man was excommunicated after sentencing Aloysius Stepinac to prison over criticism of his government. This man was the target of Operation Knight's Move, where SS units attempted to capture him at Drvar. In his later career, this man presided over the Informbiro period after his country was expelled from Cominform. His split with Stalin prompted him to act as the European representative of the Non-‐Aligned Movement. For the point, name this marshal who ruled Yugoslavia for over four decades.
Josip Broz Tito
(23) This action was first attempted by Rene Fonck, who had the backing of Igor Sikorsky and a custom-‐made S-‐35. Charles Nungesser and Francois Coli's "White Bird" may have met its end in Maine while attempting this action. John Alcock and Arthur Brown became the first to accomplish this feat in 1919. To incentivize a more challenging completion of this action, Raymond Orteig offered a $25,000 prize. For the point, name this action that was performed by the Spirit of St. Louis, as piloted by Charles Lindbergh across a certain body of water.
non-‐stop flying across the Atlantic Ocean (prompt on partial answers like "flight"; accept equivalent descriptions, like nonstop transatlantic flight)
(24) One composer who worked and died in this city left unfinished an opera based on Frank Wedekind's Lulu plays. That composer, Alban Berg, helped promote a "new school" of music based in this city that popularized the twelve-‐tone technique invented by its founder, Arnold Schoenberg. Beethoven is buried in this city. For the point, name this city where more classical composers like Haydn and Mozart worked in the capital of Austria.
Vienna (or Wien; accept Second Viennese School)
(25) This monarch received the territories of Bresse and Gex in exchange for Saluzzo from Savoy as part of the Treaty of Lyon. This monarch defeated the Duke of Mayenne at Ivry during a larger war in which this man was opposed by the Duc de Guise and the Catholic League. He issued the Edict of Nantes to institute toleration for Huguenots, but converted to Catholicism to become king, declaring "Paris is worth a mass." For the point, name this first Bourbon king of France.
Henry IV of France (accept Henry of Navarre; prompt on Henry)
(26) This battle was preceded by the formation of the Iron and Blood corps, consisting of middle schoolers. One side in this battle aimed to capture the Kadena airstrip to serve as a jumping point for Operation Downfall. The world's largest battleship was sunk at this battle during Operation Ten-‐Go, a suicide mission for the Yamato. This battle, codenamed Iceberg, included the largest amphibious assault of the Pacific Theatre. For the point, name this 1945 battle for one of the Ryukyu Islands.
Battle of Okinawa
(27) Outside this city's Conrad Hilton hotel, protesters chanted "The whole world is watching" as police beat them. A group including the Yippie leaders Jerry Rubin and Abbie Hoffman were put on trial for protesting in this city. George McGovern was supported in a speech in this city by Abraham Ribicoff, who complained of "Gestapo tactics" during the 1968 Democratic National Convention. On election night in 2008, Barack Obama held a victory rally in this city's Grant Park. Mayor Richard J. Daley led, for the point, what largest city in Illinois?
(28) This country was the site of Operation Dragon Rouge, where Belgian troops defeated the communist Simba rebels. Peace negotiations in this country were thwarted when Dag Hammarskjold, the UN Secretary-‐General, died in a plane crash. Laurent Kabila successfully led rebel troops in overthrowing this country's leader, Mobutu Sese Seko. For the point, name this country that was briefly named Zaire and has its capital at Kinshasa.
Democratic Republic of the Congo (accept Zaire before mentioned; prompt on Congo; do not accept Republic of the Congo)
(29) This event was overseen by Otto Braun until his removal at the Zunyi Conference. During this event, the crossing of the Luding Bridge proved to be a great propaganda victory. The Encirclement Campaigns necessitated this event, whose planners were interviewed in Edgar Snow's Red Star Over China. For the point, name this event, a military escape to Shaanxi to save the Red Army that was led by Mao Zedong in the Chinese Civil War.
Long March (or Hongjun Chang Zheng)
(30) The founder of this group formulated the daily "examen" prayer in his book, the Spiritual Exercises. Missionaries from this order created the Vietnamese alphabet and were the first to spread Catholicism to Japan as part of its 16th-‐century Asian mission led by Francis Xavier. Pope Francis is the first pope to be a member of this order. For the point, name this Catholic order founded by Ignatius of Loyola, known for its universities.
Jesuits (or the Society of Jesus; or Societas Jesu)
(1) A legislator from this region used a derogatory Japanese slur for China while taking an oath of office. This city, which saw the rise of the Demosisto party, saw Yau Wai Ching lose her Kowloon West legislative council seat. Agnes Chow lost a 2018 by-‐election in, for the point, what island city where Joshua Wong was imprisoned during the Umbrella Movement?
(2) One of these animals named Laika was picked up off the streets of Moscow and then sent on a one-‐way voyage into space. Another one of these animals named Balto helped deliver serum to stop an outbreak in Nome, Alaska, an event which is commemorated in the Iditarod race which these animals compete in. These animals were bred to hunt, resulting in breeds such as Borzois in Russia and Chesapeake Bay Retrievers in the USA. For the point, name these animals, including FDR's terrier, Fala, which are often kept as pets.
(3) This man gave a speech promising to "break the bonds of mass misery" for those who live in "huts in villages," "not because we seek their votes, but because it is right." This President pledged to "support any friend" and "oppose any foe" to "secure the survival of liberty." This President's inauguration featured a Robert Frost reading, and he gave the advice "ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country." For the point, name this first Catholic US president.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy (Accept JFK, prompt on Kennedy)
(4) The owner of Four Seasons resorts, Isadore Sharp, founded a marathon to fight this disease. Percival Pott discovered a form of this disease common to chimney sweeps, the first time it had been blamed on environmental factors. An athlete with this disease ran from St. John's, Newfoundland to Thunder Bay, Ontaro before dying in the Marathon of Hope. Terry Fox raised money for, for the point, what class of diseases that often presents with abnormal cell growth, causing tumors?
(5) This island chain was home to the law of the Splintered Paddle during its monarchy. Monarchs such as David Kalakaua ruled this island chain until its annexation by the USA. Duke Kahanamoku helped develop surfing as a sport in this island chain on its Waikiki Beach. For the point, name this island chain, whose Queen Liliuokalani was overthrown, and which became the 50th US state with a capital at Honolulu in the Central Pacific Ocean
This man's military reforms were the subject of the Burghal Hidage, which described how a series of defensive "burhs" were established. After suffering a loss at Chippenham, this man was forced to hide in the Somerset marshes while his forces recovered. This man limited the size of the Danelaw after a victory at Edington against Guthrum, a Viking invader. For the point, name this English monarch who expanded Wessex's power in the late 9th century.
Alfred the Great
(1) This man's attempts to reform the Palmach special forces led to the Generals' Revolt. Racial unrest in Yemen prompted this man to launch Operation Magic Carpet, in which refugees were airlifted into his country. This man merged the Irgun and other militias into a unified defense force to fight the 1948 War of Independence, after which he led the Mapai party as the first head of state of his country. For the point, name this first Prime Minister of Israel.
(2) This battle featured Robert Toombs' valiant defense of Burnside's Bridge, where Union troops were stalled for three hours. The losing side in this battle took up defensive positions in Miller's Cornfield and Dunker Church. After winning control of a sunken road known as the "Bloody Lane," George McClellan was sacked for failing to follow up on his victory in this battle. For the point, name this 1862 battle in Maryland, the bloodiest single day of the Civil War.
Battle of Antietam (or Battle of Sharpsburg)
(3) This ruler's downfall was prophesied by Saint Dunstan after this man defecated into a baptismal font as a child. This ruler's navy was destroyed at the Battle of Maldon, forcing him to pay the Danegeld tribute. This man ordered the St. Brice's Day Massacre in an attempt to secure power, but was instead forced into exile when Sweyn Forkbeard invaded his kingdom. Edmund Ironside was the son of, for the point, what English king whose name misleadingly suggests poor preparation?
Aethelred the Unready (accept Aethelred II; prompt on Aethelred)
(4) This leader constructed the Sainte-‐Chapelle complex to house the Crown of Thorns and parts of the True Cross, which he had purchased from the Byzantines. A heavy defeat at Fariskur ended this leader's most famous campaign, in which he captured the city of Damietta. Blanche of Castile ruled in this leader's name while he fought in the Seventh Crusade. An outbreak of dysentery eventually killed this man while he was encamped in Tunisia. For the point, name this French king who was canonized in 1297.
Louis IX (accept Saint Louis; prompt on Louis)
(5) This man captured the city of Giurgiu [jur-‐joo] and executed Hamza Pasha after a dispute over the jizya tax. He was briefly imprisoned by Matthias Corvinus after entering Hungary to seek military aid. This man's "Night Attack" failed to capture his great enemy, Mehmed II, at Targoviste, where this man had executed 23,000 Ottomans in signature fashion. The cruelty of this ruler inspired a famous Bram Stoker novel. For the point, name this ruler of Wallachia who mounted his enemies on stakes.
Vlad the Impaler (accept Vlad Tepes or Vlad III)
(6) This man took Saoterus as his chamberlain, who was later implicated in a murder plot against this man. This man gave Tigidius Perennis much of the responsibility of running his empire before he executed him in favor of Cleander. His first act as ruler was to end the Marcomannic Wars and he was succeeded by Pertinax. He died when Narcissus strangled him in a bath after he vomited up poison given to him by his mistress Marcia. This emperor fought as a gladiator and ended the Nerva-‐Antonine dynasty. For the point, name this successor of Marcus Aurelius.
Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus (or Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus)
(7) This site was first recorded by the visiting soldier Vicente Pegado, who called it "Symbaoe." The Mutapa and Monomotapa civilizations were founded by migrants from this site as its trade network with Kilwa collapsed. The Hill Complex and Great Enclosure are distinct archaeological groups within this site, which became known for its mortarless high walls and its eight soapstone bird figures. For the point, name this ruined city that now lends its name to a country with capital Harare.
1) The ethnic Albanian Khedive Muhammad Ali ruled this nation with Sudan after he defeated the militant Mamluk Dynasty. German troops invading this country in World War II were stopped in its northwestern city of El Alamein. Ferdinand de Lesseps built a large structure in this country, linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. The Suez Canal was built in, for the point, what country that is led from Cairo?
2) Edward House influenced the American position on a treaty negotiated by this president, which was opposed by the Irreconcilables in the Senate under Henry Cabot Lodge. Prior to becoming US president, this man served as president of Princeton University. This president called for the formation of the League of Nations as part of his Fourteen Points, which he incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles. For the point, name this US President during World War I.
3) Some prospectors in this industry were dubbed Wildcatters. Marion King Hubbert popularized the theory that U.S. production within this industry would "peak" by the 1980s. J. Paul Getty and T. Boone Pickens were two industrialists who made their fortune in this industry, which has recently boomed near the Bakken Formation in the Dakotas due to the use of horizontal drilling. For the point, name this industry that produces petroleum.
4) One commander during this conflict was exiled after the Battle of Notium and was named Alcibiades . The Battle of Arginusae occurred during this conflict which ended with a decisive Spartan victory at the Battle of Aegospotami. For the point, name this conflict between Athens and Sparta, the subject of a work by Thucydides
5) In this country, fetal deaths by abortion and miscarriage are called "water children" and commemorated by a service involving statues of a bodhisattva who will guide them through the afterlife. Francis Xavier led a 16th-‐century Jesuit mission to spread Christianity to this country. A temple in this country is rebuilt every 20 years, and shrines in this country are built for the veneration of kami and sometimes feature torii gates. For the point, name this home country of Shintoism.
6) A park with a motif of ceramic lilies in this city was designed by the architect of a basilica that has been under construction for 90 years, the Sagrada Familia. Recent protests along La Rambla in this city have taken place in support of Catalan independence. For the point, name this Spanish city whose namesake soccer club has played numerous El Clásico matches against Real Madrid.
7) Diognetus reportedly diverted mud to this island to capture a moveable siege tower. Philippe de Villiers de L'Ilse-‐Adam commanded the Knights Hospitalier to defend this island against Suleiman the Magnificent in 1522. A 226 BC earthquake destroyed this island's bronze statue of Helios. For the point, name this Greek island famed for its Colossus.
8) This leader, who lost control of the Aksai Chin region during a war with China, claimed his country would "awake to life and freedom" "at the stroke of the midnight hour" in his "Tryst With Destiny" speech. The law minister B. R. Ambedkar was appointed by this leader, the father of another of its prime ministers, Indira Gandhi. For the point, name this first Prime Minister of an independent India.
9) The Santisima Trinidad was captured during this battle alongside the flagship Bucentaure. Cuthbert Collingwood led an aggressive maneuver during this battle and took command of the British fleet after the death of a commander who used HMS Victory as his flagship. For the point, name this 1805 naval battle in which Villeneuve was decisively defeated by Horatio Nelson.
Battle of Trafalgar
10) The third war fought between Britain and this country established the Durand Line, which split the Pashtun people between Pakistan and this country. An invasion of this country by the Soviet Union in 1979 led fighting against Islamic fighters known as Mujahideen. For the point, name this country whose wars with Britain and the Soviets included bombings in Kabul.
11) Put-‐in-‐Bay in this body of water was the site of a battle in which the captain of the Lawrence, Oliver Hazard Perry, defeated a British fleet. Industrial development on this body of water grew rapidly when Standard Oil's facilities were built on this lake's port of Cleveland. For the point, name this Great Lake which is connected to Lake Ontario via the Niagara River and was the site of a crucial battle in the War of 1812.
12) This man established a dynasty that twice tried to invade Japan, but was stopped due to storms known as kamikazes. This man was visited at court by an Italian emissary, and this man was the namesake of a famous poem by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. For the point, name this founder of the Yuan Dynasty, who extended Mongol control of China after the conquests of his grandfather Genghis Khan.
13) A city in this province hosted the 1976 Summer Olympics but lost its baseball team in 2004 when it moved to Washington. The Meech Lake Accords attempted to resolve this province's status. Maurice Duplessis once led this province which conducted independence referenda in 1980 and 1995. For the point, name this French-‐speaking province of Canada.
14) Over 1.8 million children were vaccinated against this disease as part of the Francis Field Trial, then the world's largest medical experiment. The March of Dimes advocated for eradicating this disease by funding the work of Albert Sabin and Jonas Salk, who invented two different methods of preventing it. The production of iron lungs sharply fell thanks to, for the point, effective treatments to prevent which disease that Franklin Roosevelt suffered from?
15) When news of this event broke, the Boston Symphony Orchestra immediately played the second movement of Beethoven's Eroica symphony, a funeral march. The soap opera As The World Turns was interrupted by Walter Cronkite breaking the news of this event. For the point, what November 22, 1963 murder was followed by Lyndon Johnson taking the oath of office in Dallas?
assassination of John F. Kennedy
16) Edgar Snow commented that Communist forces formed a passion for this sport during the Chinese Civil War. Glenn Cowan missed his team bus in an incident involving this sport, during which he was presented with a gift by Zhuang Zedong. That incident resulted in a type of diplomacy named for this sport. For the point, name this indoor Olympic sport which uses paddles and has often been dominated by Chinese players.
17) A Pulitzer Prize winning photograph shows three firefighters standing on ruins looking at this object. The first of these objects is often thought to have been made by a Philadelphia woman, Betsy Ross, though there is no concrete evidence to support that claim. These objects acquired two additional stars after 1959 when Alaska and Hawaii joined the union. For the point, name these objects that fly over Washington, DC and other American cities.
18) This country is home to the Assamese language, which developed farther east than its related languages of Marathi and Gujarati. This modern-‐day country was home to the ancient Kingdom of Kalinga that was conquered by the Mauryan Empire. For the point, name this Asian country where ancient empires often included lands along the Ganges River.
19) In the aftermath of this event, Bernard de Launay was beaten and killed by a crowd at the Hotel de Ville. Prior to this event, soldiers named invalides had transferred gunpowder to the site of this disturbance. The sacking of Jacques Necker as finance minister was one cause of this event, which occurred on July 14, 1789. For the point, name this event in which a Parisian prison was mobbed by a crowd, helping launch the French Revolution.
storming of the Bastille
20) The losing side of this war later agreed to the Gadsden Purchase, allowing a rail connection between Los Angeles and Yuma. During this war, forces under Stephen Kearny captured Santa Fe without a fight. This war was ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which set part of an international boundary along the Rio Grande. For the point, name this war between the United States and its southern neighbor.
21) This ruler, who composed the philosophical treatise Anti-‐Machiavel suffered from depression after the execution of his possible lover, Hans Hermann von Katte. A coalition against this ruler was formed in the Diplomatic Revolution. For the point, name this ruler who conquered Silesia from Austria and fought Maria Theresa during the War of the Austrian Succession and Seven Years' War as King of Prussia.
Frederick the Great
22) During his farewell address this man warned about the rising influence of the Military Industrial complex. This man authorized the Interstate Highway System after being inspired by having seen the Autobahn during his campaigns in Germany. For the point, name this US President who earlier served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces during D-‐Day.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
23) Russia formally denounced the Kharkiv pact after this event and the Simferopol incident occurred during this event. "Polite People" or "Little Green Men" played an important role in this event when they seized the local Supreme Court building and the Parliament building. This event, which was formalized by a 2014 Accession Treaty, led to Russia being expelled from the G8. For the point, name this 2014 event where Russia annexed a peninsula from Ukraine.
Annexation of Crimea
24) This location was the site of the explosion of the French freighter Le Coubre; in the aftermath of that explosion, Alberto Korda's photo Guerrillero Heroico was taken. A Navy investigation cleared the presumed culprit of another explosion in this location, which Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and other yellow journalists blamed on Spain. For the point, name this city, the site of the USS Maine explosion, which led to an American invasion of Cuba.
25) This country lost the region of Karelia in a 1940 peace treaty. This country employed a sniper known as the "White Death" when it was invaded during the Winter War. This modern-‐day country was transferred from Swedish to Russian control following the Great Northern War. For the point, name this country where a Soviet invasion in 1939 failed to reach its capital of Helsinki.
26) A "walled city" in this city remained ungoverned for centuries. This city is governed by the Basic Law under the "one country, two systems" doctrine. This city's New Territories lie across a narrow strait from its Lantau Island. This city was ceded to its former colonial overlords by the Treaty of Tianjin. For the point, name this city handed over by Britain to China in 1997.
27) This event was interrupted by a very heavy thunderstorm which is known as the storm that saved its namesake city. In his memoirs, Paul Jennings recalled scrambling to save valuables prior to this event, and William Thornton helped to save the Patent Office during this event. It took place after Robert Ross defeated American forces at the Battle of Bladensburg. For the point, name this event during the War of 1812 that destroyed much of the US capital.
Burning of Washington
28) This man received military training in Algeria as part of his involvement with Umkhonto we Sizwe [oom-‐KON-‐tow we SEEZ-‐way]. This man was assigned the prisoner number 46664 after he gave the "I am prepared to die" speech at the Rivonia Trial, which ended with him being imprisoned on Robben Island. For the point, name this politician and opponent of apartheid, the first black President of South Africa.
29) In this city, the murder of Edmund Godfrey helped give credence to Titus Oates' invented claims. A king fled after attempting to arrest John Pym and four others in this city. Samuel Pepys' [PEEPS] diary records this city's last bubonic plague pandemic, as well as the devastating Great Fire of 1666. Sir Christopher Wren rebuilt St. Paul's Cathedral in, for the point, what capital city of the United Kingdom?
30) This ruler funded the construction of the Midi Canal, and he expelled his country's Jews from its colonies and defined slavery in the Code Noir. This ruler's minister François-‐Michel Le Tellier built up his military, and he hired Jean-‐Baptiste Colbert as his finance minister. His passing of the Edict of Fontainebleau led to the expulsion of the Huguenots and he famously declared that "I am the state." For the point, name this "Sun King" who built the Palace of Versailles.
1) This ruler tasked Nikolai Milyutin with the creation of the zemstvo system in his empire, and he forced the Ottoman Empire to sign the Treaty of San Stefano. This relatively liberal ruler was assassinated by the People's Will twenty years after taking a massive step to improve freedom of labor in his country. For the point, name this Russian tsar who freed the serfs.
1) The winning commander in this battle strategically deployed below the Pratzen Heights, only to retake them later in a daring charge. Its aftermath led to the creation of the Confederation of the Rhine and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. For the point, name this 1805 victory by Napoleon over the forces of Austria and Russia.
Battle of Austerlitz -accept Battle of the Three Emperors-
2) This dynasty waged the Imjin War against Japan under the Wanli emperor. One emperor reorganized this dynasty's government to consist of a single Grand Secretariat and Six Ministries; that ruler, the Yongle Emperor, also dispatched the expeditions of Zheng He -huh-. For the point, name this Chinese dynasty that collapsed in 1644 and is famous today for its porcelain pottery.
3) A religious movement founded in this country publishes a magazine called The Watchtower. One man in this country founded a religion after he claimed to translate golden plates shown to him by the angel Moroni. For the point, name this country where Joseph Smith founded the Latter Day Saint movement after receiving the Golden Plates near Syracuse and Buffalo in New York State
United States of America -accept America-
4) Ukerewe -pr. YOO-‐kay-‐ray-‐way- Island is within this body of water and is home to an unusually high number of people with albinism. It was home to Ripon Falls until the Owen Falls Dam was built. John Hanning Speke named this lake after a monarch in 1858 while searching for the Nile River. Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania share, for the point, what African Lake named for an English queen?
Lake Victoria -accept Nalubaale; accept Nam Lolwe; accept Nyanza-
5) G. Gordon Liddy served over four years in prison for his role in this scandal. Investigations into this scandal included the revelation of a "smoking gun" tape illustrating White House involvement into the burglary of the DNC headquarters. For the point, name this scandal that caused Richard Nixon's resignation.
6) An author from this country described the Vicario twins' plot to assassinate Santiago Nasar. A famous work of literature from this country follows Ursula, Jose Arcadio Buendia, and the generations to follow in the town of Macondo and is titled One Hundred Years of Solitude. For the point, name this home country of the South American author Gabriel Garcia Marquez who studied in its capital Bogotá.
7) A series of drafts for this speech was called "Normalcy, Never Again". This speech was made in response to a cry from Mahalia Jackson in the crowd. The reader of this speech hopes "his four little children will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character." For the point, name this civil rights speech by Martin Luther King Jr. given at the Lincoln Memorial to fight racism in the United States.
"I Have a Dream" speech
8) This country's ruling al-‐Thani family has feuded with the governments of the UAE and Saudi Arabia. Controversially, this country was awarded the 2022 FIFA World Cup, becoming the first Arab country to host the event, despite its small size. For the point, name this country on a peninsula in the Persian Gulf, whose capital of Doha names a recent round of global trade talks.
9) The mathematician al-‐Khwarizmi worked in this city's House of Wisdom. Al-‐Mustasim failed to defend this city from invaders in 1258, after which he was trampled in a carpet on the orders of Hulagu Khan, who led the Mongol sack of this city. For the point, name this former seat of the Abbasid Caliphate and modern capital of Iraq.
10) The lower level of this man's "Hall of Audience" was plated in gold. The Sankore Madrasah was built during this man's rule and had the largest collection of books in Africa after the Library of Alexandria. This man brought 23 camels laden with gold dust on his 1324 hajj to Mecca, devaluing gold throughout North Africa. For the point, name this wealthy Mansa of the Mali Empire.
Mansa Musa I
11) A king of this country employed Henry Morton Stanley and a group which cut off the hands of those who didn't meet rubber quotas, the Force Publique. This country was ruled by kings like Albert II and another who was criticized by Roger Casement, Leopold II. The headquarters of the European Union is located in, for the point, what country whose capital is Brussels?
12) Henri Mouhot claimed that this location was "grander than anything left to us by Greece or Rome". This location has two artificial rectangular lakes called Barays and it faces to the west in contrast to the nearby Bayon. This location's name translates to "city of temples" and it was built by King Suryavarman II. For the point, name this largest religious structure in the world, a Khmer temple complex in Cambodia.
13) This man signed a letter written by Leo Szilard which warned President Roosevelt of Germany potentially developing "extremely powerful bombs of a new type". This man famously experienced an Annus Mirabilis in 1905 when he published 4 papers in the Annalen Der Physik journal. For the point, name this scientist who proposed the Theory of Special Relativity.
14) This regime instituted a policy of alternate attendance at court for its nobility. This government followed the Sakoku, or closed country, policy, until it signed the Treaty of Kanagawa with the United States following a visit from Commodore Matthew Perry. For the point, name this government founded by Ieyasu, Japan's last shogunate.
Tokugawa Shogunate -prompt on Japan-
15) During this war, Operations Linebacker I and II were carried out. Seymour Hersh uncovered an war crime overseen by 2nd Lieutenant William Calley in this war. Civilians were massacred in Hue -pr. hoo-‐ay- during this war, as part of a larger campaign called the Tet Offensive. Events like the My Lai Massacre took place during, for the point, what war which led to the fall of Saigon in 1975?
16) In 1968, oil was discovered in this state's Prudhoe Bay. This state's largest cargo port lies on the Knik Arm of the Cook Inlet and suffered greatly during the 1964 Good Friday earthquake. Former senator Ted Stevens names the largest airport in this state, where an annual race extends over 1,000 miles to Nome. For the point, name this state where the Iditarod sled dog race begins in Anchorage.
17) This man's wars against Khosrau I of the Sassanid Empire were temporarily halted due to a plague historically named for him. This ruler employed Belisarius to retake Carthage and Rome. This emperor managed to put down the Nika riots at the urging of his wife Theodora. For the point, name this Byzantine emperor whose law code became the basis of Western law.
Justinian the Great -or Justinian I; prompt on Justinian-
18) This artist, whose only signed painting is The Mystical Nativity, depicts Zephyrus' abduction of Cloris along the right edge and is set in an orange grove where the Three Graces do a circular dance. This artist's most famous painting is set off the coast of Cyprus and depicts putti rushing to cover the title goddess, who stands in a clamshell. For the point, name this Italian renaissance artist of La Primavera and The Birth of Venus.
19) In 1985, this man visited the USA to study agriculture and resided with an American family in Iowa. This leader recently removed term limits from his country's constitution and added his namesake "Thought" to it. This man's signature anti-‐corruption campaign, which led to the arrest of Zhou Yongkang, is the largest in the history of Communist China. For the point, name this current President of China.
20) A group of settlers who were descended from Black Loyalists from this country settled in Sierra Leone. In the 1960s, this country destroyed the community of Africville to build a bridge connecting Dartmouth and Halifax. For the point, name this country, a common final stop for the Underground Railroad for escaped slaves who settled in towns like Windsor and Toronto.
21) The only casualty among this group was Charles Floyd, whose appendix ruptured. This group constructed Fort Clatsop to winter in Oregon, and established relations with tribes like the Mandan. The slave York and the Shoshone -sho-‐SHO-‐nee- woman Sacajawea were companions of, for the point, what early 19th century expedition to explore the Louisiana Purchase and reach the Pacific Ocean?
Lewis and Clark expedition -accept Corps of Discovery-
22) This leader, the recipient of the "Apocalypse" letter, sent tanks to depose Imre Nagy -pr. nahj-. One of this leader's speeches was mistranslated as saying "we will bury you," and this leader removed Soviet missiles from Cuba after an agreement with John F. Kennedy. For the point, name this Soviet Premier, the predecessor of Leonid Brezhnev and successor of Joseph Stalin.
23) This thinker noted "you may rob the -...- armies of their commander, but you cannot deprive the humblest peasant of his opinion." This thinker theorized the Five Relationships, and he formulated the Silver Rule as an inverse to his Golden Rule. This teacher of Mencius advocated the moral ideal of filial piety. For the point, name this ancient Chinese philosopher whose sayings were collected in the Analects.
Confucius -or Kong Fuzi-
24) This man married the princess Roxana shortly after capturing a fortress known as the Sogdian Rock. This man named a city for his horse, Bucephalus, following the Battle of the Hydaspes -pr. hi-‐ dass-‐peez-, and he defeated a force twice his size outside the city of Issus. Darius III was repeatedly beaten by, for the point, what Macedonian ruler who conquered Persia and was the son of Philip II?
Alexander the Great -or Alexander III of Macedon; prompt on Alexander-
25) Mines in this modern country supplied most of the uranium for the Manhattan Project; that mining industry was centered on this country's city of Elisabethville, the capital of its Katanga Province. This modern-‐day country suffered two decades of personal rule under King Leopold II, after which it was transferred to the Belgian parliament's control. For the point, name this modern-‐day African country whose capital is Kinshasa.
Democratic Republic of the Congo -prompt on Congo; do not accept or prompt on "Republic of -the- Congo"-
26) Robert De Niro played this man in a 1987 Brian de Palma film in which he is the target of the Kevin Costner-‐played Eliot Ness, The Untouchables. This man's health deteriorated from syphilis during the seven years he spent in prison for tax evasion. This man's operatives killed seven members of Bugs Moran's rival gang in the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre. For the point, name this prohibition-‐era gangster who led the Chicago Outfit.
Alphonse "Al" Capone
27) Sara Danius stepped down as the first female head of a group in this nation in response to scandals involving its self-‐proclaimed "19th member" and Katarina Frostenson. Accusations that Jean-‐ Claude Arnault assaulted women led to a committee cancelling the awarding of the 2018 Nobel Prize in Literature in, for the point, what Scandinavian country with capital Stockholm?
28) Note: two answers required. These two nations signed the Rush-‐Bagot Treaty for mutual naval disarmament. These countries settled the location of "Fort Blunder" and the Aroostook War with the Webster-‐Ashburton Treaty. A 1795 treaty ordered one of these countries to vacate forts on Lake Champlain and the Great Lakes. For the point, name these two nations that signed Jay's Treaty, a little over a decade after fighting each other in the Revolutionary War.
United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland -accept in either order; accept United States or America or USA for the first part; accept Great Britain for the second part-
29) In this Asian country, Kermit Roosevelt oversaw the CIA's Operation Ajax, which orchestrated the overthrow of prime minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. The White Revolution brought land reform and modernization to this country, but ended in 1979 in an Islamic revolution.. For the point, name this country where a hostage crisis erupted after the capture of the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
30) This man defeated the Ethiopian king Memnon and killed Thersities for rebuking him after he fell in love with the dead Amazon Penthesilea. This man dragged the body of an enemy he killed behind his chariot, avenging the death of his friend Patroclus. For the point, name this Greek hero, a son of Thetis who is invulnerable everywhere but his heel.
1)Nicholas Stroh and Robert Siedle were killed by this man after attempting to investigate the revolt at the Mbarara Barracks. This man, who declared himself "Conqueror of the British Empire" and "King of Scotland", engineered an event whose victims included Dora Bloch and Yonatan Netanyahu after the Entebbe Raid. For the point, name this dictator of Uganda from 1971 to 1979.
Idi Amin Dada
1) A cathedral in this country is intended to be shaped like a crown of thorns and was built in a planned city designed by Oscar Niemeyer. Many TV shots from the 2016 Olympics in this country featured Sugarloaf Mountain and Copacabana Beach. For the point, what South American country currently led by Jair Bolsonaro built Brasilia to replace Rio de Janeiro as its capital?
2) This composer was asked to alter a theme composed by Frederick the Great and did so in the "Musical Offering." This man was commissioned by Keyserling, the count of Saxony, to compose a series of works to ease the count's insomnia. For the point, name this German Baroque composer of the Goldberg Variations and the Brandenburg Concertos.
Johann Sebastian Bach
3) One leader of this country effectively switched sides in the Cold War after the Soviet Union failed to support his invasion of a neighboring country in the Ogaden War. This country, which was once led by Siad Barre, was the site of the 1992 "Black Hawk Down" incident where a US helicopter was shot down. For the point, name this country on the easternmost tip of Africa where warlords briefly captured the capital of Mogadishu.
4) One company in this industry was owned by a man who ran the infamous anti-‐Semitic newspaper, the Dearborn Independent. This industry's production supply chains were revolutionized by a company based in the city of Nagoya that became famous for its "just in time" methods. Conditions in this industry were improved by the so-‐called Treaty of Detroit. For the point, name this industry that includes companies like Chrysler and Ford.
automobile industry -accept anything related to the production and/or sales of cars, etc.-
5) A fleet belonging to this regime was attacked at Mers el-‐Kebir. A motto translating as "Work, family, fatherland" was used by this regime, which was founded at a town formerly best known as a resort. Pierre Laval was prime minister of, for the point, what regime led by the former commander of French forces in World War I, Philippe Petain, that collaborated with the Nazis?
Vichy -vee-‐shee- France -accept the French State; accept Etat Francais; prompt on France and descriptions of Nazi-‐controlled France, including "the Nazis" alone; do not accept -Nazi- Germany-
6) This man famously claimed that his adopted daughter Hanna was killed in a 1986 American air strike that was carried out in retaliation for his support of the Berlin discotheque bombing. This man's son Saif Al-‐Arab was killed in an airstrike on Tripoli during a 2011 civil war which overthrew this man. For the point, name this former dictator of Libya killed in 2011.
7) The Panglong Accords were signed by the founder of this country, whose daughter now leads its National League for Democracy party. UN Secretary General U Thant was a major opponent of this country's dictator, Ne Win. For the point, name this Southeast Asian country led by Aung San Suu Kyi -pr. chee- whose Rohingya minority faces persecution.
Myanmar -accept Burma-
8) Henry Garnet was executed for his role in this event, which he knew about through information revealed in the confessional. Robert Catesby led the conspirators in this event, which was foiled after Guy Fawkes was discovered guarding barrels of explosives in a basement. For the point, name this event in which Catholics plotted to destroy the Houses of Parliament in 1605.
9) Like Brazil and Italy, this country underwent a civil war in which Giuseppe Garibaldi took part. A civil war between this country's Colorados and Blancos was the cause of a war this country fought with Argentina and Brazil against Paraguay, the War of the Triple Alliance. For the point, name this country where political factions frequently clashed in its capital of Montevideo.
10) Giorgio Vasari was commissioned to paint frescoes commemorating an event in this country by Pope Gregory XIII. That event in this country led to the breaking of the Peace of Saint-‐Germain-‐en-‐Laye. For the point, Catherine de' Medici was queen of what country where a 1572 massacre of Huguenots occurred on St. Bartholomew's Day?
11) This war saw a battle near present-‐day Toronto called the Battle of York. The most memorable American victory of this war occurred at the Battle of New Orleans after it was technically over as a peace treaty had been signed in Europe, but news of that signing hadn't reached the armies. For the point name this early 19th century war between the US and Britain, which began in a namesake year.
War of 1812
12) During the Amarna period, the cult of this god was suppressed by Akhenaten to make way for another deity, Aten. In later dynastic times, this god was merged with Horus, earning the suffix Horakhty behind its name. Often depicted with a falcon head and a sun disk on his head, this is, for the point, which Egyptian god of the sun?
Ra -accept Amun until "Horakhty" is read-
13) One leader of this country protested the use of chemical weapons in a speech at the League of Nations and was revered by the Rastafarians in Jamaica. This country's flagship airline has recently been expanding its route network from its hub at Addis Ababa. For the point, name this East African country from which Eritrea broke away in the 1990's.
14) This ruler's father Xanthippus -pr. zanth-‐ip-‐us- was victorious at the Battle of Mycale -pr. MI-‐ kuh-‐lee-. This ruler's mother dreamed of giving birth to a lion before he was born. This man ostracized his political opponent Cimon and transported the treasury of the Delian League to his own city. For the point, name this Athenian statesman, who delivered a famous funeral oration during the Peloponnesian War.
15) One prime minister of this country was implicated in scandals for his dalliances with the underaged dancer Ruby Rubacuori and for his "Bunga Bunga" parties. A player on this country's soccer team was head-‐butted by the French player Zinedine Zidane in the game where this country secured the win in the 2006 FIFA World Cup. For the point, name this European country once led by Silvio Berlusconi.
16) George Grey fought a leader of these peoples named Hono Heke -pr. hay-‐kay- after a flagpole was cut down. After Europeans made contact with these people, they fought the Moriori people on the Chatham Islands during the Musket Wars. William Hobson compelled this indigenous group to sign the Treaty of Waitangi. For the point, name this native ethnic group of New Zealand.
Maori people -prompt on descriptions of New Zealanders before "New Zealand" is read-
17) This country, which was ruled by the Regime of the Colonels, was the westernmost of the first two countries to receive aid under the Truman Doctrine. The fascist regime of Ioannis Metaxas ruled this country before World War II, and the Enosis movement aimed to unify Cyprus with this country. For the point, name this country in which German paratroopers successfully captured the island of Crete.
Greece -accept Hellenic Republic; accept Hellas-
18) An advocate of this belief was ardently opposed by Tycho Brahe and legendarily declared "and yet it moves" while being arrested. The European originator of this view started a namesake "Revolution" that shattered the Ptolemaic model. Galileo and Copernicus held, for the point, what scientific theory that opposed geocentrism?
heliocentrism -accept descriptions of "the Sun is at the center of the solar system and/or universe"-
19) This man said that World War I began so that capitalists could gain land in Imperialism: the Highest Stage of Capitalism. Upon this man's return from exile in Geneva, he denounced the Provisional Government in his April Theses and then led Bolsheviks in the October Revolution to overthrow it. For the point, name this man who led the Russian Revolution of 1917 to become the first Premier of the Soviet Union.
Vladimir Lenin -or Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov-
20) The Dorn Report was set up to investigate this event, which led to accusations that Husband Kimmel and Walter Short had been unprepared. During this event, Hickam and Wheeler Fields were struck by dive bombers while Zeros sunk the Arizona on Battleship Row. For the point, name this 1941 surprise attack on a Hawaii naval base that brought the United States into World War II.
attack -or bombing, etc.- on Pearl Harbor
21) After the first Sino-‐Japanese War, China was forced to recognize the independence of this region in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. A member of this region's "patriotic legion" attempted to assassinate Emperor Showa. Toyotomi Hideyoshi attempted to invade this region, but failed due to Admiral Yi Sun-‐ sin. For the point, name this peninsula that was annexed by Japan in 1910 and contains the cities of Pyongyang and Seoul.
22) In this Biblical book, one character trades his birthright to his brother for a bowl of stew. In this Bible book, a character is sold into slavery by his brothers; that character was named Joseph. This book recounts the story of Noah's survival of the flood and the murder of Abel by his brother Cain. For the point, name this Bible book, which narrates the creation of the world, the first book of the Old Testament.
Book of Genesis
23) The French colonized the island of La Reunion, which is located in this body of water. An island nation once ruled by Queen Ranavalona is located in this body of water, as is another island nation threatened by recent rising ocean levels with capital at Male -pr. MAH-‐lay-. For the point, name this body of water which contains island nations such as Madagascar and the Maldives.
24) France attempted to establish plantations for this good in the Niger Bend after Britain successfully did so in Sudan's Gezira Triangle. A crash in prices for this good led Egypt's debt to skyrocket in the 1860s, thus leading to a British protectorate over it. Irrigation for this good drained most of the Aral Sea in Uzbekistan, and a machine for processing this good was invented in America by Eli Whitney. For the point, name this trade good nicknamed "King" in the antebellum US south.
25) Jani Beg may have caused the spread of this event at the Siege of Caffa. During this event, Clement VI consecrated the Rhone River so bodies could be thrown into it after Avignon ran out of room for new cemeteries. This event began in Europe after the arrival of Genoese traders. For the point, name this event that killed off millions of people in the mid-‐14th century.
Black Death -Accept Great or Black or Bubonic or simply Plague-
26) After capturing Azov, this leader built his country's first naval base at Taganrog. This ruler put down a Cossack revolt sparked by bounty-‐hunting of fugitive serfs led by Kondraty Bulavin. This monarch's reforms included a promotion system called the Table of Ranks and a beard tax. For the point, name this Tsar who westernized Russia at the start of the 18th century.
Peter the Great -or Peter I; prompt on Peter-
27) This soldier convinced Dauphin Charles to launch the March to Reims -rahnse-, allowing his coronation as king. Because heresy only carried a death penalty if it was a repeat offense, an English court charged this woman with cross-‐dressing. For the point, name this "Maid of Orleans" who was burned at the stake during the Hundred Years' War.
Saint Joan of Arc -accept Jeanne d'Arc-
28) This man, whose son was the last Royalist Governor of New Jersey, used the pseudonym Richard Saunders to detail weather forecasts in colonial America and created a political cartoon depicting a snake cut into eight segments. Join, or Die was created by, for the point, what Pennsylvanian Founding Father and publisher of Poor Richard's Almanac?
29) A combatant in this war, Hiroo Onoda, remained at his post for 27 years after it ended. The Japanese army enslaved Koreans as "comfort women" during this war, in which Japan fought a united front of Chinese Communists and Nationalists. For the point, name this war in which Japan surrendered after being attacked with two nuclear weapons.
World War II -accept Second Sino-‐Japanese War-
30) Priam's son loses to Menelaus in a duel in this city. At this city's present day location of Hisarlik, Heinrich Schliemann excavated parts of this city located near the Dardanelles in present-‐day Turkey. For the point, name this city that lends its name to a wooden horse, which was besieged by King Agamemnon and the Greeks during a mythological war.
Troy -Accept Ilium-
31) Chersiphon and King Croesus are said to have built one temple to this goddess, although it was legendarily believed to have been originally built by the Amazons. This goddess was born on the island of Delos after Hera prevented Leto from giving birth on dry land. For ten points, name this Greek goddess of the hunt, whose temple at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world.
1) This ruler built the first printing yard in his country, though the printers fled to Lithuania after an arson attack. Richard Chancellor established relations between this ruler and England by sailing through the White Sea to Archangel. To celebrate the Siege of Kazan, this ruler constructed St. Basil's Cathedral. This ruler was succeeded by the ineffectual Feodor after he murdered his son in a fit of rage. For the point, name this Russian monarch, the first to claim the title of Tsar.
Ivan IV -or Ivan the Terrible; or Ivan the Awesome or Ivan Grozny-
2) The Philolexian Society was founded at this school that, in 1784, named George Clinton as its chancellor. Dwight Eisenhower served as this university's president, while a different US president, Barack Obama, finished his undergraduate studies here. Myles Cooper was defended from a mob at this location due to a speech by then-‐student Alexander Hamilton. King's College evolved into, for the point, what New York City university that is now part of the Ivy League?
Columbia University -accept Anglican King's College before mentioned-
3) This city was claimed for Spain by the Basque explorers Legazpi and Urdaneta, and this city named a type of ship that participated in transoceanic trade primarily with Acapulco. This city's Malacanang Palace was built on the Pasig River. A very large type of galleon was named for, for the point, what center of Spain's "China trade," the largest city in the modern-‐day Philippines?
4) This dynasty employed religious militia called the Ikhwan, or brothers, and this dynasty were early converts to the teachings of Abd al-‐Wahhab. This dynasty conquered Hejaz to gain custody of Islam's two holiest places. For the point, name this dynasty whose King Salman currently rules a namesake kingdom in the largest country on the Arabian Peninsula.
House of Saud -accept Saudis-
5) An American consul in this modern-‐day country wrote the Blood Telegram during the genocidal Operation Searchlight, which was supervised by General Tikka Khan. This country's independence was secured by an Indian invasion after refugees flooded cities like Kolkata from this country. For the point, name this country that was known as East Pakistan before its independence and which now has its capital at Dhaka.
Bangladesh -accept East Pakistan before mentioned; do not prompt on Pakistan alone-
6) A man who was convicted of this crime passed money to his Colombian wife, Maria del Rosario. Along with perjury, this was the crime that Whittaker Chambers and Alger Hiss were accused of in the 1950s. In 1953, a Jewish couple was controversially executed for this crime. The Rosenbergs were executed for, for the point, what crime in which they passed state secrets to the Soviet Union?
espionage -accept equivalent answers, like spying-
7) The sculptor Thutmose created a bust of this leader with a blue cap crown that is now in the New Museum in Berlin. This person's mummy may be the "Younger Lady," the mother of King Tutankhamen. A female pharaoh named Neferneferuaten in the New Kingdom may have been this woman. For the point, name this Queen consort of Egypt who may have served as Pharaoh after the death of her husband, Akhenaten.
8) During this event, Armand du Paty de Clam faked a hand injury to obtain a writing sample from a suspect. Georges Picquart uncovered that a memorandum in this event was actually written by Ferdinand Esterhazy. This event's main subject was sent to Devil's Island after being convicted of passing military secrets to the Germans in 1894. Emile Zola's letter "J'Accuse" concerned, for the point, what affair in which a Jewish French military officer was convicted of espionage?
Dreyfus Affair -accept answers related to the trial or imprisonment of Alfred Dreyfus-
9) In another work, this thinker theorized the "death drive" in an attempt to accomplish the title task of going Beyond the Pleasure Principle. This thinker, who developed a five-‐stage theory of psychosexual development, postulated the Oedipus Complex and wrote The Interpretation of Dreams. For the point, name this Austrian thinker, the founder of psychoanalysis.
10) Jing Ke attempted to assassinate this man by hiding a dagger in a map after this man attacked the state of Yan. After defeating the kingdoms of Wei, Chu, and Zhao to take power, this man began construction on the Great Wall and buried dissenting Confucians alive. The Warring States Period ended with the rise of, for the point, what first emperor of China?
Qin Shi Huangdi -accept Ying Zheng; accept Zhao Zheng; accept King Zheng of Qin-
11) This leader wrote the Letter from Jamaica and issued the Decree of War to the Death. This man successfully directed the Admirable campaign after issuing the Cartagena Manifesto, and he later won the Battle of Carabobo which led to the independence of Venezuela. For the point, name this South American leader known as "The Liberator", the founder of Gran Colombia.
12) Frederick Stopford was dismissed after failing to attack after landing at Sulva Bay in this campaign. Otto Liman von Sanders opposed ANZAC forces during this campaign, in which Mustafa Kemal rose to military prominence by commanding Turkish troops. Winston Churchill was disgraced by the outcome of, for the point, what failed British campaign against the Ottoman Empire in World War I?
Gallipoli Campaign -or the Dardanelles Campaign; accept similar descriptions-
13) This group purged its country's Cham Muslim population and harshly discriminated against "New People" from its country's cities. This party overthrew the dictatorship of Lon Nol with the assistance of Prince Sihanouk, and was led by the "Committee", headed by a man formerly known as Saloth Sar. For the point, name this communist party led by Pol Pot in Cambodia.
Khmer Rouge -prompt on answers of the communist party of Cambodia before mentioned-
14) This ruler was forced to sign the embarrassing Treaty of Ripon with the Covenanters, and his attempts to call "ship money" taxes ended in fiasco. The Long Parliament was first called by this king, and it was purged by his successor, Oliver Cromwell. For the point, name this English King who succeeded James I and was executed following his loss in the English Civil War.
15) When this city fell to Japan in 1942, Winston Churchill called it the "worst disaster" in British military history. Stamford Raffles built a British trading port in this city, which was ruled by the Sultan of Johor. The People's Action Party won the first election in this country, which saw growth under Lee Kuan Yew. For the point, name this Southeast Asian city-‐state that was expelled from Malaysia in 1965.
16) The nobility in this country was known as szlachta -pr. shlock-‐ta-, and many were murdered by peasants in the Galician slaughter. This country's last king, Stanislaw Poniatowski, wrote its Constitution of 3rd May before his defeat by Catherine the Great. For the point, name this country that endured 3 partitions by Austria, Russia, and Prussia after the fall of its commonwealth with Lithuania.
17) Walls called onoi were built during restoration efforts in this city conducted under Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Emperor Kanmu moved his capital to this city, which was attacked by Minamoto Yoritomo in 1183. The Battle of Uji took place near this city during the Genpei War, which ended a period in which this city was the capital. For the point, name this city that was Japan's capital during the Heian Period and is more recently known for a protocol attempting to combat climate change.
18) This man used a system known as the missi dominici which included Alcuin of York. He suffered a rare military defeat at a battle where the paladin Roland was killed, the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. This man's empire was split among his three grandsons in the Treaty of Verdun after the death of his successor Louis the Pious. For the point, name this King of the Franks and first Holy Roman Emperor.
19) The Free South Moluccan Youth was a terrorist group from this country, where the separatist Free Aceh -pr. ah-‐chay- Movement operated until a 2004 natural disaster. For the point, name this Southeast Asian country that granted independence to East Timor in 2002 and was the land nearest to the epicenter of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.
20) Associate Director Clyde Tolson was succeeded as leader of this agency by W. Mark Felt, a man later confirmed to be the "Deep Throat" figure from the Watergate scandal. Martin Luther King Jr. was investigated under this agency's COINTELPRO program. This agency caught criminals like Public Enemy Number 1, John Dillinger. For the point, name this federal law enforcement agency that was once led by
J. Edgar Hoover in Washington, DC.
Federal Bureau of Investigation -or FBI-
21) This man supposedly laughed for the first time after hearing of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre in France. His attempts to attack England were eventually thwarted at the Battle of Gravelines -grahv-‐uh-‐leen-, where fire ships were used against his fleet. Queen Elizabeth gave the Tilbury speech to rally support against the forces of, for the point, what king who sent out the Spanish Armada?
Philip II of Spain -accept Philip I of Portugal, but do not accept or prompt on "Philip I" alone; prompt on Philip alone-
22) This man constructed a bridge across the Danube built by this man's architect, Apollodorus of Damascus. At this man's death in 117 AD, the Roman Empire stood at its greatest extent. Decebalus was defeated in the Dacian War by, for the point, what second of the Five Good Emperors whose conquests in modern-‐day Romania are commemorated by a namesake column in Rome?
Trajan -or Caesar Nerva Traianus Germanicus-
23) In one battle during this campaign, a series of defensive fletches were created by Pyotr Bagration. The losing side in this campaign began it five years after signing the Treaty of Tilsit with the winning side, which began a scorched-‐earth policy under General Kutuzov and abandoned their largest city after the Battle of Borodino. For the point, name this campaign where Moscow was burned to the ground after its capture and the brutal winter wiped out the Grande Armee.
Napoleon's Invasion of Russia -accept similar answers and the Patriotic War of 1812-
24) The "Bloody Saturday" photograph was taken in this city, where a God City Temple was built to mark its municipal status. This city's proximity to the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty gave it the nickname "Little Hangzhou." A group of namesake Russians emigrated to this city, which also names a political clique led by Jiang Zemin. The Bund and the financial district of Pudong are in, for the point, what city, the most populous in China and the world?
25) This man's mother-‐in-‐law Alexandra tried to plot against him by appealing to Cleopatra to make Aristobulus III high priest, forcing this man to execute Aristobulus III. This man built the port of Caesarea Maritima and the fortress of Masada and he helped rebuild the Second Temple. As a Roman client king, this man took power following the fall of the Hasmonean Dynasty of Judea. In the Gospel of Matthew, this man orders the death of every child less than two in Bethlehem. For the point, name this king of Judea.
Herod the Great
26) During this war, the volunteer Army of the Vosges -pr. vohzh- came to the aid of the losing side. The superiority of Krupp artillery proved decisive during this war's Battle of Gravelotte, and its Battle of Beaumont preceded a disastrous defeat that resulted in the capture of a leader. After those battles, Marshal Bazaine surrendered at Metz, leading to the creation of the Third Republic. The Battle of Sedan was fought during, for the point, what war that ended with a German defeat of Napoleon III?
Franco-‐Prussian War -or Franco-‐German War-
27) This leader established a new capital that absorbed the city of Avaris and may have been used as a supply depot for his Syrian campaigns. This man commissioned the temples of Abu Simbel and dedicated them to his wife Nefertari. Muwatalli II was defeated by this man in a battle that resulted in the world's first recorded peace treaty. For the point, name this Egyptian Pharaoh who won the Battle of Kadesh.
Ramesses II -or Ramesses the Great; accept Ozymandias-
28) The targets of this campaign were to be starved out by the strategies of the Hunger Plan. The Great Patriotic War began after this event, in which Army Group South planned on taking control of the oil reserves of the Caucasus. Afraid of Napoleon's failure, the overseer of this 1941 campaign focused on destroying the Red Army rather than taking Moscow. For the point, name this Nazi invasion of Russia.
Operation Barbarossa -Prompt on German invasion of Russia before the last line-
29) This event was made worse by inflammatory radio broadcasts by the RTLM, and it was precipitated by the shooting down of a plane carrying President Juvenal Habyarimana. Kofi Annan refused to allow a U.N. peacekeeping force to intervene against this event's perpetrators, a group of radical Hutus who used machetes against the Tutsis. For the point, name this months-‐long event in which more than a million people were killed in Africa in 1994.
Rwandan Genocide -accept descriptive answers of a genocide of the Tutsis/by the Hutus before either is mentioned-
30) This city's most influential leader was killed at the Battle of Mantinea -man-‐ti-‐nay-‐uh-. This city's general Epaminondas placed his strongest hoplites on his left flank to win the Battle of Leuctra -look-‐tra- over Sparta. The Sacred Band fought for, for the point, what central Greek city-‐state that rivaled post-‐Golden Age Athens and shares its name with a city in Egypt?
31) This organization's Trusteeship Council has been inactive since 1994. Ralph Bunche won a Nobel Prize for his actions taken on behalf of this organization. The chief purpose of the Dumbarton Oaks Conference was to formulate this organization, which was announced on New Year's Day 1942. There are five permanent members of the Security Council within, for the point, what international peacekeeping organization?
United Nations -Accept UN-
32) One author from this country wrote a novel which can be read either straight through or skipping chapters in a prescribed order; that author of Hopscotch is Julio Cortazar. Another author from this country wrote short stories like "The Garden of Forking Paths." For the point, name this home country of Jorge Luis Borges, who protested its leaders in Buenos Aires during the Dirty War.
Republic of Argentina
33) Suetonius made note of one of these works in Rome that noted "A calculation new. Nero his mother slew." Another work of this type notes "I love her whose number is 545" and was discovered in the ruins at Pompeii. In Egypt, these artworks were often scrawled in red paint by construction gangs at sites such as the Great Pyramid. A modern creator of this type of artwork drew nine images on the West Bank wall. For the point, name this art form produced by Banksy, who creates often political statements using spray paint.
34) Gonzalo de Cordoba served a king of this name, capturing Naples and Granada. Boabdil of the Nasrid Dynasty was defeated by forces under a king of this name and his wife. This man was the regent for Joanna the Mad before Charles V took power. A king of this name sponsored Christopher Columbus's expedition to the New World. For the point, a king of Aragon with what name married Isabella of Castille to unite Spain?
35) A Prime Minister of Britain was told to "hit -this man- hard, hit him soon, and hit him by yourself," which led to Operation Kadesh. This man's pan-‐Arabic stance led to the United Arabic Republic with Syria. Anthony Eden resigned during a crisis that began when this leader seized the Suez Canal. This man replaced the head of the Free Officers Movement, Mohammed Naguib, in a 1954 coup. Anwar Sadat succeeded, for the point, what Egyptian ruler who built the Aswan High Dam and became President in 1956?
Abdel Gamel Nasser
36) This event is commemorated by an annual full-‐length marathon at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This event's perpetrators executed numerous people at Pantingan River, ignoring Masaharu Homma's orders that its victims be "transferred peacefully." For the point, name this 1942 event in which tens of thousands of prisoners-‐of-‐war were forced by the Japanese Army through the Philippines.
Bataan Death March
37) This event was preceded by a hijacking that Waddie Hadad ordered the PFLP-‐EO to carry out. Dora Bloch was murdered and her body was left in a field in the aftermath of this event, in which Yonatan Netanyahu was killed in action. Idi Amin condemned this action, which took place in his country's largest airport. For the point, name this Israeli operation that rescued 100 hostages in 1976.
Operation Entebbe -accept descriptions of the Entebbe Raid; accept Operation Thunderbolt and Operation Jonathan before "Yonatan" is read; prompt on descriptions that don't use the word "Entebbe"-
38) One side in this war accomplished its first ever naval victory in the Battle of Gangut. The Greater Wrath and this war were ended by the Treaty of Nystad. Despite an early victory at Narva, a European empire faded after Carl Gustav Rehnskiold was crushed at Poltava. For the point, name this 18th century war between Peter the Great of Russia and Charles XII of Sweden.
Great Northern War
39) The SED led this country for over 40 years, including periods of leadership under Erich Honecker and Walter Ulbricht. This country was the chief target of Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik. The Stasi was an intelligence organization in, for the point, what European country that reunified with its western neighbor after the fall of the Berlin Wall?
East Germany -accept German Democratic Republic; accept Deutsche Demokratische Republik; accept GDP; accept DDR-
40) After a Senator was involved in one of these events, Walter Mondale earned the distinction of losing a political race in every US state; Mondale had replaced the late Paul Wellstone as a candidate. Tip O'Neill replaced Hale Boggs as House Majority Leader after Boggs was involved in one of these events. Ted Stevens, who survived one of these events in 1978, died in one shortly after he was cleared from his federal corruption charge. For the point, name this type of tragedy that was intentionally caused by terrorists on 9/11.
41) This composer allegedly said, "All this has caused me much pain. Who could have foreseen it!" in response to a November 1831 uprising against the Russians in this composer's home country. That uprising inspired a piece that was published with this composer's "Black Key" etude in a collection dedicated to Franz Liszt. The "Revolutionary" Etude was composed by, for the point, what Polish pianist?
Frederic Francois Chopin -accept Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin-
42) While American forces were distracted by the Tet Offensive in another country, assassins targeted this building in the January 21 Incident. An attack on this building led the government to create the hit squad Unit 681, but they decided to mutiny and hijack a bus to Seoul instead. This building was once the home of assassination target Park Chung-‐hee and is now occupied by Moon Jae-‐ in. For the point, name this complex in Seoul, the home of the South Korean president.
Blue House -or the Pavilion of Blue Tiles; or Cheong Wa Dae-
43) Doubts of Yue Fei's loyalty to this dynasty led to his execution. In the Jingkang incident, its capital Kaifeng was captured by the Jin dynasty, marking the boundary between its northern and southern periods. This dynasty was crushed at the Battle of Yamen and was the first to use paper money and gunpowder. For the point, name this Chinese dynasty that was defeated by the Mongols.
44) Mzilikazi -m'zili-‐kazi- served as one of this man's generals before founding his own kingdom, and Henry Francis Fynn served as a doctor at this leader's court. This leader ordered all of the milk cows in his realm slaughtered after his mother's death. A series of migrations called the mfecane -m'feh-‐cah-‐nay- caused by this leader led to the creation of groups like the Ndebele -de-‐beh-‐lay-, and this leader pioneered the use of a stabbing spear that replaced the assegai, the iklwa. For the point, name this Zulu conqueror.
45) The inspiration for this novel came from the author's realization that tales he read in Century magazines were "emotionless as rocks." A character in this novel has what seems to be a "profound dignity in the firm lines of his awful face," but dies with "an expression of every agony" in front of the protagonist. Jim Conklin dies in front of Henry Fleming, a young private in the 304th New York Regiment who wishes he had proof of valor. For the point, name this Civil War novel by Stephen Crane.
The Red Badge of Courage
46) Fritz Kuhn led a group that sought to promote this regime in the US, using Camp Norland as its largest headquarters. An embrace of Savitri Devi splintered a group that used this regime's ideology and was founded by George Lincoln Rockwell. A group promoting this regime's ideology unsuccessfully marched in Skokie, Illinois. Charles Lindbergh's America First Committee opposed America entering a war against this country until Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. For the point, name this regime led by Adolf Hitler.
Nazi Germany -accept equivalents related to the Third Reich; prompt on Germany-
47) After this composer received a government denunciation, he described his next symphony as a "response to just criticism." Another of this composer's works includes a repeating ostinato called the "Invasion Theme" and was named for a city "that Stalin destroyed and Hitler merely finished off." For the point, name this Soviet composer of Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District and the Leningrad symphony.
48) This man, who was killed on the Hampshire when his ship struck a mine in the North Sea, expanded the usage of concentration camps after he succeeded Lord Roberts as commander in the Boer War. This man rose to fame after the Battle of Omdurman, where he secured the British reconquest of the Sudan. For the point, name this Secretary of State for War who "wants you," according to a famous World War I recruitment poster.
Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener -accept Lord Kitchener-
49) Viscount -pr. VYE-‐count- Exmouth bombarded this city after its leader refused to abolish Christian slavery; that bombing of this city allowed Stephen Decatur to end its impressment of American sailors. Omar Agha, a leader of this city, clashed with Decatur's forces during the Second Barbary War. For the point, name this city, historically ruled by a bey, that is now the capital of a North African country bordering Morocco and Tunisia.
1) James Stockdale led a group of aircraft from the Ticonderoga on a bombing run during a DESOTO patrol in this body of water. Wayne Morse was one of only two senators to oppose a law, named after this body of water, which granted Lyndon Johnson the power to deploy American troops in Southeast Asia. The Turner Joy and the Maddox were attacked by torpedo boats in, for the point, what gulf off the coast of North Vietnam?
Gulf of Tonkin -accept Gulf of Tonkin Resolution; prompt on South China Sea-
2) According to Herodotus, one of these structures was said to be inhabited by a woman living in a large golden couch and is located at Etemenanki. The oldest example of these structures is the Sialk in Iran, and a "White" example of these structures stood in Uruk. The top platform of these structures were believed to bridge heaven and earth and were the site of priestly rituals. For the point, identify these terraced Mesopotamian temples, often cited as precursors to Egyptian pyramids.
3) This country was the site of the Battle of Umm Diwaikarat, where the remnants of Abdallahi ibn Muhammad's rebels were defeated. A rebellion in this country began when fanatics ambushed William Hicks, but it was reconquered by the British after Herbert Kitchener's victory at the Battle of Omdurman. This country was the site of the Mahdist revolt, whose casualties included Chinese Gordon during a battle for the capital. For the point, name this country whose capital of Khartoum fell in 1885.
Sudan -do not accept South Sudan-
4) This man executed an entire local populace after nobody confessed to writing a message on a fallen meteor predicting his death. This man standardized his country by introducing the Ban Liang coin and the small seal script. Sima Qian -chee-‐ahn- accused this man of burying Confucian scholars alive, but he probably only murdered priests and shamans who misled him about immortality. Li Si was employed by, for the point, what proponent of Legalism, the first Emperor of China?
Qin Shi Huangdi -accept Ying Zheng; accept Zhao Zheng; accept King Zheng of Qin-
5) This politician wrote the My Day column to advocate for civil rights and helped create a planned community in Arthurdale to provide homes for disenfranchised miners. This probable lover of Lorena Hickok employed social secretary Lucy Mercer, who indirectly inspired this woman to broaden her social life by having an affair with her husband. The UN Commission on Human Rights was chaired by, for the point, what American social reformer, the wife of the 32nd President?
-Anna- Eleanor Roosevelt -prompt on Roosevelt-
6) Sculptural depictions of one member of this profession are classified as Type A or Type B; Type B works are inspired by a bronze statue made by Lysippos. Another man of this profession wears a white robe and gold, sash-‐like chain and rests his hand on a bust in a dark portrait by Rembrandt. In a painting by Jacques-‐Louis David, a member of this profession holds a cup and points upward as his friends and followers lament. For the point, name this profession of the central figure of The Death of Socrates.
7) This leader was killed in an ambush of his blue Chevrolet while travelling towards San Cristobal. The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women is on the anniversary of the assassination of the Mirabal sisters, who opposed this leader. Johnny Abbes Garcia led this leader's secret police force, known as the SIM. This leader ordered killings of thousands of Haitians in the Parsley Massacre. For the point, name this longtime dictator of the Dominican Republic.
Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina -prompt on El Jefe-
8) Leaders of this organization controversially wore buttons depicting a black Madonna, and some of those leaders ran on a doctrine of "shock therapy." Secretary Kania's lax attitude towards this group, along with the Theses on Hope and Hopelessness, may have led to his downfall. The 21 Postulates of the MKS inspired this group, which engaged in the Round Table Talks with General Jaruzelski -yar-‐oo-‐zel-‐ skee- after a strike in the Gdansk shipyards. For the point, name this trade union that was co-‐founded by former electrician Lech Walesa -vah-‐wen-‐sah- in Poland.
Solidarity -accept Solidarnosc-
9) A non-‐Christian philosopher who wrote in this language wrote a spiritual autobiography titled Deliverance from Error, as well as The Incoherence of the Philosophers, which promoted the ideas of the Asharite school. Debates conducted in this language over an ancient Greek philosopher included The Incoherence of the Incoherence, written by Averroes. The theologian Al-‐Ghazali wrote primarily in, for the point, what language into which many works were translated by scholars at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad?
Arabic -do not accept Arabian-
10) This politician attracted controversy and massive protests for his murder of the activist Hugo Spadafora and his alleged role in the death of his predecessor, Omar Torrijos. After this man claimed sanctuary in a Catholic church, Navy SEALs blasted rock music outside the compound for three days of psychological warfare. Operation Just Cause targeted this man's country, despited his previous service as a CIA ally in the War on Drugs. For the point, name this former leader of Panama who was deposed in 1989.
Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno
11) This man's whistling of "The Motherland Hears, The Motherland Knows" inspired the tune of a patriotic song titled the "Constellation of" this man. This man's apocryphal claim that he "didn't see any God" was used in anti-‐religious campaigns by Nikita Khrushchev, who referred to this man as the "New Columbus." This man famously exclaimed "poyekhali" before the beginning of his mission aboard Vostok 1. For the point, name this Soviet cosmonaut who, in 1961, became the first man to enter outer space.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin
12) The plans of Gregory XI to leave this city were halted by a conflict with Florence called the War of the Eight Saints. The Western Schism began after a major religious office was removed from this city in 1376, ending the period dubbed the Babylonian Captivity. For the point, name this French city to which Clement V moved the home of the Papacy.
13) A leader of nationalist resistance in this country was nicknamed "The Big Fellow" and employed a hit squad nicknamed the "Twelve Apostles." The Croke Park and Phoenix Park massacres occurred in this country, where British irregulars known as the "Black and Tans" were deployed to crush nationalist resistance. The leaders of this country's independence movement included Michael Collins and Eamon de Valera. For the point, name this country where in 1920, British soldiers murdered spectators at a Gaelic football match in Dublin.
Republic of Ireland -do not accept or prompt on "Northern Ireland"-
14) During this man's reign, Aulus Plautius led an invasion of Britain. A Praetorian Guard named Gratus may have declared this man ruler after his predecessor was killed by Cassius Chaerea. This man's wife, Agrippina the Younger, may have poisoned him to allow her son to become emperor. Robert Graves published several fictional depictions of this emperor. For the point, name this Roman Emperor who replaced Caligula and was succeeded by Nero.
Claudius -accept Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, but do not prompt on any of the other names if given alone-
15) As a general, this man forced his country's Kabaka people into exile at the Battle of Mengo Hill. This leader took power in a coup while his predecessor was attending a Commonwealth Conference in Singapore. This leader was ousted after he launched a failed invasion of the Kagera region of his southern neighbor, and he infamously gave his country's Asian population 90 days to leave the country. For the point, name this Ugandan dictator for most of the 1970s.
Idi Amin Dada
16) After receiving news that diplomats had been tortured, French and British troops trashed this city's Old Summer Palace in 1860. The Yongzheng Emperor required everyone taking the civil service examination to learn this city's dialect of Mandarin. This city was the site of the Siege of the International Legations, which caused the deployment of the Eight Nation Alliance during the Boxer Rebellion. The Qing dynasty's seat of power was the Forbidden City in, for the point, what capital of China?
Beijing -accept Peking-
17) According to legend, a king of this country ordered an experiment in which imprisoned identical twins were forced to drink coffee or tea to test the dangers of coffee. Another king of this country led the March Across the Belts, after which it received Scania from Denmark. The House of Bernadotte became the ruling family of this country after it lost Finland in 1809. Rene Descartes was employed by Christina, a Queen of, for the point, what country that she ruled from Stockholm?
18) A man in this political position wrote a letter to Rajiv Gandhi apologizing for the Air India Flight 182 bombing. Hugh Allan bribed a man with this position in the Pacific Scandal. A man in this position said, "Just watch me," while facing a terrorist incident in the October Crisis. Kim Campbell was the only woman to hold this position, which was first held by Sir John A. MacDonald. For the point, name this highest position in Canada's government, currently held by Justin Trudeau.
Prime Minister of Canada -prompt on partial answers, like "Prime Minister" or "leader of Canada"-
19) Description acceptable. One of these time periods featured the use of Horizontal and Vertical Alliances. An attempt to kill Liu Bang during a sword dance took place during another of these periods, which eventually ended when the Chu lost. The Yellow Turban revolt began one of these periods, whose occurrence often indicated that the Mandate of Heaven had been withdrawn. Confucius lived during one of these periods, which included the Spring and Autumn and Warring States ones. For the point, name these time periods exemplified by one between the fall of the Qin -chin- and the rise of the Han.
Inter-‐dynasty Periods in China -accept anything referring to the periods of time between Chinese dynasties, prompting on partial answers; accept Warring States period; accept Chu-‐Han Contention after "Liu Bang" is read; prompt on generic descriptions of civil conflict in China-
20) Albertus Magnus claimed that cannons were used at a 1246-‐1247 siege of this European city; if true, that would make that siege the first known engagement in the western world to use gunpowder. The Etymologiae was an encyclopedic work compiled by a saint from this city named Isidore. This city's namesake cathedral contains a prominent bell-‐tower known as the Giralda and is the largest cathedral in the world. Mudéjar architectural motifs were used in the creation of the Alcázar of this city found close to the port of Cádiz. For the point, name this major Spanish city of Andalusia.
Seville -accept Sevilla-
21) Description acceptable. Jean Calas was accused of murdering his son to prevent him from performing this action and was defended by Voltaire in his Treatise on Toleration. Gabrielle d'Estrées supported a royal performance of this action in 1593. Spanish Moors who performed this action were called moriscos. For the point, name this action that was performed by Henry IV upon winning the French Wars of Religion, supposedly declaring "Paris is well worth a Mass."
converting to Catholicism -accept word forms and equivalents; prompt on "converting religions" and similar; only prompt on "converting to Christianity" after "Moors" has been read-
22) One leader with this surname declared Ulsan a special industrial development zone as part of his Five-‐Year Plans, which also included the creation of POSCO to meet steel demands of the chaebol -chay-‐ bol- conglomerates. The Saenuri Party won the presidency under another leader with this surname, who was criticized for inaction during the Sewol ferry disaster; that leader later left the Blue House after a scandal involving confidant Choi Soon-‐sil. For the point, give this surname of Moon Jae-‐In's predecessor as President of South Korea.
Answer: Park -accept Park Chung-‐hee or Park Geun-‐hye-
23) This action was preceded by one side ordering a surprising halt order for Army Group A. So-‐called "Little Ships" aided in the performing of this action, codenamed Operation Dynamo, which Winston Churchill called a "colossal military disaster" because of the sheer amount of equipment and vehicles lost by the British Expeditionary Forces. For the point, name this June 1940 evacuation of Allied forces from a harbor city in northern France.
evacuation of Dunkirk -accept descriptive answers and equivalents that mention Dunkirk; accept Operation Dynamo before read-
24) This empire's most famous king had his military exploits recording on the Eran inscription and instituted a monetary system that used coins with "lyre player" and "tiger slayer" variants. This empire was visited by Xuanzang and Faxian, the former of which described the religious life of its' greatest ruler Samudra. The Shakuntala was penned by Kalidasa during the reign of this empire, in which the Iron Pillar was constructed. It eventually fell to the White Huns. For the point, name this 4th century empire that contained the "Golden Age of India."
25) During this period, a system of five ranks of nobility called the kazoku was created, and the rigid class system was abolished by the Charter Oath. Two southern provinces, Satsuma and Choshu, allied during the Boshin War, whose end solidified the reforms of this period. This period began after the arrival of Matthew Perry's "black ships" and the signing of the Convention of Kanagawa. For the point, name this 19th century period of modernization in Japan, when the namesake emperor was restored to the throne.
Meiji Restoration -accept equivalents for Restoration, like Revolution, Reform, etc.; accept
Meiji period, era, etc.-
26) A rebel exiled from this country led the hijacking of the cruise ship Santa Maria in 1961. The Flechas were a unit of natives that helped this country police its colonies. A fugitive member of the OAS founded Aginter Press in this country while serving as a cover for an anti-‐communist mercenary force. Immigrants who arrived in this country after the end of its colonial empire were known as the retornados. Antonio Salazar established the Estado Novo regime in, for the point, what country where the Carnation Revolution took place in Lisbon?
27) A composer from this country rejected foreign tempo markings in his arrangements of folk songs like Lincolnshire Posy. Percy Grainger was from this country, where clapsticks sometimes accompany a wooden trumpet-‐like instrument played using circular breathing. A folk song by Eric Bogle about a soldier from this country who participated in the Battle of Gallipoli quoted a Banjo Patterson song from this country about a "swagman" who drowns in a billabong. "Waltzing Matilda" is from, for the point, what nation where the didgeridoo is played by Aborgines?
Commonwealth of Australia
28) For supplying this leader with raw materials, Franz van Anraat was sentenced to seventeen years in prison. President of Zambia Kenneth Kaunda sent this leader a Boeing 747 filled with luxurious goods as a gift. Despite his country signing the Algiers agreement six years earlier, this leader launched an eight year-‐long war to gain control of the Shatt Al-‐Arab. This leader also launched the Al-‐Anfal campaign, which included the gassing of Kurds at Halabja. For the point, name this Ba'athist leader of Iraq who was ousted in a US invasion in 2003.
29) Description acceptable. Twenty-‐six people of this type were put to death after the San Felipe incident in 1596. These people were often forced to trample on images known as fumi-‐e to repudiate their faith. Francis Xavier was instrumental in first reaching this group of people, who were primarily converted by the Portuguese. For the point, name this persecuted class of individuals who were converted in towns like Nagasaki.
Japanese Christians -prompt on partial answer-
30) This location was the site of a massive gold shield until it was looted by the Jat people. Lapis lazuli from the walls of this location was looted by British regulars, though Lord Curzon later ordered the restoration of this building. The Mahtab Bagh was discovered near this building, giving rise to a myth that it was supposed to be adjacent to a twin building made of black stone. A raised reflecting pool sits in front of this location, which was designed as a burial place for Mumtaz. For the point, name this white marble mausoleum commissioned by Shah Jahan of India.
31) Two answers required. The Walwal incident erupted between these two countries after one built a fort in disputed territory. Disputes over the interpretation of the Treaty of Wuchale -woo-‐chal-‐ay- triggered another conflict between these nations. One of them invaded the other after the League of Nations failed to decisively resolve the Abyssinia Crisis. Menelik II prevented one of these countries from colonizing the other with a victory at the Battle of Adwa. For the point, name these two countries that also fought in the 1930s under Haile Selaisse and Benito Mussolini.
Kingdom of Italy and the Ethiopian Empire -accept Abyssinia for Ethiopia before "Abyssinia" is read-
1) A group of scientists in this country formed the VfR, a "Society for Space Travel," after consulting on the film The Woman in the Moon. The Farm Hill transcripts detail conversations between ten nuclear physicists from this country who were detained in England. This country's Uranium Club included a man who stated an Uncertainty Principle. Werner Heisenberg was born in, for the point, what country in which Philip Lenard led the Aryan Physics movement?
2) At a battle fought off the shores of this country, Admiral Halsey aggressively maneuvered the U.S. Third Fleet north, earning that battle the nickname "Bull's Run." Masaharu Homma was executed for war crimes he committed in this country, where he forced a group of POWs to trek sixty miles to Camp O'Donnell. The Battle of Leyte Gulf was fought near this country, where Japanese forces carried out the Bataan Death March. For the point, name this Asian country to which Douglas MacArthur vowed to return.
3) A character in this novel steals a cross and a watch from a dead French officer who turns out to still be alive, and who mistakenly thanks the thief for saving his life. This novel's lengthy digressions include an analysis of the Battle of Waterloo from the French perspective and an account of Paris's sewer system, which is navigated when Marius Pontmercy is carried to safety from a barricade during the 1832 June Rebellion. For the point, name this novel about Inspector Javert -zha-‐vair- and Jean Valjean, written by Victor Hugo.
Les Miserables -do not accept or prompt on "Les Miz"-
4) This man allegedly used the foul smell of his camels to scare off enemy horses at the Battle of Thymbra. This king of Anshan consolidated power by defeating Nabonidus, which was recorded on a namesake cylinder that highlighted this man's rule. This ruler's achievements include ending the Babylonian Captivity, allowing Jews to return to their homelands, and creating a new capital at Pasargadae -pass-‐AR-‐guh-‐dye-. For the point, name this founder of the Achaemenid dynasty in Persia.
Cyrus the Great -or Cyrus II-
5) This composer wrote his own libretto for an opera based on Ivan the Terrible's secret police, The Oprichnik. In another of this man's operas, Herman takes his own life after seeing the title object while gambling. The title character of another opera by this composer rejects Tatyana and kills Lensky in a duel. This composer of The Queen of Spades and Eugene Onegin used a celesta for the "Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy" in another work. For the point, name this Russian composer of The Nutcracker.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
6) A symbol of authority possessed by the holder of this position was a set of nine cauldrons, or ding. A group of five legendary holders of this position are paired with the Three Sovereigns in many ancient texts, and the most prominent member of that group is usually named after the color yellow. The holder of this position was given the right and ability to rule from a divine provenance, which was called the Mandate of Heaven. For the points, name this position held by monarchs from the Han Dynasty.
Emperor of China -accept equivalents such as king of China or ruler of China-
7) A holder of this position, Philip Snowden, responded to the start of the Great Depression by investigating government cutbacks in the May Report. In 1911, the holder of this position attacked German aggression in the Mediterranean in a Mansion House Speech. David Lloyd George held this position for seven years beginning in 1908, during which time he issued the People's Budget. For the point, name this position responsible for managing the British treasury.
Chancellor of the Exchequer -accept Exchequer; accept Chancellor -and Under-‐Treasurer- of Her Majesty's Exchequer; do not accept or prompt on Lord Chancellor-
8) This ruler built a new capital and resettled Armenian people there to stimulate the silk trade. In 1620, war between this ruler and Jahangir occurred over the city of Kandahar. The Shirley brothers helped reform the army of this shah, who reduced the power of the Qizilbash. In a 1603 war against the Ottoman Empire, this Persian ruler regained land lost by Tahmasp I in the Treaty of Amasya. This ruler moved his capital from Qazvin to Isfahan. For the point, name this great ruler of Safavid Persia.
Shah Abbas I -or Shah Abbas the Great of Persia-
9) In this modern-‐day country, Nikola Karev briefly led the breakaway Kruševo Republic against the Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Niš -neess- forced Bulgarian Prime Minister Aleksandar Stamboliyski to crack down on the activities of IMRO, a group named for this country; IMRO captured and assassinated him. This country has been officially recognized under the acronym FYROM due to a naming dispute with its southern neighbor. For the point, name this southernmost of the former constituent countries of Yugoslavia, a country that shares its name with a region in Northern Greece.
Macedonia -accept Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia before "FYROM" is read; do not accept Macedon-
10) A ruler of this dynasty tried to legitimize his rule by forcing dissident ministers to recite poetry but failed to so and thus executed those "six martyred ministers." This dynasty launched an expedition against the Tsushima Islands and established a "Hall of the Worthies" for scholars. Taejo founded this dynasty, which was aided in fighting off a Japanese invasion by Yi Sun-‐Sin, after which it became isolationist and was known as a "hermit kingdom." Sejong the Great once led, for the point, what Korean dynasty that ruled from the fall of Goryeo to the early 20th century
Joseon Dynasty -or Choson Dynasty-
11) This group orchestrated the murder of the university student Benno Ohnesorg in an attempt to sow chaos in an enemy country. This organization quietly provided technical and financial support to the Red Army Faction, and perfected its own gaslighting technique called zersetzung. Prominent members of this organization included longtime leader Erich Mielke and a man who successfully led the infiltration of Willy Brandt's cabinet, Markus Wolf. For the point, name this official intelligence service of East Germany.
Stasi -accept Ministry for State Security or State Security Service-
12) A chronicle that describes this battle was composed 22 years later by Isidore of Beja. In the leadup to this battle, Odo's forces were soundly defeated near Bordeaux in the Battle of the River Garonne. In this battle, Abdul Rahman was killed during the losing side's retreat, in which they were pursued by Frankish infantry. For the point, name this 8th century battle in which Charles Martel's army defeated an Umayyad invasion of France.
Battle of Tours -accept Battle of Poitiers; accept Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs-
13) After World War II, this man served as the first Deputy Supreme Allied Commander of Europe. This man critically chose to have eight, rather than three, divisions make up the landing force on D-‐Day. This man was described as a "tired little fart" by George Patton, who this man helped to take Sicily. This leader of the Eighth Army won the Second Battle of El Alamein during the North African Campaign. For the point, name this British general.
14) This country formed the CAI to fight in the Battle of Britain, and one of its ships later became the Yugoslavian presidential yacht Galeb. After this country's naval signals were intercepted by the Allies, it lost the Battle of Cape Matapan in 1941, and one of its Littorio-‐class battleships was sunk by German Fritz-‐Xs after it signed an armistice with the Allies in 1943. For the point, name this country whose Regia Marina was led by Admiral Angelo Iachino.
15) According to legend, the four sons of Aymon fled to this region on the magical river-‐jumping horse Bayard. Charlemagne is said to have dreamed of this region the night before the disaster at Roncevaux Pass. The Dinant region in this forest was targeted by Heinz Guderian at the end of the Phony War, since it was undefended by the Maginot Line. This forest was also exploited by panzers in the Battle of the Bulge. For the point, name this largely Belgian forest that provided a route for the Nazi invasion of France.
Ardennes Forest -prompt on Belgium and/or Wallonia before "forest" is said-
16) Nate Thayer, one of the few foreign journalists to interview this man, theorized that he killed himself to avoid being handed over to America. In 1985, this man selected a successor: Son Sen, who had earlier overseen S-‐21. Nuon Chea, who briefly interrupted this man's term as Prime Minister, was this man's second-‐in-‐command and known as "Brother Number Two." For the point, name this first prime minister of Democratic Kampuchea, the leader of the Khmer Rouge.
Pol Pot -accept Saloth Sar-
17) A spy working for this country gained information about American troops by romancing US Senator Henry Wilson. This country utilized the spies Rose Greenhow and Belle Boyd. Because this country's only major arms manufacturer was the Tredegar Iron Works, it employed blockade runners to bypass ships enforcing the Anaconda Plan. For the point, name this country whose Secretary of State, Judah Benjamin, managed its covert operations from its capital of Richmond, Virginia.
Confederate States of America -accept CSA; accept Confederacy-
18) A popular portrait of this man in a blue robe and light blue tights was painted by Hyacinthe Rigaud -ree-‐GOH-. Andre-‐Charles Boulle's inlay work was prized by this king's court. This king commissioned the muralist Charles Le Brun to paint scenes of embassies to his court on the ceiling of the Hall of Mirrors. This man commissioned the architect Louis Le Vau to oversee the expansion of the gardens and Palace of Versailles. For the point, name this Bourbon "Sun King."
Louis XIV -14-
19) This politician successfully ordered Sir John Napier to rescue Protestant hostages taken by Tewodros II of Ethiopia. This man represented his country with Lord Salisbury at the Congress of Berlin, and he won acclaim for purchasing majority shares in the Suez Canal for his nation. Queen Victoria was a fervent supporter of, for the point, what British prime minister, a rival of William Gladstone?
Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconfield
20) This country's elite were nicknamed the Wabenzi for their love of Mercedes-‐Benz cars. This country perpetrated the Garissa and Wagalla massacres against an ethnic group that it had fought in the Shifta War. Ethnic tension in this country increased after Raila Odinga claimed fraud in his electoral loss to Mwai Kibaki. This country's Kalenjin people gained power when Daniel Arap Moi assumed the presidency as head of the KANU party. For the point, name this African country whose first President was Jomo Kenyatta.
21) During one of these events, Richard Temple opened work camps and was criticized for "teaching the natives that it is the duty of the government to keep them alive." Another of these events that took place in India in the late 18th century was nicknamed for the skulls of its victims. One of these events, known locally as An Gortha Mor, was caused in part by overreliance on the Lumper variety of a certain crop. For the point, name these events, one of which caused thousands of refugees to flee Ireland in the 1840s and was caused by a potato-‐killing blight.
famines -accept Bengal famine; accept Doji bara famine or skull famine; accept Irish potato
22) This event ended shortly after a letter declared "the more the two of us pull, the tighter that knot -of war- will be tied." An earlier diplomatic effort to mediate this event involved Adlai Stevenson demanding, "don't wait for the translation, answer yes or no!" while questioning an ambassador about photographs taken from a U2 plane. The agreement ending this event included the removal of Jupiter missiles in Turkey and the creation of a Moscow-‐DC hotline. For the point, name this 1962 event in which the Soviets attempted to weaponize a Caribbean island.
Cuban Missile Crisis
23) Prior to its foundation, the residents of this city journeyed from the Place of Herons to Grasshopper Hill, where they got in trouble for flaying a princess of the Culhua people. This city's sacred precinct was centered around a double temple to deities of war and rain, the Templo Mayor. This city was founded in a marsh at the spot where an eagle atop a cactus was eating a snake, supposedly a sign sent by Huitzilopotchli -h'weet-‐zee-‐loh-‐pock-‐t'lee-. For the point, name this Aztec capital city.
Tenochtitlan --ten-‐oak-‐tee-‐t'lan-, but be lenient-
24) This thinker defined government as "an institution which prevents injustice other than such as it commits itself." This man was once lowered over the walls of Damascus in an army's attempt to strike a truce with Tamerlane, who ended up having a series of conversations with this man. This thinker wrote that large empires bring about their own doom since they lack the level of "social cohesion," or "asabiyyah," -ah-‐sahb-‐ee-‐yah- of peripheral tribes; that 1377 work was written in Arabic and attempted to take a scientific approach to the study of history. For the point, name this author of the Muqadimmah.
Ibn Khaldun -or Abu Zayd 'abdur-‐Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Khaldun al-‐Hadrami-
25) After this city's forces lost the Battle of Arginusae, the winning city sentenced six of their eight winning generals to death. The Mothax Lysander was a famous admiral from this city, which lost power after losing the Battle of Leuctra to an echelon formation fielded by Thebes. Xerxes' advance was slowed by King Leonidas and a group of 300 soldiers from this city at the Battle of Thermopylae. For the point, name this militaristic Greek city state that was the main enemy of Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
26) Carl Batecchi wrote about his experiences as one of these people in a Dustoff helicopter unit during the Vietnam War. After his experiences in Biafra, one of these people named Bernard Kouchner founded an international group of them that won the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize. Fictional examples of these people named BJ Hunnicut and Hawkeye Pierce worked in the 4077th during the Korean War in the T.V. show M
S*H. For the point, name these professionals who work "without Borders" in warzones to heal the wounded.
doctors -accept surgeons, nurses, medics, and anything else related to medicine, especially in war-
27) This country arrested Peng Ming-‐min, who spent four years under house arrest before fleeing to Sweden. A leader of this country once declared "the sky is not big enough for two suns." This country was the site of the February 28 incident, which resulted in 40 years of martial law called the White Terror. In 1996, this country held its first direct presidential election, resulting in a Kuomintang victory. Chiang Kai-‐Shek fled to, for the point, what island, home to the Republic of China?
Taiwan -accept Republic of China before it is read; do not accept or prompt on People's Republic of China; do not accept or prompt on China-
28) A type of ensemble from this country, featuring the oboe-‐like zurna and the davul, was known as the mehteran. Mozart's Violin Concerto no. 5 was nicknamed for this country, and specially-‐ manufactured pianos often played his Piano Sonata no. 11, which ends with a rondo named for this country. Triangles, bass drums, and cymbals were imported into Western orchestras from this country following its wars with the Hapsburg Empire. For the point, a Classical-‐era craze for the music of what country was inspired by the Janissary military bands of the Ottoman Empire?
Turkey -accept Ottoman Empire before mentioned-
29) Participants in these events would make offerings to the minor deity Taraxippus. The quadriga was often used in these events, one of which instigated a civil disturbance between factions nicknamed the Blues and the Greens. The Nika Riots were spurred by controversy surrounding these events, which were held in Constantinople's Hippodrome. The Circus Maximus in Rome hosted, for the point, what events in which ancient competitors completed laps in horse-‐drawn vehicles?
30) This country is referenced as the "Island of St. Lawrence" in early maps, and it was the last stop on a route known as the "pirate round." This island's largest tourist site is its island of Nosy Be, and it contains a large area of karst pinnacles in its Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park. This country is the home of the Merina ethnic group, who introduced a language in the Malayo-‐Polynesian family to this country. For the point, name this former French island colony off the southeast coast of Africa.
31) This policy was largely ignored by Congress as senators flocked to buy from "the man in the green-‐ hat," George Cassiday. Neal Dow became one of the first mayors to implement this policy under the Maine Law. Contraband violating this policy was destroyed by a hatchet-‐wielding Carrie Nation from the WCTU. This policy became law when the Volstead Act was enacted to carry out the Eighteenth Amendment. For the points, name this 1920s policy that banned liquor throughout the US.
Prohibition -accept temperance; prompt on 18th Amendment or Volstead Act before each is mentioned-
1) Deusdedit is often considered the first non-‐Italian holder of this position. A holder of this position named Plegmund crowned Edward the Elder king after the death of Alfred the Great. Another holder of this position was the subject of the T.S. Eliot play Murder in the Cathedral. The holder of this position is superior to the overseer of the Diocese of York. Thomas Becket held, for the point, what position, the highest clerical position in the Church of England?
Archbishop of Canterbury
2) Hyperbolus argued that this campaign should have included an attack on Carthage. This campaign began as a reply to Segesta's request for aid, and it was doomed by the arrival of Gylippus' reinforcements. This campaign received its first setback when the vandalization of the religious hermai statues was falsely blamed on commander Alcibiades [al-‐kih-‐bee-‐ah-‐deez], prompting him to defect to Sparta. For the point, name this disastrous Peloponnesian War expedition in which Athens attacked an Italian island.
Sicilian Expedition -accept descriptions of Athens' expedition to Sicily; prompt on Peloponnesian War until "Segesta" is read)
3) In 1984, a snap election in this country became known as the "schnapps election" due to the drinking habits of the ousted Prime Minister. In this country, Alain Mafart was part of a team that planted a bomb that killed photographer Fernando Pereira; French Defense Minister Charles Hernu resigned as a result of that action. Prime Minister David Lange instituted Rogernomics in this country, where Greenpeace docked the ship Rainbow Warrior before its bombing in 1985. For the point, name this country where Robert Muldoon once served as Prime Minister in its capital Wellington.
4) A book by this man recounts how he heard the command "take up and read" while meditating in a garden and how he needlessly stole some pears from a neighboring orchard in his youth. This man's mother Monica died in the port city of Ostia shortly after this man converted to Christianity in Milan under the patronage of Saint Ambrose; thereafter, he became a bishop in Hippo Regius in North Africa. For the point, name this 5th-‐century theologian who wrote the Confessions.
Saint Augustine of Hippo
5) Charles Ives's first piece in this genre, based on hymn tunes, was subtitled "From the Salvation Army." One of these pieces, part of a set dedicated to the Hungarian count Joseph Erdody, includes a set of variations on "God Save Emperor Francis," a melody that would become the German national anthem. Mozart's Opus 10 is a set of these chamber music pieces dedicated to the "father" of this non-‐symphonic genre, Joseph Haydn. For the point, name this chamber music ensemble that consists of two violins, a viola, and a cello.
6) A member of this family assumed the title of regent because his low birth prevented him from reaching a higher position. The Council of Five Elders was created to rule in place of a young member of this family named Hideyori. Osaka Castle was constructed by a member of this family who wanted to surpass his mentor, Oda Nobunaga. For the point, name this family that opposed Tokugawa Ieyasu [Tokugawa ee-‐ay-‐yah-‐soo] and that included Hideyoshi.
7) An admiral with this nickname defeated an allied fleet under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza. Another leader with this name ordered the sacking of Milan in 1162 and married Beatrice of Burgundy. An operation with this name superseded Operation Otto as Nazi Germany's plan for the invasion of the Soviet Union. A king who went by this nickname drowned while crossing the Saleph River during the Third Crusade. For the point, give this nickname of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I that translates as "Red Beard."
Barbarossa -accept Hayreddin Barbarossa; accept Operation Barbarossa; accept Frederick
8) This woman's father convened the Panglong Conference to assess the status of his country's minorities. Because this woman is the mother of British citizens, she is barred from assuming her elected office. This de facto leader, the head of the National League for Democracy, was not able to accept her Nobel Peace Prize because her country's military regime had barred her from returning if she left the country. This leader has been criticized for her indifference to the plight of the Rohingya. For the point, name this politician who long opposed the ruling military junta of Myanmar.
Aung San Suu Kyi [chee] -prompt on partial answers, as Burmese names do not include surnames)
9) A leader of this empire fled to Persia after a war with Sher Shah Suri. This empire's Bengal Subah province accounted for over half of its economic power. As a member of the Navratnas, Birbal advised an illiterate leader of this empire who created his own religion, Din-‐i Ilahi. The first leader of this empire defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat, which led to the annexation of the Delhi Sultanate. For the point, name this Indian Empire founded by Babur.
10) Royal Dutch Shell was sued by people from this country after Ogoniland protesters, including Ken Saro-‐Wiwa and the Ogoni 9, were killed. In 2009, a group in this country besieged a Bauchi police station, instigating clashes that killed its leader Mohammed Yusuf; that group's current leader, Abubakar Shekau, rebranded that group as the Islamic State in West Africa after pledging allegiance to ISIS. In 2014, over 200 schoolgirls were kidnapped in Chibok in, for the point, what African country where Boko Haram bombed the UN building in Abuja in 2011?
11) This battle included a clash at Flers-‐Courcelette [flair cor-‐seh-‐lett] where key reinforcements from Canada and New Zealand arrived. The Pals Battalions were dissolved after this battle due to a massive amount of casualties. As part of this battle, Hubert Gough led an offensive on Thiepval Ridge that was planned by Douglas Haig. The tank was first used at, for the point, what inconclusive, months-‐long World War I battle in which the UK suffered nearly 60,000 casualties in one day in 1916?
Battle of the Somme -accept Somme Offensive)
12) According to the Mitrokhin Archive, this man allegedly worked under the name "Krotov" for the KGB in 1980s Damascus. This man endorsed the unsuccessful Prisoners' Document, which would have established his country with a capital at al-‐Quds al-‐Shareef. At the Sharm El Sheikh Summit in 2005, this man and Ariel Sharon [sha-‐rone] called for an end to the al-‐Aqsa Intifada; this man also agreed to the Road Map for Peace with Sharon, which endorsed a two-‐state solution. For the point, name this chairman of Fatah and current President of the Palestinian National Authority.
13) The actions of this movement marked the difference between the "people of wine" and "people of vinegar" according to Yury Tynyanov. The Union of Salvation was an precursor organization to this movement, which used the slogan "Konstantin and Constitution." Members of this movement were exiled to Siberia after their failed attempt to depose the successor of Alexander I, Nicholas I. For the point, name this movement of reformist Russian officers who executed a failed conspiracy in winter 1825.
Decembrists -accept Decembrist revolt and other additional information; accept pro-‐ Constantine movement and other equivalents before "Konstantin" is read)
14) The development of Mehrgarh was a direct predecessor to this culture. Deciphering the approximately 400 symbols in this culture's writing system, including a mysterious unicorn, is an important open question in archaeology. The Great Bath was built by this culture, which possessed the most advanced urban planning and sanitation systems of the ancient world. The docks at Lothal were constructed by this culture, as were the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-‐daro. For the point, name this ancient culture that flourished around a namesake Pakistani river.
Indus River Valley Civilization -accept Harappan Civilization before read)
15) A move that Edward Gibbon claimed "has never been attempted, and has never been repeated" saw this man plan a maneuver around the Caspian Sea through the mountains in order to surprise the Cumans. The Great Cavalry Raid was planned by this man who helped secure a victory at the Battle of Khalka River with Jebe. At Mohi, this man devised a tactic to create weapons that threw stones at the Hungarian crossbowmen his army faced. This general was listed as one of the "four dogs of Temujin." For the point, name brilliant Mongol strategist under Genghis Khan.
Subotai -or Subutai)
16) Weizsacker's formula is used to approximate the mass of this structure, whose liquid drop model was proposed by George Gamow. Ernest Marsden and Hans Geiger conducted a 1911 experiment that discovered this structure; that experiment involved firing alpha particles at a sheet of gold foil and is usually named for its advisor, Ernest Rutherford. The plum puding model was discarded after the discovery of, for the point, what structure found in the center of atoms, composed of protons and neutrons?
nucleus of an atom -prompt on atom before "discovered" is read)
17) In a battle in this sea, the ships Iron Duke and Lion were baited into attacking Reinhard Scheer's fleet. In this sea, the Ariadne was sunk and admiral Leberecht Maas was killed when a naval squadron was ambushed near Heligoland Bight. John Jellicoe and Franz Hipper's Royal Navy and High Seas Fleet faced off at the World War I Battle of Jutland in, for the point, what sea located between Britain, Scandinavia, and Germany?
18) Precise masonry practiced by this culture allowed them to build a wall containing a stone cut with twelve angles and sides. A city built by this culture was possibly laid out in the shape of a puma. This culture built a large sundial-‐like structure known as the intihuana in another city built for Emperor Pachachuti; that site was was discovered by an expedition led by Hiram Bingham. For the point, name this Andean empire that built Machu Picchu.
Inca Empire -or Incans)
19) This woman's husband was killed by a gunpowder explosion that leveled a house at Kirk o' Field. This woman's betrothal was provided by the Treaty of Greenwich [gren-‐itch], and her marriage to Edward VI was the goal of the aggressors in the War of the Rough Wooing. After the suspicious death of her husband, Lord Darnley, this person was imprisoned by her cousin Elizabeth I and held in captivity until her execution. For the point, name this queen whose nickname reflects her rule over a realm north of England.
Mary, Queen of Scots -accept Mary Stuart; accept Mary I of Scotland; prompt on Mary; do not accept or prompt on "Mary I")
20) A sports minister from this country received copies of The Art of the Deal and Where's Waldo? while meeting with an ambassador in 2017. James Clapper's visit to this country helped secure the release of Todd Miller in 2014. Government authorities from this country claimed that botulism, not torture, led to the death of a visitor who had stolen a propaganda poster, Otto Warmbier. Journalists Laura Ling and Euna Lee were arrested in this country in 2009, but pardoned after a visit by Bill Clinton. Dennis Rodman has made several controversial visits to, for the point, what reclusive Asian country?
North Korea -or Democratic People's Republic of Korea; accept DPRK; prompt on Korea; o not accept or prompt on Republic of Korea)
21) The anti-‐colonialist Henry Curiel aided this country's independence movement in the Jeanson network. Another country's Foreign Affairs Secretary, Alain Savary, resigned after an eventual ruler of this country, Ahmed Ben Bella, was arrested in 1956. Fighting in this country, which fought the Sand War with Morocco, caused the Harkis and Pied Noirs [peed-‐nwah] to flee to Europe. The Evian Accords ended a war of independence in, for the point, what former colonial holding of France in North Africa?
22) This man was nicknamed the "mineral water drinking" secretary after taxing and restricting the sale of alcohol. This man, who suppressed rebels in Baku during Black January, began a policy of allowing satellite states to manage their internal affairs that earned the nickname "Sinatra Doctrine." After serving as this man's Vice President, Gennady Yanayev led a Gang of Eight coup against him that failed after Boris Yeltsin stood on a tank. The policies of glasnost and perestroika were created by, for the point, what last General Secretary of the Soviet Union?
23) A paradox about this process named for Anthony Downs notes that, for certain people, the cost of doing this outweighs the benefits because the impact of doing this is probably irrelevant. Systems for carrying out this process are often evaluated by the Condorcet criterion, and race-‐based discrepancies between its projected and actual results are described in an effect named for Los Angeles mayor Tom Bradley. For the point, name this decision-‐making method commonly used in democracies.
voting -or election systems; accept word forms)
24) This author asked "What is it fateful woman... Are the things so strange and marvelous you see or have seen?" in his poem "Ethiopia Saluting the Colours." An army hospital is the setting of this man's poem "The Wound Dresser," which joins a poem that declares "Beat! beat! drums!-‐blow! bugles! blow!" in his collection Drum-‐Taps. This author stated "our fearful trip is done" in a poem about the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. For the point, name this American author of "O Captain! My Captain!" and Leaves of Grass.
25) A ruler of these people named Laoshang made a cup out of a Yuezhi king's skull while conquering Gansu. Dou Xian ended the northern kingdom of these people at the Battle of the Altai Mountains. These people, who ruled the Xia state during the 16 Kingdoms period, began warring with the Han Dynasty after Emperor Wu failed to trap them at the Battle of Mayi. After these people won the Battle of Baideng Emperor Gaozu of Han initiated the heqin system of diplomatic marriage. For the point, name these nomadic people, primarily from Mongolia, whose empire was founded by Modu Chanyu.
26) One of these actions involved the alleged shipment of two bottles of brandy aboard a plane in Smolensk. During one of these actions, the Reserve Army was activated by Friedrich Fromm, who later defected and executed the central planners. A briefcase bomb exploded at the Wolf's Lair but failed to accomplish this action; that plan by Claus von Stauffenberg was the 20th of July plot. Had this action succeeded, Operation Valkyrie would have taken effect. For the point, name this never completed action that would have created a power vacuum in Nazi Germany.
attempts, plots, etc. to assassinate -or kill, etc.) Adolf Hitler -accept Operation Spark throughout; accept Operation Valkyrie after "briefcase" is read and before "Valkyrie" is mentioned; prompt on partial answers)
27) This man met with Nikita Khrushchev in an outdoor pool and, exploiting Khrushchev's poor swimming, humiliatingly offered him water wings. Pakistan's foreign minister inadvertently caused a mass hysteria by presenting mangoes to this man. Enver Hoxha [ho-‐cha] was the only leader to support this man in a decade-‐long political struggle over de-‐Stalinization. For the point, name this Chinese leader who oversaw the Sino-‐Soviet split and whose sayings are collected in the "Little Red Book."
Chairman Mao Zedong -or Mao Tse-‐tung)
28) This man and Roger Penrose developed a theorem that states that if there is a trapped null surface and a nonnegative energy density, then there exist finite length geodesics that can't be extended. In 1997, this scientist joined Kip Thorne on a public wager against John Preskill concerning the information paradox. This man, whose thesis was based on extending the singularity theorem of black holes to the entire universe, was the author of A Brief History of Time. For the point, name this British physicist who passed away in March of 2018.
Sir Stephen William Hawking
29) This civilization's writing system evolved into an "Epi" script, though their initial writings were recorded at the Cajascal [cah-‐has-‐kal] block in San Andres. This civilization became known as the "rubber people" for their ability to extract latex from nearby trees. Ritual bloodletting was practiced for the first time in Central America at this civilization's center at San Lorenzo. For the points, name this Mesoamerican civilization, known for their creation of large stone heads.
30) This man killed two Iroquois chiefs with one shot in an expedition near where Fort Ticonderoga stands. The Kirke brothers raided a settlement founded by this man during a war between Charles I and Louis XIII. This man led an expedition down the Richelieu River, discovering a lake east of the Adirondacks. In 1633, Cardinal Richelieu gave this founder of Quebec City the title of Lieutenant Governor of New France. For the point, name this French explorer who increased colonization in Canada and names a lake between Vermont and New York.
Samuel de Champlain
31) In Germany, this holiday's "Old Women Day" features women raiding city hall in commemoration of a 1824 washerwoman revolt and involves the eating of the traditional "kreppel" donut. The "Battle of the Oranges" takes place during this holiday in Ivrea, Italy, as people memorialize a struggle against a tyrant. Bandas and Blocos are examples of the samba schools that prominently parade in the world's largest celebration of this holiday. For the point, name this Christian festive holiday that occurs before Lent and often features public masquerade parties, the largest of which takes place in Rio de Janeiro.
Carnaval -or Carnival)
1) Édouard Drumont's newspaper La Libre Parole was a vocal proponent of one side in this event. This event's central figure was cleared by an investigation led by Georges Picquart, after which he was freed from Devil's Island. Clemenceau's paper L'Aurore and Emile Zola's open letter "J'accuse" supported the central figure of this affair. Major Ferdinand Esterhazy was the real culprit behind, for the point, what anti-‐Semitic affair in late 19th century France?
2) This policy is called the "most radical experiment" in a book by Mei Fong, who claimed it was created by rocket scientists. Violators of their policy could lose their "iron rice bowl," as they were blocked from holding government jobs. This policy, which was made less restrictive in 2016, has resulted in an increase in sex-‐selective abortion and a large gender imbalance, due in part to a cultural bias in favor of having sons. For the point, name this policy meant to control the population of China.
Chinese one-‐child policy -accept Family Planning Policy; accept Dushengzi nu zhengce; prompt on descriptions of population control before the end)
3) Arthur St. Clair and Philip Schuyler [sky-‐ler] were accused of negligence for failing to defend this location. Louis-‐Joseph Montcalm defeated a frontal assault on this place during the Battle of Carillon. In 1775, this place was stormed by the Green Mountain Boys, led by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen. For the point, name this historic fort overlooking Lake Champlain.
Fort Ticonderoga -accept Fort Carillon before Carillon is mentioned)
4) This island nation served as a joint Condominium between Britain and France, and was nicknamed the "Pandemonium". This island nation saw the development of the John Frum cargo cult. Antoine de Bougainville named these islands the Great Cyclades, and they were renamed the New Hebrides by Captain Cook. For the point, Port Vila is the capital of which Southern Pacific archipelago?
5) This project was conceived by Adrian Daninos as an alternative to Harold Hurst's plan to hoard water. This project lost funding from Great Britain after the host country accepted an arms deal with Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union. Over 50,000 people had to be moved to the town of New Wadi Halfa as a result of this project, which also forced the relocation of the Abu Simbel temple of Ramses II. Gamal Abdel Nasser ordered the building of, for the point, what large dam on the Nile River?
Aswan High Dam -prompt on Aswan -Dam))
6) This battle was fought near the Aufius River, which was used by the victors to trap the left flank of the losing side. Maharbal commanded the Numidian cavalry at this battle, while Gaius Terentius Varro co-‐led the Roman side. The victor of this battle had earlier won at Trebia and Lake Trasimene after crossing the Alps. For the point, name this 216 BC battle, a devastating loss for Rome that proved to be Hannibal's last major victory in Italy during the Second Punic War.
Battle of Cannae
7) One scene in this opera uses alternating A-‐flat and D dominant seventh chords to represent the Cathedral of the Dormition. In this opera's "Terem" scene, the title character asks Shuysky to recall a murder ordered in Uglich. A hostess sings the "Song of the Drake" in this work's Inn Scene, in which Varlaam recounts the Siege of Kazan. A crowd sings "Glory!" in the Coronation Scene of this opera, which was based on an Alexander Pushkin drama and depicts the rise of a False Dmitry. For the point, name this opera by Modest Mussorgsky about a tsar whose death led to the Time of Troubles.
8) A resistance unit founded by these people was once known as King Peacock, in reference to the Peacock Angel. Three hundred of these people were said to have been killed on a single day in Tal Afar. The magazine Dabiq contains articles justifying the enslavement of these people, who were targeted in Nineveh Province in the Sinjar Massacre. John Kerry claimed that the attacks in Northern Iraq against these people constituted genocide. ISIS has systematically targeted, for the point, what completely endogamous, Kurdish-‐speaking ethnic group of northern Iraq?
Yazidis -or Yezidis; prompt on Kurds before mentioned)
9) A series of massacres took place in this city in 1793 when priests were loaded into barges that were then intentionally sunk. The Chambre d'Edit Courts were created, and the use of strongholds such as Le Havre were protected, by a document signed in this city. For the point, name this capital of the Loire-‐ Atlantique department, where a 1598 edict protecting the rights of Huguenots was signed by King Henry IV.
Nantes -[nahnt], but be lenient) -accept Edict of Nantes after "Chambre" is read)
10) This group's last ruler, Amursana, was the target of a unification campaign by the Qianlong [chee-‐ ahn-‐long] Emperor that resulted in its genocide. This ethnic group, one of several descended from the Oirats, is the namesake of a basin between the Tian Shan and Altai Mountains, and their namesake "gate" was a key pass along the Silk Road from China into Central Asia. Like the Uyghurs [whee-‐gurs], this ethnic group was based in modern-‐day Xinjiang [shin-‐jee-‐ahng]. The Mongolian for "left hand" names, for the point, what northwestern Chinese ethnic group?
Dzungars -accept Oirat before mentioned, prompt on Mongols)
11) A king with this name attracted controversy for his alliance with Suleiman the Magnificent and was defeated and captured at the Battle of Pavia. The king who met with Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of Gold had this name, as did the husband of Maria Theresa. An empire was dissolved after a leader with this name was soundly beaten at the Battle of Austerlitz. For the point, give this regnal name shared by the first Valois-‐Angouleme [val-‐wah ahn-‐goo-‐lem] king of France and the last Holy Roman Emperor.
Francis -accept Francis II of Brittany; accept Francis I of France after "Suleiman" is read; accept Francis II after "Austerlitz" is read; accept Francois or Franz)
12) Oyama Isao was killed while trying to reach this city's Hongqiao [hong-‐chee-‐ow] Airport, which led to calls to dismantle the Peace Preservation Corps. This city was the site of the April 12 incident, in which the Kuomintang massacred thousands of Communist workers. An international settlement in this city, created by merging American and British enclaves, was essentially dissolved the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. In the 1920s, four of China's largest banks were based in this city's Bund. For the point, name this metropolis on the Yangtze River, the largest city in China.
13) Zhang Xueliang [jahng shweh-‐leeahng] held Chiang Kai-‐shek hostage in a 1936 incident named after this city, trying to force him to work with the Communist Party to resist Japanese invasion. The Silk Road had its eastern origin in this city, where Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi was buried with his Terracotta Army. For the point, name this city also referred to as Chang'an, an ancient capital of several Chinese dynasties, including the Han and Tang.
Xi'an -[shee-‐ahn]; accept Chang'an before "Zhang Xueliang" is read, and prompt on it after)
14) The prelude to this man's abandoned opera The Building of The Boat was reworked into a piece in which the cor anglais represents a waterfowl in the realm of the dead. The finale of this composer's 5th symphony includes a motif inspired by swans taking flight. A tone poem by this man was performed under the title "A Scandinavian Choral Hymn" due to Russian censorship.The Lemminkainen Suite was composed by, for the point, what nationalist composer of "The Swan of Tuonela" and Finlandia?
15) The British refused the surrender of thousands of soldiers fleeing from this country, resulting in their massacre in the Bleiburg Repatriation. Roads in this country were blocked by the SAO Krajina by the namesake objects in the Log Revolution, and Franjo Tudman served as this country's first president. A water tower riddled with bullets in this country's independence war was preserved in Vukovar. For the point, name this state that includes the regions of Slavonia and Dalmatia, which broke away from Yugoslavia and set its capital in Zagreb.
16) A ruler of this empire forced his Armenian citizens to march from Jugha to Isfahan, resulting in the creation of New Julfa. This empire retained control of Tabriz in the Peace of Amasya. The first ruler of this country became an alcoholic after losing the Battle of Chaldiran. Shamakhi was sacked by a group of rebels in response to Sultan Hasuyan's decision to convert this empire to Shia Islam. Ismail I founded, for the point, what early rival to the Ottoman Empire, an Iranian dyansty that collapsed in 1736?
Safavid dynasty -prompt on Persia; prompt on Iran before mentioned)
17) The Second Division Blindée disobeyed orders to participate in this event. This event started after the execution of 33 resistance members by the Gestapo in the Bois de Boulougne. During this event, Dietrich von Cholitz was ordered to cause mass destruction, but disobeyed and surrendered to General Leclerc instead. The French Forces of the Interior led, for the point, what event that culminated with a parade on the Champs-‐Elysées in August 1944?
Liberation of Paris -accept descriptive answers relating to the Nazis surrendering Paris; prompt on partial answers, like "Battle of Paris" or "Nazi surrender")
18) A resolution to perform this action was authored by Opposition Leader Kim Beazley, who was enraged when Parliament adopted a weaker motion that was merely "deep and sincere." A holiday devoted to this action is celebrated every March 26, the anniversary of the release of the Bringing Them Home report. This action was done in a 2008 speech about the mistreatment of the Stolen Generations. Kevin Rudd led, for the point, what reconciliatory action atoning for past government abuses?
Australians apologizing to Aboriginal people -accept equivalent descriptions)
19) An artistic personification of one side of this war wears a blue coat and yellow sash and kneels on a stone crushing a hand. Another painting of this war shows a turban-‐wearing man riding a rearing horse as an old woman and nearly nude man lay in the foreground following the siege of the island of Chios [KAI-‐ohs]. The Romantic painter Eugene Delacroix [oo-‐zhen deh-‐lah-‐kwah] painted an allegory for this conflict in the ruins of Missolonghi. For the point, name this 19th century revolution against the Ottoman Empire by a Hellenic state.
Greek War of Independence -accept descriptions of the Greek Revolution; only Greek is needed after "revolution" is read at the end)
20) The wonders of this city were chronicled by Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo [cla-‐vee-‐ho], who was stationed there in the 15th century. A ruler who had just conquered this location got drunk in one of its palaces and killed his friend, Cleitus the Black. Ulugh Beg built an observatory in this city in the Transoxiana region, which was once a prominent capital of the Sogdians and a link on the Silk Road. In 329 BC, Alexander the Great conquered, for the point, what Central Asian city that was the capital of Tamerlane's empire?
21) Note: country and year required. During this election, one politician said that "running through the fields of wheat" was the naughtiest thing she ever did. Despite warning about a "coalition of chaos" of opposing parties, the winner of this election was forced into a confidence and supply agreement with the Democratic Unionist Party. This election saw a surprise surge in seats for the Labour Party under Jeremy Corbyn. For the point, name this snap election in which Conservative Prime Minister Theresa May lost her parliamentary majority.
2017 United Kingdom general election -prompt on partial answers, prompt on answers of England and/or Great Britain)
22) Georges Cuvier used Sarah Baartman's irregular proportions to argue for his theory of this concept rooted in polygenism. Franz Boas's The Mind of Primitive Man attempted to disprove "scientific" theories of this phenomenon, which was controversially connected with intelligence by Hernstein and Murray's The Bell Curve. For the point, name this social construct that classifies human beings using physical traits, primarily skin color.
23) A novel by this author, in which Alex Morden is executed for killing an officer from an unnamed invading country, was written to promote resistance movements in Nazi occupied countries. This author of The Moon is Down wrote about the life of the pirate Henry Morgan in his first novel, Cup of Gold. Another novel by this author is set against the backdrop of farm workers migrating from Oklahoma to California during the Dust Bowl. For the point, name this author of The Grapes of Wrath.
24) This man's wife was killed in Geneva by Luigi Lucheni, who was looking to kill any sovereign he could find. The 17-‐year-‐old Mary Vetsera was killed by this man's son, who proceeded to shoot himself, in the Mayerling incident. This man was succeeded by his grand nephew Charles I, who essentially abdicated with the Proclamation of 11 November. This leader's country was soundly defeated by Helmuth von Moltke at the Battle of Koniggratz in 1866. For the point, name this emperor who ruled Austria for over 60 years before dying in the midst of World War I.
Franz Joseph I -accept Francis Joseph I)
25) While in office, this politician suppressed the FREDEMO and APRA parties and attempted to arrest his predecessor, Alan Garcia. This man fell from prominence after videos showed his chief of intelligence, Vladimiro Montesinos, bribing election officials. This man was arrested for crimes against humanity for organizing the Grupo Colina death squad, which committed numerous atrocities while fighting the communist Shining Path insurgency. For the point, name this former president of Peru.
26) One instance of fighting in this war centered on Dhauli Hill. Pliny the Elder claims that the losing side in this conflict employed 700 war elephants under leaders like Raja Anantha. According to one historian, this war changed its winner's heart from being one of "wanton cruelty" to one of "an exemplary piety," because this war's bloodshed inspired its winner "towards the Dharma," according to a Rock Edict. For the point, name this 3rd century BC war, a victory for the Mauryans that inspired Ashoka to convert to Buddhism.
27) This man decreed that coffee could only be consumed by the royal family, a ruling he enforced by hiring disabled soldiers to sniff out illegal deposits. Johann Gotzkowsky was hired by this man to create a silk trade that could compete with rival France. This king commissioned Hans Knobelsdorff to design his summer palace in Potsdam, Sanssouci [sahn-‐soo-‐see]. This man argued that The Prince was a limited and biased work in his Anti-‐Machiavel, which was edited by his friend Voltaire. For the point, name this enlightened king who ruled Prussia for much of the 18th century.
Frederick II -accept Frederick the Great; prompt on Frederick)
28) Three princesses of this city went insane and committed suicide after seeing an infant in a box being guarded by serpents. A king of this city was born when a goddess threw Hephaestus's sperm off her thigh onto the ground. Cecrops and Erichthonius were mythological kings of this city. Poseidon offered a magnificent horse as a gift to the residents of this city, who instead voted to accept an olive tree from a goddess of wisdom. For the pointname this Greek city where temples were built on the Acropolis.
29) Estimations relying on order of magnitude calculations and dimensional analysis, such as "How many piano tuners work in Chicago?", are named for this man. A class of particles with half-‐integer spin is named for this scientist, who discovered the statistics for them independently of Dirac. In 1942, this man co-‐designed the first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile-‐1. For the point, name this Italian physicist, the namesake of a national lab in Illinois.
30) These people "trampled on the bodies of saints [...] like dung in the streets," according to Alcuin's description of their raid on Lindisfarne. These people were recruited to form the Varangian Guard by the Byzantines. Charles the Simple signed the Treaty of Saint-‐Claire-‐sur-‐Epte, granting these people land in Western Europe, and they were granted Normandy after carrying out a series of raids down the Seine River in their longships. For the points, name these seafaring marauders from Scandinavia who didn't actually wear iconic two-‐horned caps.
Vikings -prompt on Scandinavians or Norse before "Scandinavia" is read)
31) One work of art in this city names the town of Talamone, which this city purchased to serve as its port. One library in this city, decorated with scenes from the life of Pope Pius II, is located in a cathedral in this city which contains a mosaic floor. One work of art in this city that houses the Piccolomini Library depicts Justice tied up at the seat of the throne of a devil. Ambroglio Lorenzetti's Allegory of Good and Bad Government is located in its city hall, which also houses Duccio's Maestá. For the point, name this city, who along with its rival Florence was a center of Renaissance art.
1) The victors of these wars developed a boarding device called a corvus, allowing them to use their superior legionaries in naval combat. Cato the Elder called for the third of these conflicts by repeatedly demanding that an enemy city must be destroyed. For the point, name this series of ancient wars for control of the Mediterranean between Rome and Carthage.
Punic Wars -prompt on descriptions of "wars between Rome and Carthage," or partial descriptions thereof, before "Rome" is mentioned)
2) A racial slur for people originally from this country names a 1954 US operation that monitored these people, who were issued seasonal work passes in the Bracero Program. People from this country were the primary targets of violence during the Zoot Suit Riots in Los Angeles. For the point, identify these people who, after land reforms by Porfirio Diaz, began migrating north to the US.
Mexican Americans -accept Mexico and other word forms)
3) While this composer was exiled to Switzerland for his role in Dresden's May Uprising, he wrote the essay Artwork of the Future, laying out his idea of the "total work of art," or Gesamtkunstwerk. King Ludwig II allowed this composer of Tannhauser and Tristan und Isolde to construct a theater for his "music dramas" at Bayreuth [bye-‐royt]. For the point, name this German opera composer who was inspired by Norse myth to write his Ring Cycle.
Richard Wagner -[ree-‐kard vahg-‐ner], but be lenient)
4) In one speech, this man repeated the phrase "last night" four times to highlight incidents in Guam and Hong Kong in that speech, which condemned an "unprovoked and dastardly attack" and called for Congress to declare war. For the point, name this President who gave the "Day of Infamy" speech on December 8th, 1941, the day after the Pearl Harbor attack.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt -or FDR; prompt on Roosevelt)
5) This man responded to the murder of writer August von Kotzebue by banning student organizations with the Carlsbad Decree. This man was forced to resign after a speech by the Hungarian Lajos Kossuth as the revolutions of 1848 overthrew his conservative order. For the point, name this Austrian statesman who orchestrated the Concert of Europe at the Congress of Vienna.
Klemens von Metternich
6) This body of water is home to a British naval base in the Chagos Archipelago that has been suspected of having a CIA prison on Diego Garcia. This body of water was the primary site of a disaster that killed several hundred thousand people along the shores of this ocean in December 2004. For the point, name this ocean that Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama entered after rounding the Cape of Good Hope at the southern end of Africa.
7) A genre of still lifes featuring books produced in this region is called chaekgeori. This region was one of the leading producers of green-‐glazed celadon during the Goryeo dynasty. A later king of this region's Choson dynasty is credited with inventing its modern alphabet, hangul. For the point, name this peninsula, ruled in the 15th century by King Sejong.
Korean Peninsula -accept North and/or South Korea)
8) This ruler fought alongside Victor Emmanuel at the Battle of Solferino, liberating Lombardy from Austria. A decade later, this man was provoked by the Ems Dispatch into declaring war against Otto von Bismarck's country; that war ended poorly for this man, who was captured at the Battle of Sedan in 1871. For the point, name this loser of the Franco-‐Prussian War, a Second Empire ruler of France and nephew of France's first Emperor.
Napoleon III -accept Louis-‐Napoleon Bonaparte; do not prompt on Napoleon alone)
9) An alliance based on this peninsula included cities like Cora, Tusculum, and Alba Longa and signed the Treaty of Cassius with a nearby empire in 493 BC. The southern part of this peninsula was once known as Magna Graecia for its Greek colonies and was defended by Pyrrhus of Epirus. For the point, name this peninsula home to the Etruscans and other peoples conquered by the early Romans.
Italian peninsula -accept Italy)
10) This author wrote Concluding Unscientific Postscript, which classifies humanity into three stages of life beginning with childhood and ending with manhood. This philosopher traced man's progress from hedonism to ethical life in Either/Or, which he wrote under one of his many pseudonyms. For the point, name this proto-‐existentialist Danish philosopher who discussed the "knight of faith" in his Fear and Trembling.
Soren Kierkegaard -accept Johannes Climacus)
11) This man established a base after landing on the ship Granma. This man led an unsuccessful attack on the government's Moncada Barracks, but his later July 26 movement seized control of the country away from Fulgencio Batista in 1959. For the point, name this communist Cuban strongman who died in 2016.
12) Observation of these events caused the accelerated expansion of the Universe to be first noted when it was observed that these events were dimmer than expected. The brightest observed celestial event in history was one of these events that occurred in 1006 AD, while another of these events in 1054 AD was recorded by Chinese astronomers and led to the creation of the Crab nebula. For the point, name these events in which stars violently explode.
supernova -do not accept or prompt on nova)
13) The opening fighting of this war was the Battle of Edgehill, in which one side characteristically included cavalry commander Prince Rupert. The New Model Army was created during this war, whose opposing sides were nicknamed the Cavaliers and the Roundheads. For the point, name this war that culminated with the execution of Charles I on the orders of Oliver Cromwell.
English Civil War
14) Until its demise in the early 21st century, this country's monarchy was the only one in the world in a majority Hindu country. This country is where Tenzing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hillary began their successful climb of the world's highest mountain. For the point, name this Himalayan country where many climbers of Mount Everest have first set off from its capital of Kathmandu.
15) Wang Mang attempted to usurp this dynasty by establishing the Xin [shin] line. The Record of the Grand Historian was compiled by Sima Qian [chee-‐ahn] during this dynasty, whose other achievements include establishing the Silk Road. For the point, name this dynasty that shares its name with China's majority ethnic group and succeeded the Qin [chin].
16) This region was the source of the Great Heathen Army, which conquered much of England before their defeat at Edington by Alfred the Great. Rulers born in region included Canute the Great and Harald Hardrada, and men from this region sacked Lindisfarne in 793 AD. For the point, name this region, the home of Viking invaders.
Scandinavia -accept Norway; accept Denmark and/or Sweden after "Great Heathen Army" is mentioned; prompt on Northern Europe)
17) In this city, a Christian apostle first met the tent-‐making couple Priscilla and Aquila. A letter addressed to the residents of this city states "Love suffers long and is kind; love does not envy" and contains a phrase translated as "through a glass, darkly." For the point, name this city, the recipient of two Pauline epistles written while Paul was in Greece.
Corinth -accept First Corinthians; accept Second Corinthians)
18) During this man's regime, a place known as the "Hill of the Poisonous Trees," or Tuol Sleng, was used as an execution center under Comrade Duch [dook]. This man's regime replaced a general who deposed Norodom Sihanouk, Lon Nol. From Year Zero onward, this man attacked the "New People" who lived in urban areas and executed them in the "killing fields." The Khmer Rouge was led by, for the point, what genocidal Cambodian dictator?
Pol Pot -accept Saloth Sar)
19) In 1912, oncologist Isaac Adler became the first physician to link this plant to one of its most infamous health results. This crop's long history of being grown in Virginia began with John Rolfe. For the point, name this crop that was popularized in England by Sir Walter Raleigh and that can be found in cigarettes.
20) This book ends abruptly after a character declares "if only there were no other people in the world." The main character of this book shares a brief kiss with Peter van Daan and writes entries into a journal that she dubs "Kitty." For the point, name this book that describes a Jewish girl's experience hiding from the Nazis in Amsterdam.
The Diary of Anne Frank -accept The Diary of a Young Girl; accept anything mentioning Anne
Frank and a Diary)
21) One ruler of this name recorded his empire's history in the Behistun Inscription. Another king of this name was left to die by the Bactrian satrap Bessus and fled from the Battle of Gaugamela in his chariot; that last ruler of this name was dethroned by Alexander the Great. A "Great" ruler of this name launched a failed invasion of Greece in 490 BC. For the point, give this name shared by three Persian rulers, the first of whom lost at Marathon.
Darius -accept Darius I or Darius the Great; accept Darius III)
22) Attempts to alleviate this event's effects included the formation of an "exclusion zone" and the construction of an iron sarcophagus over the affected area. Backlash against the governmental coverup of this event led to the adoption of glasnost, or openness. For the point, name this 1986 meltdown of Reactor 4 at a facility in Pripyat, Ukraine, the world's first Level 7 nuclear energy catastrophe.
23) Four years after this company was purchased for $4 billion by the Brazilian-‐backed firm 3G Capital in the largest leveraged buyout in its industry's history, this company "purchased" Tim Hortons in a tax inversion scheme that put its headquarters in Ontario. The predecessor of this company was prefixed with the word "Insta-‐", in honor of the Insta-‐machines it was inspired to use by McDonald's. The "imagery of something big" inspired the signature item of, for the point, what fast food chain that sells the Whopper?
Burger King -accept Insta-‐Burger King)
24) One speech by this man triggered four days of rioting in Tbilisi. This man, who attacked Lavrenti Beria for turning his predecessor into a paranoiac, shouted "we will bury you" during a meeting with Western ambassadors. This man's namesake "thaw" included his Secret Speech denouncing the cult of personality of his predecessor. For the point, name this Soviet premier who succeeded Joseph Stalin in 1953.
25) A city in this US state became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" after the American Revolution. This state's Commonwealth Health Insurance Connector is often considered to be one of the models for Obamacare and was supported by governor Mitt Romney. Charlie Baker currently leads, for the point, what state in New England where the governor does not have an official residence in Boston?
26) A. A. Hoehling sued Universal Studios over plagiarizing his claim that this event was caused by sabotage. Herbert Morrison recorded live coverage of this event to be played alongside newsreel footage. In response to this event, the Graf Zeppelin II used helium to achieve its buoyancy instead of hydrogen. For the point, name this 1937 disaster in which thirty-‐six people died when an airship burst into flame.
LZ 129 Hindenburg disaster -accept equivalents like Hindenburg fire, crash, etc.)
27) In this city, the Nativity, Passion, and Glory Facades adorn a Gothic and Art Nouveau-‐styled cathedral that was left unfinished by its architect, Antoni Gaudi. Legend has it that Hannibal himself founded this city, naming it after his own family. The Sagrada Familia is located in, for the point, what city that hosted the 1992 Summer Olympics and is the capital of Catalonia in Spain?
28) To help refugees, Fridtjof Nansen created a passport for this organization, which created the Mandate of Palestine. Japan left this organization after it invaded Manchuria in 1931, and Henry Cabot Lodge prevented the United States from joining this organization. Woodrow Wilson heavily promoted, for the point, what international organization to promote peace that was created after World War I?
League of Nations -or LN; accept La Societe des Nations or SDN)
29) The Supreme Court cases of Eichman v. U.S. and Texas v. Johnson dealt with the desecration of these objects, which is currently a protected form of free speech. Betsy Ross supposedly convinced George Washington that these objects should have five-‐pointed, not six-‐pointed stars. For the point, name this American symbol whose stripes represent the 13 colonies.
American flags -accept colloquial names, like Old Glory or the Star Spangled Banner)
30) This man was the presumptive heir to Franz Joseph, his uncle, who was the second-‐to-‐last Habsburg to rule in Europe. The Black Hand orchestrated this man's death in Sarajevo. Gavrilo Princip assassinated, for the point, what archduke whose 1914 death led to an invasion of Serbia and the First World War?
Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
1) After a group known as "Jennie May" planned this structure as part of a riverfront revitalization project, FDR authorized it in 1935 as the US' first National Historic Site. Eero Saarinen designed this centerpiece of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial to honor Lewis and Clark. For the point, name this curved monument on the Mississippi River near St. Louis.
Gateway Arch -accept descriptions of the St. Louis Arch; prompt on the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial before mentioned)
1) This country's Plain of Jars was significantly bombed during the 1960's during a war fought primarily in its neighbor to the east. This country's Hmong people have often been oppressed and its city of Luang Prabang has become a hub for tourists on a budget. For the point, name this country which, during the Vietnam War, was the primary site of the Ho Chi Minh trail through the mountains to the east of its capital, Vientiane.
2) Operation Iskra and the Sinyavino Offensive attempted to relieve this city, which was supplied by the Road of Life. The siege of this city was lifted by a corridor over neighboring Lake Ladoga, and was the target of Army Group North during Operation Barbarossa. For the point, name this city, a former capital of Russia that was besieged by Nazi Germany for over two years.
Leningrad -accept St. Petersburg; accept Petrograd)
3) This US president's last Secretary of the Treasury, Levi Woodbury, called for land purchases to be made in gold and silver in the Specie Circular. This President's refusal to renew the charter of the Second Bank of the United States led to the Bank War. For the point, name this president who passed a precarious economic situation to his successor, Martin van Buren.
4) During this dynasty, rebellious governors launched the Revolt of the Three Feudatories, which was put down by the Green Standard Army. This dynasty's founder, Nurhaci created the Eight Banners Army, and a century later, its Kangxi [kahng-‐shee] Emperor welcomed Jesuit missionaries. For the point, name this Chinese dynasty founded by Manchu invaders after the fall of the Ming.
Qing [cheeng] Dynasty -accept Manchu Dynasty before mentioned; do not accept Qin [chin])
5) Miran Thompson and Sam Shockley were executed for instigating an uprising in this location. Frank Morris and the Anglin brothers drowned after attempting to leave this place by raft. Al Capone served out his sentence at, for the point, what prison, believed to have been escape proof, that was located on an island in San Francisco Bay?
Alcatraz -accept additional information relating to the island and/or the prison; prompt on San Francisco Bay before mentioned)
6) One ruler of this empire led the successful conquest of another empire centered at Chan Chan known for its monochromatic pottery style, the Chimu. Manco Yupanqui [yu-‐pahn-‐kee] founded a breakaway state of this empire in Vilcabamba five years after a civil war in this empire ended in the defeat of a half-‐ brother of Huascar, Atahualpa. The siege of Cuzco was fought by, for the point, what Peruvian empire that was conquered by the Spanish under Francisco Pizarro?
7) A fort in this city had its walls torn down by Japanese troops to construct a runway for the nearby Kai Tak Airport. In this city, triads populated a once-‐walled city built in the Kowloon peninsula. This city features the I. M. Pei designed Bank of China Building in its Central district. Reclamation projects have reduced the size of Victoria Harbor in, for the point, what special administrative region that was given to China from Britain in 1997?
8) One example of this type of performance caused a riot at its premier in Paris in 1913, called The Rite of Spring. Tchaikovsky created a popular type of this work which features characters such as the Mouse King and Clara, and is often performed in December. For the point, name this type of artistic performance, of which Swan Lake and The Nutcracker are famous example.
ballet -prompt on dance / dancing)
9) According to one of this man's former hitmen, nicknamed Popeye, ex-‐Minister Alberto Santofimio urged this man to order the assassination of presidential candidate Luis Galan. After escaping his private prison La Catedral, this man was hunted down by the Search Bloc and died in a 1993 shootout. For the point, name this Colombian drug lord, the leader of the Medellin [meh-‐deh-‐LEEN] Cartel.
Pablo Emilio Escobar Gaviria
10) Dredgers in this body of water invented the motorless skipjack boat to optimize their catch. This body of water was the site of Thomas Graves' loss to the Admiral de Grasse, thwarting British attempts to resupply troops at Yorktown. A vital population of blue crabs lives in this bay, which is fed by the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers. For the point, name this large bay that borders Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia.
11) A famine of this commodity in Lancashire, England, was caused by a decrease of its American exports. This commodity names the type of diplomacy used by the Confederacy to appeal to European powers during the Civil War, and it was nicknamed "King" due to its importance to the American south. For the point, name this textile crop that is processed by an Eli Whitney-‐invented "gin."
12) A fascist party in this country, the Iron Guard, was suppressed by Ion Antonescu, who was executed for war crimes after World War II. The last Communist ruler of this country was, with his wife Elena, executed on live TV on Christmas Day, 1989. For the point, name this country where dictator Nicolae Ceausescu ruled from Bucharest.
13) The problem of multiple generality in this field was tackled by Gottlob Frege [fray-‐guh], who pioneered the "predicate" form of this discipline. Aristotle's Organon was used by medieval theologians working in this field, which was combined with grammar and rhetoric in the standard trivium. For the point, name this branch of philosophy that studies reasoning.
14) In one conflict in this region, the 93rd Highlanders became honored as the Thin Red Line. In this region, Lord Raglan made his name launching a courageous assault upon a Russian battery during the siege of Sevastopol. The Charge of the Light Brigade took place on, for the point, what Russian peninsula in the Black Sea, the subject of an 1850s war?
Crimean Peninsula -accept Kerch Peninsula before mentioned; prompt on Russia before mentioned; prompt on the Black Sea before mentioned)
15) This country holds the distinction of being the only one to unwillingly gain its independence; its first prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew, cried on television after this country was expelled from Malaysia. For the point, name this city-‐state on the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula.
Republic of Singapore
16) The losing side in this battle, whose center consisted of noble housecarls flanked by the fyrd militia, had defeated Harald Hardrada at the Battle of Stamford Bridge the previous month. Harold Godwinson died by taking an arrow to the eye in this battle, as depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry. For the point, name this 1066 battle that paved the way for William the Conqueror's capture of England.
Battle of Hastings
17) A kingdom in this modern country moved its capital from Napata to Meroe [mare-‐oh-‐ee] in the 6th century BC; Piye and Kashta were rulers of that ancient Kingdom of Kush. This country is home to the southern reaches of the ancient region of Nubia. Sulaymon Solong founded the Sultanate of Darfur in what is now, for the point, what African country whose southern territory became independent in 2011?
Sudan -accept South Sudan)
18) Charles the Affable died after bumping his head on the lintel above the entrance to a venue where this activity took place. The father of King George III was either killed with a cricket ball or a ball used for this sport. In 1789, members of the National Assembly took an oath in a venue for this sport. Jeu de paume was a racquet-‐less precursor to, for the point, what sport played professionally by Roger Federer and Serena Williams?
tennis -accept jeu de paume before mentioned)
19) This document ends with a mutual "pledge to each other" of "our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor" after having condemned a ruler for "imposing Taxes on us without our Consent," one of numerous "repeated injuries and usurpations" committed by the King. John Hancock affixed an oversized signature to, for the point, what founding American document that was approved on July 4, 1776?
US Declaration of Independence
20) This material names a type of cross that was the focus of a speech in 1896 by the populist American politician William Jennings Bryan. This material sparked a mass migration to the Klondike region of Canada when it was discovered there, which led to many miners freezing to death. For the point, name this precious metal which forms a prize given to winning athletes at the Olympics.
21) An archaeologist from this country discovered the Mask of Agamemnon in his search for a historical Troy. A government in this country created the Entarte Kunst exhibition to "show off" the works of Die Brucke artist Ernst Kirchner. For the point, name this country, home to Heinrich Schliemann, where degenerate art was banned by the Nazi party.
Germany -or Deutschland; accept German Empire; accept Nazi Germany after "Entarte" is said)
22) This modern country's former Northwest Frontier province was bounded by the Durand Line, and it includes a large Pashtun population in Waziristan. Shortly after Muhammad Ali Jinnah became governor general of this nation, conflict broke out with its majority Hindu neighbor. The Jammu and Kashmir state is disputed by China, India, and, for the point, what nation governed from Islamabad?
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
23) Under this British monarch, the prime minister Lord Bute ruled for a year and expelled the publisher John Wilkes for libel. This king, who authorized taxes on British colonies to pay for the Seven Years' War, suffered in his later years from dementia and insanity. For the point, name this British king who ruled during the American Revolution, the third of his name.
George III -prompt on George until "third" is read)
24) Absolute Chakri rule ended with this country's 1932 constitution, and its King Bhumibol ruled from 1946 to his 2016 death. This country's military leader, Prayuth Chan-‐ocha, has applied lese-‐ majeste [lez ma-‐ja-‐stay] laws to block criticism of this country's new king, Rama X [tenth]. For the point, name this country where protests supporting the Shinawatra family have taken place in Bangkok.
25) Negotiations in this location defined the modern borders of Hungary, agreed to in the Treaty of Trianon. The third building campaign in this location occurred after the Dutch War and included the creation of the Hall of Mirrors. For the point, name this palace where Louis XIV  of France established his court and where the primary treaty ending World War I was signed.
Versailles -accept Treaty-s) of Versailles; prompt on France before "palace" is mentioned)
26) Approximations for this number named "Milu" were discovered by the 5th century Chinese astronomer Zu Chongzhi; one of which was 355 over 113. Archimedes used a polynomial algorithm to obtain lower and upper bounds for the value of this constant. For the point, name this constant, equal to the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, which is roughly equal to 3.14.
27) In one expedition, this man defeated Desiderius and conquered the Lombard kingdom, though he was less successful when Basque troops destroyed his rearguard in Roncevaux Pass in the Pyrenees. This son of Pepin the Short was coronated on Christmas Day by Pope Leo III. For the point, name this Frankish king who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800.
Charlemagne -or Charles the Great; accept Charles I; accept Carolus Magnus; accept Karl de Grosse)
28) Richard Allen converted a blacksmith shop into one of these buildings in the 1790s in Philadelphia. Jonathan Edwards worked at one of these buildings in Northampton. Two lanterns were hung in one of these buildings in Boston as part of Paul Revere's Ride. Boston's Old North and Trinity are, for the point, what type of building for Christian congregations?
29) In this country, in 1863, protests against Russian conscription led to the January Uprising. After an 1846 uprising, Austria and Russia agreed to violate the Congress of Vienna by revoking the "free city" status that had been granted to this country's city of Krakow. In the 18th century, European powers thrice partitioned, for the point, what country, the former site of the Duchy of Warsaw?
30) This man, who was Edward Braddock's chief aide during the French and Indian War, attacked a group of unprepared Hessian soldiers on the day after Christmas. Christopher Jackson won a Tony for portraying this man in Hamilton, in which he is introduced in the song "Right Hand Man." For the point, name this commander of the Continental Army who won the Battle of Trenton after crossing the Delaware River in 1776.
1) Shortly before his death, this man acted as a guide and navigator for an expedition to Nantucket Sound aboard the Swan. This man harvested fish from the muddy banks of the Eel River and explained methods of fertilizing corn and beans according to an account by William Bradford. For the point, name this Patuxet Native American who lived among the Plymouth colonists and whose agricultural prowess provided food for the first Thanksgiving.
Squanto -or Tisquantum)
1) Backlash against the Treaty of Tientsin helped prompt this conflict, in which a 55-‐day siege of the International Legations was ended by the arrival of the Eight Nation Alliance. The Empress Dowager Cixi [see-‐shee] supported a militia group against foreign missionaries in, for the point, what Chinese rebellion led by the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists?
Boxer Rebellion -accept equivalents for Rebellion, like Uprising; accept Yihetuan Movement; accept answers mentioning the Society of Righteous Harmony movement before "Righteous" is mentioned)
2) This river is said to be home to serpents known as "phayas," which locals believe are responsible for the Naga fireballs that seem to rise out of this river's water. When this river floods, low tides and flow reversals prompt it to flow into the Tonle [ton-‐lay] Sap. For the point, name this river that drains into the South China Sea after forming most of Laos' western border, the longest river in Southeast Asia.
3) The hero Trophonius named one of these places, another of which was built around an oak tree in Dodona. Gases and vapors from hot springs were used during a ritual at one of these places in which Pythia, a priestess of Apollo, would utter cryptic statements believed to predict the future. For the point, name these Greek religious sites such as Delphi.
oracles -accept Oracle of Trophonius before "another" is read; prompt on cave before "oak tree" is read)
4) This politician reversed a previous stance on the legalization of same-‐sex marriage, partially in support of his openly lesbian daughter, Mary. In the 1990s, this man served as the CEO of Halliburton and as Secretary of Defense under George H.W. Bush. For the point, name this Wyoming politician who served as George W. Bush's vice president.
Richard "Dick" Cheney
5) This man offered "Comfort, not condolence" to the parents of fallen soldiers, as recorded by Thucydides in a funeral oration after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. This man orchestrated the growth of the Delian League as his city's empire, moving its treasury to the Parthenon. For the point, name this statesman of the Golden Age of Athens.
6) Muckraker Ida Tarbell wrote a lengthy history of one company in this industry, which had been founded by John Rockefeller. This industry grew quickly in the North Sea in the 1970's a decade during which supply shocks in this industry led to economic disruptions in countries dependent on Middle Eastern sources of this commodity. For the point, name this commodity whose sources are exploited alongside natural gas deposits in the Gulf nations, such as the UAE and Saudi Arabia.
Oil or Petroleum
7) This stadium's design moved away from a retractable roof design after a roof collapsed at France's De Gaulle airport in 2004. This stadium will be the largest venue in use for the 2022 Winter Olympics, though Herzog, Meuron and Ai Weiwei originally designed it for use in the 2008 Summer Olympics. For the point, name this Beijing stadium that resembles a fowl's resting place.
Bird's Nest -accept Beijing National Stadium; accept Niaochao)
8) This party lost 40 seats in a 1924 election shortly after the publication of the Zinoviev letter, which embarrassed Ramsay MacDonald. This party implemented the National Health Service and other welfare programs under the leadership of Clement Attlee, who defeated Winston Churchill in the 1945 election. For the point, name this left-‐leaning political party in the United Kingdom.
9) Colonists from this country fought Lenape natives in Kieft's War. A colonist from this country was nicknamed "Peg Leg Pete," and according to a popular legend, another colonist from this country purchased Manhattan for the equivalent of 24 dollars. Peter Minuit and Peter Stuyvesant represented, for the point, what country that controlled New York before the British?
Netherlands -accept Holland; accept the Dutch)
10) This woman's Casket Letters implicated her in the explosion that killed her husband, Lord Darnley. This woman was executed after the discovery of the Babington Plot, which aimed to install her as the Catholic ruler of England. For the point, name this cousin and rival of Elizabeth I, the mother of James VI of Scotland.
Mary Stuart -or Mary, Queen of Scots; accept Mary I of Scotland; prompt on Mary; do not accept or prompt on "Mary I" alone, "Bloody Mary," or "Mary Tudor")
11) This composer of the Hunting Cantata included two viola da gambas but no violins in the sixth and final work in a collection named for a German state. This composer's Musical Offering was based on a melody given to him by Frederick the Great. Felix Mendelssohn revived the music of, for the point, what Baroque composer of the Brandenburg Concertos?
Johann Sebastian Bach
12) Major theatres in this 20th century war included the Liaodong Peninsula, the Yellow Sea, and Mukden. Theodore Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for negotiating an end to this war in the Treaty of Portsmouth. The Baltic fleet was crushed at the Battle of Tsushima in, for the point, what war fought between a European and an Asian power in the early 20th century?
13) A 2008 speech given by a holder of this position gave a speech honoring "the oldest continuing cultures in human history," calling his country to "reflect on their past mistreatment." That speech about the Stolen Generations was given by a holder of this position named Kevin Rudd. The only woman to ever hold this position was Julia Gillard of the Labor Party. For the point, name this political post currently held by Malcolm Turnbull, who leads the government in Canberra.
Prime Minister of Australia -prompt on partial answers, like "Prime Minister" or "leader of Australia")
14) This novel exposed the plight of "ragged school" children to wealthy Victorians by praising the generosity of Mr Fezziwig and exposing the regrets of Jacob Marley. This novel's protagonist meets ghosts representing the present, past, and future, who inspire him to help Bob Cratchit and Tiny Tim. For the point, name this novel by Charles Dickens in which Ebenezer Scrooge discovers the true meaning of Christmas.
A Christmas Carol
15) The poet Callimachus catalogued books in this city at a facility where Ptolemy II called for a minimum of 500,000 scrolls to be held in storage. One of the Seven Wonders of the World was located on the small island of Pharos near this city. Euclid studied in, for the point, what Egyptian city, the home of a famous Lighthouse and a library that suffered several devastating fires?
16) This event began when Betty Parris and Abigail Williams claimed to have felt pinpricks and violent seizures. Twenty people were executed in 1692 and 1693 during, for the point, what event in which accusations of supernatural happenings caused a panic in colonial Connecticut and Massachusetts?
Salem witch trials -accept descriptive equivalents, like witch hunts in Salem; prompt on partial answers)
17) Two of these objects are used to represent the muses Thalia and Melpomene [mel-‐pom-‐eh-‐nee]. The heads of 2 nude women are thought to be representations of these objects from Africa in Picasso's painting, Les Desmoiselles d'Avignon. For the point, name these objects used in ritual dance traditions in Africa and to cover the faces of ancient Greek actors.
18) After Abbas III was deposed, the Afsharid Dynasty was founded in this country by Nader Shah. This country's capital was moved to Isfahan by Abbas the Great, the fifth Shah of a dynasty that installed Twelver Shia Islam as this country's official religion. The Safavid Dynasty ruled, for the point, what Middle Eastern country that moved its capital in 1796 to Tehran?
Iran -accept Persia)
19) From 1935 to 1949, this phenomenon occurred in China because English printing presses outpaced those of Chiang Kai-‐Shek's government. Eviction of white farmers by Robert Mugabe's government contributed to a major instance of this phenomenon in 1990s Zimbabwe that resulted in the creation of 100-‐billion-‐dollar bank notes. For the point, name this phenomenon in which currency is devalued and prices rise.
20) The casualties in one battle of this war led James Spears to compare its machine gun fire to a hamburger machine. Hill 937 thus became known as Hamburger Hill in this war, during which Company C was commanded by William Calley during the My Lai Massacre. For the point, name this Southeast Asian war from which US forces withdrew shortly before the fall of Saigon.
21) A route used in this industry was established by Jesse Chisholm. Railroad facilities were built for use in this industry in Abilene and Kansas City, which shipped cargo to stockyards in Chicago. The development of barbed wire ended the era of massive drives in, for the point, what industry consisting of western ranches?
cattle industry -accept anything to do with cows; prompt on meat or livestock industry; prompt on agriculture)
22) In 1949, Claude Shannon published the first paper describing how a computer could be taught to perform this activity. Leonhard Euler worked on, but did not solve, a problem concerning finding a Hamiltonian path for the "tour" of one of the pieces used in this game. IBM's computer Deep Blue won a 1996 match of this game against Garry Kasparov, a Grand Master. For the point, name this strategy game played with knights, pawns, and kings.
23) This island was the site of the first Winter Olympic Games held in Asia, which took place in 1972. Together with the neighboring Kurile Islands, this island forms the ancestral homeland of the Ainu people, whose language has been largely displaced by Japanese speakers. For the point, name this island, where fishing and skiing form major industries in and near Sapporo, the northernmost of the four main islands of Japan.
24) After Pyrrhus deployed this weapon against the Roman cavalry, they were forced to retreat at the Battle of Heraclea. Persian masters of these weapons were called mahouts, and they were used at the Battle of Gaugamela by Darius III, who deployed them as cavalry against Alexander the Great. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with, for the point, what tusked war animal?
25) This country conducted a series of attacks on its neighbor Poland-‐Lithuania in a campaign called the Deluge. This country captured parts of Pomerania and broke the power of the Hanseatic League. Its most famous ruler intervened in the Thirty Years' War on the Protestant side until his death at the Battle of Lutzen. For the point, name this home of Gustavus Adolphus, who ruled from Stockholm.
26) This company controlled the Straits Settlements and was formally dissolved by its namesake Stock Dividend Redemption Act. Robert Clive led this company's forces to victory at the Battle of Plassey. This company lost control of its namesake country after the Sepoy Mutiny with the creation of the Raj. For the point, name this British company that controlled the trade of many spices throughout East Asia.
British East India Company -"British" not needed after mentioned)
27) A hero acquired one of these objects from an eight-‐headed beast whose heads were lured into eight gates baited with eight jars of wine. A mirror, a jewel, and one of these objects named Kusanagi are the three sacred treasures of Japan. For the point, name these objects, such as the katana, that were used by samurai warriors in combat.
swords -accept Kusanagi before mentioned; accept katana before mentioned; prompt on grasscutter; prompt on generic terms like blade or weapon, but do not accept or prompt on knives or daggers)
28) These figures were jointly granted a title by Pope Alexander VI, who also granted them land with the bull Inter caetera. The conquest of Granada was completed during the reigns of these two monarchs, who expelled their country's Jews with the Alhambra Decree. For the point, name these two Catholic Monarchs of Spain who authorized Christopher Columbus to sail to the New World.
Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile -accept in either order; prompt on "Catholic Monarchs" before mentioned)
29) Dissent against this government was suppressed by the Milice under the control of Pierre Laval. This government attempted to gain legitimacy by appointing the hero of the battle of Verdun as its figurehead. Philippe Petain headed, for the point, what French government that collaborated with the Nazis?
Vichy France -prompt on France)
30) This country's history contains a period of history at the end of the Rurik Dynasty, where men known as False Dmitris were prominent figures in the so-‐called Time of Troubles. Boris Godunov was another early ruler of this country, along with Michael Romanov, whose founded a dynasty in this country that lasted until 1917. For the point, name this country where tsars ruled throughout the 19th century.
1) In this US state, George Pickett's decision to attend a fish bake led to the fall of the Five Forks railway junction. This state's Henrico County was the site of a diversionary attack at Deep Bottom, as Ambrose Burnside attempted to detonate a mine behind enemy forces and initiate the Battle of the Crater. In this state, the capture of Petersburg was vital in forcing the surrender of the Confederacy. For the point, name this US state where the Confederate capital of Richmond was located.
1) The satirical magazine Punch described this man's "colossus" with one foot in Egypt and the other in South Africa. This man's hope that the US might rejoin the British Empire inspired a project giving people from Germany and current or former British territories two years of foreign study. For the point, name this British mining tycoon, the namesake of several prestigious scholarships and the former namesake of Zimbabwe.
Cecil -John) Rhodes -prompt on "Long Cecil" gun)
2) This man, whose 1989 resignation allowed Jiang Zemin to seize power, established a Special Economic Zone at Shenzhen and paved the road for reacquiring Hong Kong with his "one country, two systems" principle. Market reforms were the chief goal of, for the point, what 1980s Chinese leader who revitalized the Chinese economy and succeeded Mao?
Deng Xiaoping -[dung], but be lenient)
3) H.L. Hunt was a mogul in this state during an economic boom, which started when the Lucas gusher was found by the Gladys City Company in this state's eastern Spindletop field. Early oil production in this state took place in Nacogdoches [nak-‐ah-‐dote-‐ches], as well as Odessa and Midland in the Permian Basin. For the point, name this Southern state where oil money spurred the growth of cities like Beaumont, Houston, and Dallas.
4) This man was given more power to fight the Hebertists, but subsequently used it to execute his former ally, Georges Danton. This man was called the "Incorruptible" for his strong convictions, but he was deposed during the Thermidorian Reaction and executed in 1794. The Committee of Public Safety was led by, for the point, what Frenchman who orchestrated the Reign of Terror?
5) A bombing in this city attempted to assassinate the leadership of the UDA on Shankill Road, but instead killed eight civilians. The Cupar Way peace line in this city was built to prevent rioting but has not been removed, despite the signing of the 1998 Good Friday Agreement in this city. Hundreds of political murals detailing "the Troubles" are found in, for the point, what capital of Northern Ireland?
6) This man conquered the nearby kingdom of Eshnunna by damming the Euphrates River. This man created monuments throughout his empire describing punishments based on retribution, similar to the principle of "an eye for an eye." For the point, name this ancient ruler of Babylon who wrote a famous law code.
7) A much-‐celebrated crossing of the Luding Bridge during this event was probably greatly exaggerated. The "Encirclement Campaigns" prompted this event, in which an army was forced to flee from Jiangxi [jee-‐ang-‐shee] to Shaanxi [shan-‐shee]. For the point, name this year-‐long event in which Mao Zedong led the Communists on a retreat to northern China.
Long March -or Hongjun Chang Zheng)
8) Seymour Hersh has this occupation, as did the creator of the television show See it Now who sparred with Joseph McCarthy. This is the occupation of Edward Murrow, as well as Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. For the point, name this occupation of employees of The Washington Post, The Economist, and other newspapers and magazines.
journalists -accept synonyms such as reporters or correspondents; accept word forms; prompt on writers)
9) A conflict in this country was ended in 1988, helped by a set of Geneva Accords negotiated by Mohammad Najibullah. An attack on this country prompted a Western boycott of the 1980 Olympics and a CIA effort to supply Stinger missiles to mujahideen fighters. The Brezhnev Doctrine was used to justify a Soviet invasion of, for the point, what Central Asian country with capital at Kabul?
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
10) This territory, which was created by the Donation of Pepin, expanded to include the region of Romagna [roh-‐man-‐yuh] thanks to the efforts of Cesare [chez-‐ah-‐ray] Borgia, the son of a ruler of this territory. This territory existed until 1870, when the unification of Italy was finished. For the point, name this pre-‐Vatican territory historically ruled by the Pope from Rome.
Papal States -accept the State of the Church or Stato della Chiesa)
11) Lysippos, the only sculptor allowed to depict this man during his life, established his prototype with wavy hair. This man was shown wearing a breastplate with Medusa's face on it in a work from the House of the Faun in Pompeii; that mosaic shows this man on horseback during a 333 BC battle against Darius III. For the point, name this Macedonian leader who fought the Battle of Issus during his conquest of Persia.
Alexander the Great -or Alexander III of Macedon, prompt on Alexander)
12) This mountain was first described to Western audiences after the book "the Capital of the Tycoon" was written by Rutherford Alcock, the first foreigner to scale it. After the Golden Gate Bridge, the world's second most prevalent site for suicides is located at the foot of this mountain in the Aokigahara forest. This mountain, Haku, and Tate, form the "three holy mountains," or sanreizan. For the point, name this active stratovolcano located in Honshu, the highest point in Japan.
Mount Fuji -or Fujiyama)
13) A movement similar to this group centered on threshing machines and was called the Swing Riots. These people, who were targeted by the 1812 Frame Breaking Act, rioted in response to an economic downturn after the Napoleonic Wars and the growth of new textile factories. For the point, name these English workers who destroyed weaving machines to protest losing their jobs and whose name now broadly refers to people opposed to technological progress.
14) This woman's first husband, alternately named Sychaeus or Acerbas, was a Phoenician priest in Tyre. This woman stabbed herself in front of her sister Anna and ordered a massive funeral pyre; that pyre is observed by a group of seafarers departing the African coast for Rome in an epic poem by Virgil. For the point, name this queen of Carthage who fell in love with Aeneas.
15) This man, who was accused of crimes against humanity in the Chilcot Report, listed his top priority as "education, education, education" in a 1996 speech. The 7/7 bombings of the London Underground occurred during the leadership of, for the point, what Labour Prime Minister who was criticized for his role in the Iraq War and succeeded by Gordon Brown in 2007?
16) During this war, Louis Botha led forces at the Battle of Spion Kop, preventing the relief of Ladysmith. Other battles in this war included the "Black Week," in which Redvers Buller was defeated at Kimberley. This war was ended by the Treaty of Vereeniging, which provided for colonial control of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. For the point, name this war at the turn of the 20th century between Great Britain and Dutch-‐speaking settlers of South Africa.
Second Anglo-‐Boer War
17) This leader imprisoned Archbishop Aloysius Stepinac for criticizing the government. This leader of the Partisans guerilla group became the only European founder of the Non-‐ Aligned Movement and was expelled from the COMINFORM bloc in 1948 for refusing to defer to Joseph Stalin. For the point, name this communist strongman who led Yugoslavia for 27 years.
Josip Broz Tito
18) Empress Wu Zetian's rule interrupted this dynasty, whose Emperor Zuanzong ordered the strangulation of Yang Guifei after blaming her for An Lushan's rebellion. The Abbasid Dynasty began making paper after defeating this dynasty at the Battle of the Talas River. The poets Li Po and Du Fu wrote during, for the point, what dynasty that ruled during the Golden Age of Chinese poetry in the 7th century AD?
19) The Act of Accord attempted to resolve this conflict, which started as an attempt to remove the Duke of Somerset. The Captain of Calais, the Earl of Warwick, was known as the Kingmaker during this conflict, which ended after Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth Field and led to the reign of Henry VII of the House of Tudor. For the point, name this series of wars between the Houses of York and Lancaster for the English throne.
War-s) of the Roses
20) After the Pisonian Conspiracy failed to depose this man, he forced his old advisor Seneca to commit suicide. This man was accused of arson to clear land out for his Domus Aurea project, though he blamed that event on the Christians he persecuted. The Year of the Four Emperors followed the suicide of, for the point, what emperor who is alleged to have fiddled as Rome burned?
Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus -do not prompt on any of the succeeding names alone)
21) This ruler attempted to prevent British sailors from indiscriminately searching neutral ships by forming the League of Armed Neutrality. This ruler faced a revolt from Yemelyan Pugachev, who claimed to be a man that Grigory Orlov and this ruler overthrew. In an attempt to impress this ruler, sham villages were built by her favorite, Grigory Potemkin. For the point, name this enlightened despot and empress of Russia.
Catherine the Great -or Catherine II)
22) A series of these objects in red, yellow, and blue with stenciled labels were painted in oil by a man more famous for depictions of American flags, Jasper Johns. Amerigo Vespucci, a creator of these objects, was honored by Martin Waldseemuller as the namesake of two landmasses on another of these documents. Cartographers create, for the point, what graphic depictions of borders and geographic features?
maps -accept map of America until "Ditchley" is read; accept map of the world throughout)
23) This politician urged the National Association of Evangelicals to "beware the temptation" to ignore "the aggressive impulses of an evil empire." Although his staff denied that "evil empire" was a pop culture reference, weeks later, this man announced the Strategic Defense Initiative, which was nicknamed "Star Wars" by the press. For the point, name this politician who, when The Empire Strikes Back was released in 1980, was in the midst of his first successful Presidential campaign.
24) One side in this war had announced that a closure of the Straits of Tiran would be considered an act of war; after that occurred, a preemptive air strike was carried out against the Egyptian air force. The Golan Heights, Gaza Strip, West Bank, and Sinai Peninsula were all captured by Israel in, for the point, what June 1967 war?
Six-‐Day War -accept the Third Arab-‐Israeli War; accept the 1967 Arab-‐Israeli War before "1967" is mentioned; prompt on Arab-‐Israeli War; prompt on June War)
25) Alexander the Great embarked for Persia after this city's destruction in 335 BC pacified Greece. Philip II of Macedon was mentored in military thought by this city's leader Epaminondas, though later at the Battle of Chaeronea [kare-‐oh-‐nay-‐uh], he destroyed this city's elite Sacred Band of 150 pairs of soldiers. For the point, name this city, legendarily founded by Cadmus, that was a powerful rival of Athens and Sparta in the 4th century BC.
26) Manuel Bonilla seized power in this country while backed by Sam Zemurray's Cuyamel Fruit Company. After accepting bribes to lower banana export taxes in the Bananagate scandal, Oswaldo Arellano was ousted as President of this country. For the point, name this country that was invaded by El Salvador in the Soccer War and which partially inspired the term "banana republic" after the American military intervened in Tegucigalpa.
27) Harry Schmidt's amphibious forces suffered heavy casualties on the battlefields here because they couldn't build defensive positions in the deep volcanic ash. Tadamichi Kuribayashi built an extensive tunnel system on this island and forbade the use of banzai charges in its defense. Joe Rosenthal captured an iconic image atop the captured Mount Suribachi on, for the point, what Japanese island where, in 1945, six victorious US Marines were photographed raising a flag?
Iwo Jima -accept additional information, such as Battle of Iwo Jima, raising the flag on Iwo Jima, etc.; antiprompt on Mount Suribachi before mentioned by asking the player "could you be
28) This man created the INPS, his country's first social security program, as Minister of Labour under Edelmiro Farrell. In 1973, left wing supporters of this ruler were massacred at the Ezeiza Airport, a year before this man's death and the beginning of the Dirty War. The descamisados, or "shirtless ones," supported, for the point, what populist leader of Argentina who was once married to Evita?
Juan Domingo Peron
29) This party published a 25-‐point platform, including immigration restrictions, the abolition of mercenaries, and the banning of war profiteering, that was never changed during its existence; that platform was developed by leaders like Anton Drexler and Dietrich Eckart. This party purged its paramilitary wing, the SA, during the Night of the Long Knives. For the point, name this fascist political party that ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler.
Nazi Party -accept National Socialist German Workers' Party or NSDAP)
30) This scientist proved that nothing new is produced by combustion, a finding that completely disproved phlogiston theory. Due to his status as a nobleman, this scientist was accused of tax fraud and guillotined during the French Revolution. The law of the conservation of mass was discovered by, for the point, what father of modern chemistry?
END STANDARD FORMAT ROUND -Skip to tiebreaks at back of packet if needed)
31) The third movement of this man's Piano Sonata no. 2 in B-‐flat minor was played at Brezhnev's, JFK's, and his own funeral. This composer, who fled his homeland shortly before the November Uprising, was a lover of George Sand, who gave his Opus 53 the nickname "Heroic" in response to the Revolutions of 1848. For the point, name this pianist whose mazurkas and polonaises paid tribute to his native Poland.
32) A politician with this surname was defeated by Bill Brock in 1970, fourteen years after he joined his home state's fellow Democratic senator, Estes Kefauver, in not signing the Southern Manifesto. A younger politician with this surname shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize after writing Earth in the Balance in 1992 and starring in a 2006 documentary, An Inconvenient Truth. For the point, give this surname of two Tennessee senators named Al, the younger of which was Bill Clinton's vice president.
Gore -accept Al Gore, Sr.; accept Al Gore, Jr.)
33) After a defeat at the Battle of Arausio, this man assumed command and won the Battle of Aquae Sextae. This man fought the Numidian king Jugurtha and defeated a Germanic invasion by the Cimbri and Teutones. Soldiers were nicknamed "[this man's] mules" for the large packs they had to carry on their backs, one of his reforms of the legions. For the point, name this Roman leader who served as consul seven times and was a rival of Sulla.
34) Howard Parsley poorly translated this author's magnum opus in 1950. This author of the "Manifesto of the 343" supporting abortion rights declared that even Mary Wollstonecraft defined men as the "ideal" in a work that declared that "one is not born, but becomes a woman." This wife of Jean-‐Paul Sartre was a major influence on Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique. For the point, name this French author of The Second Sex.
Simone de Beauvoir
35) In 960, a woman named Gudit legendarily conquered this kingdom. The Kebra Nagast credits a leader of this kingdom, the son of the Queen of Sheba and King Solomon, with bringing the Ark of the Covenant to this kingdom; that leader was Menelik I. After a visit from St. Frumentius, this empire's monarch Ezana converted to Christianity. For the point, name this early Christian kingdom located in modern Ethiopia.
Kingdom of Axum -or Aksumite Empire; do not accept or prompt on Ethiopia)
36) This composer wrote a number of baryton trios for his longtime patron, as well as a symphony in F-‐sharp minor whose 3/8 [three-‐eight] coda features musicians blowing out candles and leaving until only two violins are left. The Military Symphony was written by, for the point, what composer who petitioned Prince Esterhazy for a vacation with his Farewell Symphony?
-Franz) Joseph Haydn
37) In 929, Abd al-‐Rahman III converted this territory from an emirate into a caliphate. This territory's namesake capital city was home to nearly one million people at its peak prior to its 1236 capture by Ferdinand of Castile during the Reconquista. For the point, name this territory of Islamic Spain, centered on an Andalusian city.
Cordoba -accept Emirate of Cordoba, Caliphate of Cordoba, city of Cordoba, etc.; prompt on Spain and elaborations thereof before "Spain" is mentioned; prompt on Andalusia or al-‐Andalus before "Andalusia" is mentioned)
38) One leader of this name suppressed a rebellion by an alliance of Paraiba, Ceara, and Pernambuco called the Confederation of the Equator. Another leader of this name passed the Eusebio de Queiros Law, abolishing the slave trade, and the Law of Free Birth, aimed at gradually ending slavery in his country; that leader defeated Argentina and Uruguay during the Paraguayan War. For the point, give the shared name of the only two emperors of Brazil, which was also shared by the explorer who discovered Brazil, named Cabral.
Dom Pedro -accept Dom Pedro I; accept Dom Pedro II after "Another" is read; do not prompt on Dom)
39) Hermann von Francois successfully encircled the Second Army in this battle, prompting its commander, Alexander Samsonov, to commit suicide. This battle's losing side was later mopped up at the Masurian Lakes, while the winning commander's fame would propel him to the presidency of Weimar [vye-‐mar]. For the point, name this 1914 victory for Hindenburg and Ludendorff over Russia, named in reference to a Teutonic loss five centuries earlier.
Battle of Tannenberg
40) One king of this name was unable to defeat a Flemish uprising at the Battle of the Golden Spurs. A king of this name defeated King John at the Battle of Bouvines; that second king of this name was nicknamed Augustus and fought in the Third Crusade. The Knights Templar were destroyed by the fourth, "fair," king of, for the point, what name shared by six kings of France?
Philip -accept Philip the Tall or Philip V; accept Philip the Fair or Philip IV after "Flemish" is read; accept Philip Augustus or Philip II after "John" is read)
1) Wilhelm List outflanked a defensive line in this country built by prime minister Ioannis Metaxas, who led this country when it was invaded by Italy. Some in this country view Lord Byron as a national hero, and he died in this country during their War of Independence. For the point, name this European country that the Nazis conquered in part by paradropping soldiers on its island of Crete.
2) This figure popularized a loose fitting, white style of gown known as the chemise a la reine [she-‐meez ah lah ren]. She was painted in that garment, as well as in a red gown holding her three children, in works by her court painter Elisabeth Vigee-‐Lebrun. A sketch of this woman in profile with her hair cut
short and wearing simple clothes was made by Jacques-‐Louis David [LOO-‐ee da-‐VEED] just before her execution by guillotine. For the point, name this Queen of France and wife of Louis XVI .
Marie Antoinette -or Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna)
3) During this war, residents of St. Helena Island sang "Michael Row the Boat Ashore." During this war, Julia Ward Howe wrote a new set of lyrics for a song whose title figure "lies a'mouldering in the grave," "John Brown's Body." For the point, name this war in which "Maryland, my Maryland" and "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" were sung by Confederate and Union soldiers, respectively.
American Civil War
4) The Havamal is a text of proverbs and practices of this belief system. This belief system's practice of sacrifice, or blot, was carried out at the Temple of Uppsala. The stories of this belief system include a war between the Aesir and the Vanir and the killing of a blind deity caused by the schemes of the trickster god Loki. For the point, name this belief system of pre-‐Christian Scandinavia.
Norse religion and/or mythology -accept the Viking religion; prompt on Scandinavian religion before "Scandinavia" is read)
1) This country took five boats from a French port in the Cherbourg Project. France had refused to deliver the boats, for which this country had paid, when diplomatic relations broke after the Six-‐Day War. Operation Wrath of God was launched after 11 members of this country's Olympic team were killed in 1972. For the point, name this Middle Eastern country that carried out those missions via Mossad, an intelligence agency that reports to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.
2) Worshippers of Wusheng Laomu belonged to a sect named for one of these objects; they were led by Wang Lun against the Qing in a rebellion named for a "white" one of these flowers. A text named for one of these flowers begins with prayer on Vulture Peak and teaches that all can become enlightened. The most important Mahayana sutra is named for, for the point, what water plants that are held sacred in Hinduism and Buddhism?
lotus -accept White Lotus Sect or Rebellion; accept Lotus Sutra; prompt on flower before mentioned)
3) A form of this activity called joiking [yoy-‐king] is performed by the Sami people and was banned during their Christianization. Another form of this activity, kulning, developed in Scandinavia for use with livestock due to its ability to travel long distances. Tremolo is common in another form of this activity common in the Alps, where it can travel via echoes. Yodeling is a form of, for the point, what musical activity?
singing -accept yodeling before mentioned)
4) This man, who was investigated by reporter Drew Pearson, beat Bernard Montgomery in the Race to Messina. Under Douglas MacArthur, this man led cavalry to suppress the Bonus Army. Before D-‐ Day, this general led a phantom army to confuse German forces, and he directed the relief of the 101st Airborne during the Battle of the Bulge. For the point, name this American general who controversially slapped a soldier suffering from shell shock.
5) The guerilla group EOKA in this country was led by its first President, Makarios III, and by Georgios Grivas, an advocate of the enosis policy that would unite this country with Greece. For the point, name this Mediterranean island country where a buffer zone divides Turkish and Greek-‐ controlled territory and a Green Line runs through its capital, Nicosia.
Republic of Cyprus
6) Thousands of people were injured or killed in a stampede during this ruler's coronation feast at Khodynka Field, helping earn him the epithet "Bloody." This ruler issued the October Manifesto, establishing the first state Duma, after the 1905 Revolution. Numerous losses in both the Russo-‐ Japanese War and World War I led this ruler to abdicate in favor of his brother Michael. For the point, name this Romanov ruler, the last Russian tsar, who was killed with his family in 1918.
7) Jim Fisk and Jay Gould's attempt to corner this commodity's market caused a Black Friday in 1869. Two years before the Battle of Little Bighorn, General George Custer led forces into South Dakota to search for this commodity, which was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848. For the point, name this precious metal that the "Forty-‐Niners" sought during a 19th century "rush" to California.
gold -accept elaborations, like gold mining)
8) The question of whether a circle and one of these shapes with the same area can be constructed with a compass and straight-‐edge was proven impossible in 1882. Euclid proved that the diagonal of one of these shapes is irrational and equal to their side length times two to the one-‐half power. Ben Franklin popularized "magic" arrays of numbers in this shape. For the point, name these shapes whose four sides all have the same length.
squares -accept squaring the circle; accept magic squares)
9) Zhu De led a force of this name that was labeled for "Workers and Peasants" until after World War II; that force fought five counter-‐encirclement campaigns against Chiang Kai-‐shek's Nationalists. The arrival of another force of this name in Berlin forced Hitler to commit suicide. For the point, give this colorful term for land-‐based military forces in Bolshevik Russia and Communist China.
Red Army -accept Red Army Faction; accept Chinese Red Army; accept Soviet Red Army prompt on partial answers; prompt on Chinese army after "Zhu De"; prompt on Soviet army after "Berlin")
10) The Earl of Clancarty was sent to this event after military hostilities broke out during it. This conference, which attempted to restore monarchs to their pre-‐war thrones, was interrupted by the Hundred Days when a French emperor returned to power. Klemens von Metternich chaired, for the point, what 1814 "Congress" to restore order after the Napoleonic Wars, held in Austria?
Congress of Vienna
11) In this country, the Interfactory Strike Committee issued 21 demands that led to the Gdansk Agreement. This country's government was reformed after the Round Table Agreement, which included the trade union Solidarity. Pope John Paul II called for a peaceful revolution in this country, his homeland. For the point, name this European country that Lech Walesa [vah-‐wen-‐sah] led from Warsaw.
Republic of Poland
12) Joseph-‐Marie Jacquard names a type of this material with complex designs, as well as the machine used for producing it. Another highly decorative type of this material, often using floral patterns, is named for Damascus. Lowell was the site of several strikes of primarily female workers in this industry. For the point, name this kind of material often produced by weaving the fibers from linen or wool.
cloth or fabric or textiles -accept clothing; prompt on cotton, linen, wool or other specific fibers used in the industry)
13) In this region, the port city of Magadan developed to ship mined materials from the Kolyma Gulag. A railroad named for this region once required a ferry to cross Lake Baikal and now spans the distance from Moscow to Vladivostok. For the point, name this eastern region of Russia where Stalin operated many prisons in isolated, cold conditions.
Siberia -accept Trans-‐Siberian Railroad after "railroad" is read; prompt on -eastern) Russia)
14) Abraham Lincoln authored the "Spot Resolutions" questioning whether a skirmish prior to this war was on American soil. The US Navy's blockade of Veracruz was crucial in this war, which featured the last military campaign of Santa Anna. For the point, name this 1840s war in which the United States fought its southern neighbor.
15) This man's power was affirmed by John Lambert's Instrument of Government shortly after this man had created and then dissolved Barebone's Parliament. This man ruled over the Protectorate after his faction, the Roundheads, defeated the faction of Charles I in the English Civil War. For the point, name this Puritan leader and Lord Protector of England.
16) In 1971, the Supreme Court unanimously overturned this man's conviction for refusing to join the Army; in his refusal, this man cited his Muslim beliefs and the fact that he "ain't got no quarrel with them Viet Cong." This man opposed George Foreman in the 1974 "Rumble in the Jungle," knocking him out in the 8th round. For the point, name this boxer, born Cassius Clay, who was known as "the Greatest" and died in 2016 after a lengthy battle with Parkinson's.
Muhammad Ali -accept Cassius Clay until mentioned)
17) Former leaders of this country include Yahya Khan, who launched Operation Searchlight to counter the Awami League, and Benazir Bhutto, the first democratic female leader of a Muslim nation. Muhammad Ali Jinnah founded, for the point, what country whose "East" portion is now Bangladesh and which contests Kashmir with its neighbor, India?
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
18) This dynasty is honored on the Mansu Hill Grand Monument, which depicts Mount Paektu. The founder of this dynasty outlined the concept of Juche [joo-‐chay] and created a cult of personality. A member of this family was arrested attempting to visit Disneyland in Japan; that member was assassinated in Kuala Lumpur's airport in 2016. For the point, name this ruling family of North Korea that includes Il-‐sung, Jong-‐il, and Jong-‐un.
Kim family -or dynasty, etc.)
19) Pictures of this person wearing a helmet and flak jacket in Angola helped raise awareness of landmine removal efforts. This person was killed alongside driver Henri Paul and Dodi Fayed in a car crash in a Parisian tunnel a year after her highly publicized divorce from Prince Charles. For the point, name this royal activist, the mother of British princes William and Harry.
Diana, Princess of Wales -accept Diana Spencer; prompt on Spencer)
20) The signing of this agreement fulfilled the Durban Platform, which called for Indian and Chinese involvement and action by the year 2020. Nicaragua, noting that the principle of voluntary national commitment did not do enough, refused to join this agreement, which was weakened in June 2017 when Donald Trump declared that the US would leave it. For the point, name this 2016 multinational agreement to reduce carbon emissions that was signed in France.
Paris Agreement -or Paris Accord; accept any additional words mentioning climate change)
21) During this event, the submarine B-‐59 refused to open fire, after which Vasili Arkhipov became known as the "man who saved the world." In the aftermath of this event, Jupiter systems were removed from Turkey and a hotline was established to improve communications between Moscow and Washington. For the point, name this October 1962 event in which Nikita Khrushchev attempted to place missiles in the Caribbean.
Cuban Missile Crisis -accept October Crisis before "October" is read; accept other terms for "crisis," such as "scare")
22) This American colony purchased much of its land in treaties with the Lenape tribe. To pay a debt owed to the founder's father, Charles II granted the royal charter creating this colony, whose name means "forest land." For the point, name this American colony, founded as a refuge for Quakers, whose cities included Philadelphia.
Pennsylvania -Colony or Province)
23) Sources of knowledge in this country's philosophy are known as pramanas. The grammarian Panini worked in this modern-‐day country, whose Upanishads greatly influenced the work of Arthur Schopenhauer. For the point, name this modern country whose non-‐violent philosophies include ahimsa and Mahatma Gandhi's satyagraha.
Republic of India
24) This king, called "Yes and No" for his few words, was victorious at Acre, part of the Third Crusade against Saladin. When he was imprisoned by Leopold V, his brother John stole the English throne. For the point, name this English monarch, nicknamed the "Lionheart."
Richard I -accept Richard the Lionhearted or Richard Coeur de Lion before mention)
25) Embellished or fake political scandals in this empire were detailed in Procopius' Secret History. The Sassanians and this empire established the Eternal Peace, and its expansion was checked by the Seljuks at Manzikert. The Fourth Crusade was diverted and instead sacked the capital of, for the point, what empire that was once ruled by Justinian the Great from Constantinople?
Byzantine Empire -accept Eastern Roman Empire)
26) After a major defeat at Teutoburg Forest, this man shouted "Varus, give me back my legions!" and set the boundaries of his empire at the Rhine. This man owned Egypt following his victory at the Battle of Actium and the deaths of Cleopatra and this man's rival, Mark Antony. This man was given the title princeps by the Senate in 27 BC. For the point, name this first Emperor of Rome.
Augustus Caesar -or Octavian; accept Gaius Octavius or Gaius Octavianus)
27) General William Booth founded the Salvation Army in this city, where its headquarters remain. The first Methodist conference was held under John Wesley's leadership in this city, where a statue of Wesley stands in the churchyard of a cathedral rebuilt by Christopher Wren. For the point, name this city where St. Paul's Cathedral hosts Anglican services.
28) In this modern country, a monkey with a spiraling tail is among the line-‐figures constructed by the Nazca people. A civilization based in what is now this country was legendarily founded by Manco Capac, who established the city of Cusco. For the point, name this country, the base of power of the Inca civilization in South America.
29) This event may have been exacerbated by merchants fleeing Trebizond. A movement in which participants whipped themselves in penance began during this event, which some blamed on Jews poisoning wells. This event was caused by flea-‐infected rats and spread through trade routes towards the West. For the point, name this 14th century plague that killed a third of Europe.
Black Death -prompt on -bubonic) plague)
30) After the Battle of Tumu, renovations to this structure within the Ordos Desert werer deemed necessary, building upon this structure's original function of stopping the Xiongnu people. A million
people may have died building this structure when it was constructed as protection from nomadic tribes by Qin Shi Huangdi. For the point, identify this lengthy Chinese fortification.
Great Wall of China
31) This speech, delivered after Edward Everett's two hour long remarks, declares that "We cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow, this ground." For the point, name this speech that begins "Four score and seven years ago," and was given near a Pennsylvania battlefield by Abraham Lincoln.
1) In 1958, this country agreed to a sixteen year power sharing agreement described as the National Front, ending the chaos of a period dubbed La Violencia. Drug trafficking and kidnapping were perpetrated by cartels in this country's city of Medellin. For the point, name this South American country where Juan Manuel Santos has negotiated with FARC rebel leaders in Bogota.
2) The Battle of Port Republic concluded this commander's string of victories in the Shenandoah Valley. Barnard Elliot Bee claimed that this man's brigade was responsible for holding the Confederate lines at the First Battle of Bull Run. For the point, name this Confederate commander who was killed by friendly fire at the Battle of Chancellorsville and earned the nickname "Stonewall."
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
3) In 1939, invading Japanese troops devised the never-‐enacted Otani plan for this project. John L. Savage surveyed for this project, whose construction drove the baiji dolphin to extinction and displaced
1.3 million people near Chongqing. The Itaipu Dam was surpassed in power output after the completion of, for the point, what massive hydroelectric dam on the Yangtze River, the largest in the world?
Three Gorges Dam
4) This country's Langi and Acholi people were systematically suppressed by the State Research Bureau after the fall of Milton Obote. The brother of Benjamin Netanyahu was killed in this country during Operation Thunderbolt, an Israeli operation that resolved a Palestinian hostage crisis in this country's Entebbe airport. Idi Amin once ruled, for the point, what East African nation whose capital is Kampala?
5) In an epic poem, this modern country is home to Marsile, king of the Saracens, who schemes with Ganelon to ambush their enemy as they head home through Roncevaux Pass. The Song of Roland depicts Charlemagne's war in, for the point, what modern European country where the Moors also fought against El Cid [el seed]?
6) In 1726, a marauding group of these people led by Hemperla were executed in the state of Hesse-‐Darmstadt. This group's flag features a 16-‐spoked wheel, a reference to their origins in northern India. These nomadic people often moved in caravans, leading many subgroups to be known as travellers. For the point, name this oft-‐persecuted, dispersed ethnic group that was marked by a brown triangle and murdered in the Porajmos by the Nazis.
Romani -accept Gypsys)
7) One side in this battle was supplied by a road from Bar-‐le-‐Duc called the "Sacred Way." Erich von Falkenhayn was dismissed after his failure to defeat Robert Nivelle in this battle, where Nivelle's declaration that "they shall not pass" proved more correct than Falkenhayn's prediction that the French would "bleed" themselves "white." Philippe Petain became a national hero for his role in, for the point, what 1916 battle in Northeastern France, the longest of World War I's western front?
Battle of Verdun
8) Modern examples of these devices often rely on the transition between spin energy levels of cesium atoms. Christiaan Huygens [hoy-‐gens] invented the pendulum variety of these devices in 1656, and earlier examples include a water-‐operated one invented by Plato and shadow-‐operated ones, such as sundials. For the point, name these timekeeping devices.
clocks -accept pendulum clock, grandfather clock, or similar throughout; accept atomic clock after "transition" is read; accept other specific types of clocks once they are named in the question)
9) Leftist opposition to this leader was known as the United Opposition, which was co-‐organized by the author of The Revolution Betrayed. This man had Andrey Vyshinsky prosecute Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev in show trials, and had Nikolai Yezhov lead the Great Purge. For the point, name this leader of the Soviet Union through World War II.
Joseph Stalin -or Josef Dzhugashvili)
10) One man with this occupation may have been opposed by a man named Heinz Thorvald or Erwin König, though historians cannot verify the story. Another person with this occupation lost his left cheek, served in the Winter War, and was called "the White Death." Vasily Zaytsev and Simo Hayha served in this role, as did the "Devil of Ramadi," whose memoirs inspired a 2014 Clint Eastwood film. Chris Kyle served as, for the point, what type of military sharpshooter?
snipers -or sharpshooter before mentioned; prompt on soldier or other terms)
11) In Islam, this virtue is known as tawhid, and the violation of it is an unforgiveable sin known as shirk. Deuteronomy chapter 6, verse 4 is a statement of this concept that opens the Shema prayer. An early version of this concept was Akhenaten's belief in the unique divinity of the sun disk, Aten. For the point, name this religious concept, the belief in a single deity.
monotheism -prompt on descriptive answers describing belief in one god)
12) This man marooned the ship captain Juan de Cartagena after a mutiny broke out aboard the San Antonio, Victoria, and Concepcion. This man, who gave the Pacific Ocean its name, was succeeded by Juan Elcano after he died at Mactan in a battle against the Lapu Lapu people. For the point, name this Portuguese explorer who died in the Philippines before his ships became the first to circumnavigate the globe.
13) Giuseppe Tartini wrote a G minor sonata for this instrument nicknamed "Devil's Trill." During the Baroque era, this instrument was made by luthiers in Cremona such as Amati and Guarneri. A virtuoso who was rumored to have sold his soul to the devil, Niccolo Paganini, played, for the point, what high-‐pitched string instrument made by Antoni Stradivari?
14) This commodity's trade was once dominated by John Glassford and other 18th century Glasgow merchants, known as its "lords." Sir Walter Raleigh popularized this commodity in England, and a 1730 English law regulating this crop created warehouses to inspect it in Virginia. John Rolfe introduced Jamestown to, for the point, what cash crop whose leaves are rolled into cigars and cigarettes?
15) Fabius Maximus strategized that avoiding fighting this man in open battle would wear down his forces; after that policy was abandoned, this man enveloped a huge army at the Battle of Cannae. This general was finally defeated at the Battle of Zama by Scipio Africanus. For the point, name this Carthaginian general who brought elephants across the Alps to attack his nemesis, Rome.
16) On a train ride at the end of this film, Adam asks a character to read a newspaper that contains the recently delivered "We shall fight to the beaches" speech. In this film, members of the RAF try to help with the central effort, in which "little ships" end up saving over 300,000 troops. For the point, name this 2017 film about a massive 1940 evacuation from France in World War II.
17) Both of this president's vice presidents, George Clinton and Elbridge Gerry, died in office. A portrait of George Washington was saved by this man's wife, Dolley, right before British troops took over the White House during the burning of Washington D.C. in 1814. For the point, name this successor of Thomas Jefferson who led the US during the War of 1812 as the fourth President.
18) A kingdom of these people fractured thanks to infighting between Dingane [din-‐gah-‐nay] and Mpande [im'pahn-‐day] when they failed to check the advance of the voortrekkers. These people organized their military into groups called impis and used the buffalo horn formation to great effect at Isandlwana against European troops; however, their capital of Ulundi was eventually burned down in a war with the British. For the point, name this South African empire that was once led by Shaka.
amaZulu empire -or amaZulu people, etc.; accept Zululand)
19) One of this ruler's campaigns is fictionalized in a painting where his name appears engraved on a rock next to Hannibal and Charlemagne. Although this ruler actually used a mule, that painting shows him riding a rearing horse while crossing the Alps. Jacques-‐Louis David [dah-‐veed] painted this man standing in his study at the Tuileries [twee-‐luh-‐ree] with a hand tucked inside his vest and showed this man's wife, Josephine, kneeling in front of this man at his 1804 coronation. For the point, name this emperor of France.
Napoleon Bonaparte -or Napoleon I, do not accept Napoleon III)
20) This man began his country's trade with England after allowing Richard Chancellor to create the Muscovy Company. This man's rule was supported by the oprichniki secret police, which helped this man purge dissident nobles. The Time of Troubles began after this man's incapable son Feodor died; this man had accidentally killed his original heir in a rage. For the point, name this final Rurik tsar of Russia whose epithet highlights his cruelty.
Ivan the Terrible -or Ivan IV Vasilyevich; accept Ivan Grozny)
21) This region was subject to the Statute of Rhuddlan and one of its borders was defined by Offa's Dyke. One title named for this region has the motto "Ich Dein" and a crest of three white feathers. This region was dominated by the kingdom of Gwynedd, which was defeated by Edward I in 1283. For the point, name this constituent country of the United Kingdom whose capital is Cardiff.
Wales -or Cymru)
22) This president announced Executive Order 9961, which integrated the US armed forces, as part of his Fair Deal. Earlier he had become president upon the death of his four-‐termed predecessor in the spring of 1945. For the point, name this man who defeated Thomas Dewey to maintain the White House in 1948, having first gained the office after Franklin Roosevelt's presidency.
Harry S Truman
23) Limited self-‐government for this state was established by the Oslo Accords in 1993. This state has been led by two presidents, Yasser Arafat and Mahmoud Abbas, and was given observer status in the UN in 2012. Over 100 countries -‐ not including the United States -‐ diplomatically recognize, for the point, what Middle Eastern state whose territory is disputed with Israel?
State of Palestine
24) A light wind forced the losing side of this battle to assume a loose crescent-‐like formation. Before this defeat of Admiral Pierre-‐Charles Villeneuve, the message "England expects that every man will do his duty" was delivered by semaphore. For the point, name this decisive 1805 British naval victory for Horatio Nelson during the Napoleonic Wars.
Battle of Trafalgar
25) This region accidentally became a refuge for the endangered Amur Leopard. This region which contains the border town of Panmunjom was established after a military stalemate prompted the 1953 Armistice between Syngman Rhee and Kim Il-‐sung. For the point, name this strip located near the 38th parallel that separates North and South Korea.
Korean Demilitarized Zone -or the Korean DMZ; prompt on Korea before said; prompt on 38th parallel before said; prompt on border between North and South Korea before "separates" is said)
26) The standard edition of this document was compiled in the 18th Century by William Blackstone. This document, which was signed by Robert Fitzwalter, failed in preventing the outbreak of the First Barons' War. For the point, name this 1215 document providing liberties to the English people that was signed at Runnymede by a group of nobles and King John.
Magna Carta -or the Great Charter)
27) This country's Unit 731 experimented on people during a war begun by a battle at the Marco Polo Bridge. Six years earlier, this country staged an explosion near Mukden to invade and create the puppet state Manchukuo. For the point, name this country where the Jewel Voice Broadcast was issued by Emperor Hirohito to announced their surrender in World War II.
Empire of Japan
28) This leader and Nicholas II exchanged a friendly series of telegrams mere weeks before the outbreak of World War I. During the Boxer Rebellion, this leader gave the "Hun Speech," which would later become a derogatory term for his own soldiers. This cousin of George V and Nicholas II allied with Austria-‐Hungary to form the Central Powers. For the point, name this last German Kaiser, who reigned during World War I.
Kaiser Wilhelm II -or William II)
29) This commodity sparked a protest against Mark Karpeles in Tokyo after the temporary shut down of Mount Gox, an important trading post. Laszlo Hanyecz used this commodity to buy two pizzas in 2010, the first instance it was used in a real world transaction. A "blockchain" records transactions of this commodity, which is gained by "mining" via processors. For the point, name this first digital cryptocurrency.
30) On the feast day of Saint Walpurga, witches are believed to meet in this country's Brocken peak, which lies in its Harz Mountains. This country's town of Hamelin is the setting of a legend in which a man able to charm rats, then decides to use his magic pipe to lure children. A more famous folk tradition in this country features lederhosen and the eating of bratwurst. For the point, name this country, home of Oktoberfest in Bavaria.
1) Beveridge curves are used to model this concept, and an empirical relationship between this quantity and a country's GDP is given by Okun's law. An "inflation barrier" prevents the full eradication of this economic concept, a theory that developed after stagflation in the 1970s combined inflation and this phenomenon. The negative effects of this concept were dealt with historically by the English Poor Laws. For the point, name this economic phenomenon in which people are unable to find work.
unemployment rate -accept descriptive answers relating to job vacancy)
1) One of this man's admirals, Hayreddin Barbarossa, docked in Toulon thanks to his alliance with Francis I of France. This man conquered much of Hungary after the Battle of Mohacs [moh-‐hotch]. Though this ruler oversaw a failed Siege of Malta against the Knights Hospitaller and failed to capture Vienna in 1526, he expanded his empire to its greatest extent. For the point, name this Ottoman ruler, known as "the Magnificent."
Suleiman the Magnificent -or Suleiman I)
2) A shift in this river caused the creation of Cordova Island, leading to the Chamizal border dispute and the near-‐assassination of two presidents in 1909. The question of whether to use the Nueces [noo-‐ays-‐ace] River or this river to determine a border led to a war that ended with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. For the point, name this river on the US-‐Mexico border.
Rio Grande -or Rio Bravo)
3) In this city, attempts to train citizens in human resources management led to the creation of a fully-‐foreign-‐owned "Knowledge Village." This city established free economic zones in the Internet City district and Jebel Ali Harbor. A hotel in this city is often misquoted as being rated seven stars and is shaped like a sail. The Burj Al Arab hotel and the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa, are located in, for the point, what largest city of the United Arab Emirates?
4) In this novel, Tjaden [t'yah-‐den] gets revenge on Himmelstoss, and another character feels remorse at the stabbing of Gerard Duval, having returned to the army from seventeen days of leave to see his family. As Fredrich Muller dies, he gives Kemmerich's boots to this novel's protagonist, Paul Baumer [boy-‐mar]. For the point, name this Erich Maria Remarque novel about life in the German trenches of World War I.
All Quiet on the Western Front -accept Im Westen nichts Neues)
5) The central portion of this building was surrounded by the hekhal. An earthquake in 363 AD may have prevented a project to reconstruct this building, which was expanded under Herod the Great and destroyed in 70 AD by Roman soldiers. This building's former location is now occupied by the Dome of the Rock and the Al-‐Aqsa Mosque. The Holy of Holies was contained in, for the point, what Jewish holy site in Jerusalem?
Holy Temple -accept First Temple or Second Temple or Solomon's Temple)
6) Architectural wonders from this empire include as-‐Saheli's Djinguereber Mosque and Djenne's Great Mosque. This empire was supplanted by the Songhai, and its most famous ruler legendarily devalued gold along the Mediterranean during his lavish hajj to Mecca. For the point, name this west African empire that was ruled by Mansa Musa.
Mali Empire -or Manden Kurufaba)
7) A holder of this position fled to France after he was condemned at a trial held at Northampton Castle, prior to which he had refused to sign the Constitutions of Clarendon. Stephen Langton feuded with King John while he held this position. In 1170, King Henry II ordered the murder of the holder of this position. For the point, name this English religious position held by Thomas Becket.
Archbishop of Canterbury
8) In this country, the Berkut police force was disbanded after a violent suppression of the "Heavenly Hundred" protesters. This country's Independence Square was the site of the Euromaidan protests, part of a 2014 revolution that ousted Viktor Yanukovych. During the ensuing instability, this country had a Black Sea territory annexed by Vladimir Putin. For the point, name this country that lost the Crimea to neighboring Russia and is governed from Kiev.
9) The GRUNK briefly held power in this nation, where intellectuals and other "New People" were executed during "Year Zero." This country, which was ruled by King Sihanouk until his 1970 overthrow, was the site of "killing fields" during a period when it was known as Democratic Kampuchea and its Communist Party carried out purges under the direction of Pol Pot. For the point, name this Southeast Asian country once ruled by the Khmer Rouge.
Cambodia -accept Democratic Kampuchea until "Year Zero" is read)
10) This composer's second collaboration with librettist Lorenzo da Ponte had its "Champagne Aria" bowdlerized by Imperial censors. For another opera by this man, Da Ponte preemptively removed an anti-‐nobility speech from the original Pierre Beaumarchais play; in that opera, Susanna marries Count Almaviva's servant. For the point, name this Austrian composer of Don Giovanni and The Marriage of Figaro who also wrote the serenade Eine Kleine Nachtmusik.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
11) This man's autobiography, titled We, did not refer to the Ryan aircraft on the cover, but actually to his financial backers. This man won a prize from Raymond Orteig and used his fame to promote airmail. This pilot was celebrated in a 1927 ticker tape parade in New York City after he landed at La Bourget [boor-‐zhay] airfield in Paris. For the point, name this aviator who crossed the Atlantic Ocean alone in the Spirit of St. Louis.
12) Albert Sabin developed both an oral vaccine for this disease and an intense rivalry with another vaccine inventor, who asked "Could you patent the sun?" to explain why he didn't seek profits. The March of Dimes was founded to fight this disease in 1938. Jonas Salk developed a vaccine for, for the point, what mostly eradicated disease that causes muscle weakness and afflicted Franklin Roosevelt?
13) This world leader adopted the Sinatra Doctrine, allowing allied nations to "choose their own way." This leader faced a coup from the hardline Gang of Eight, though it was thwarted when Boris Yeltsin gave a speech from atop a tank. This man's reforming policies of glasnost and perestroika helped speed up the breakup of his country. For the point, name this final leader of the Soviet Union.
14) Shuttle diplomacy initiated by Henry Kissinger helped negotiate an end to this war, leading its winner to withdraw to the Purple Line. This war, which led to the downfall of Golda Meir's government, began when an Arab alliance breached the Bar-‐Lev line with a surprise attack. For the point, name this 1973 war in which Israel was attacked on the Jewish Day of Atonement.
Yom Kippur War -or the 1973 Arab-‐Israeli War; accept the Ramadan War; accept the
15) Italy backed out of the Paris Peace Conference after learning that this country was promised Smyrna, which this country was occupying. Benito Mussolini invaded Albania before failing in his 1940 invasion of this country, whose Metaxas Line fell to the Germans the next year. The Corfu Incident enraged, for the point, what country that was occupied by the Nazis after the fall of Athens?
16) Popular uprisings in this city began after the student Jan Palach [yan pahl-‐ahk], a free speech protester, set himself on fire in Wenceslas Square. During a revolution centered in this city, Antonin Novotny was replaced by the moderate Alexander Dubcek [doob-‐check], whose attempt to create "socialism with a human face" was crushed by a Soviet invasion. A period of liberalization known as this city's "Spring" took place in, for the point, what capital of Czechoslovakia?
Prague -accept Prague Spring)
17) During this war, a squadron of ships broke a blockade of Presque Isle Bay to reach Put-‐in-‐Bay; that fleet was led by Oliver Hazard Perry, who declared "We have met the enemy and they are ours" after winning this war's Battle of Lake Erie. This war was ended a year later by the Treaty of Ghent. For the point, name this relatively inconclusive 19th century war between the British and Americans.
War of 1812
18) This leader edited the Ems Dispatch, triggering a war in which this leader's country captured Napoleon III. This leader's Minister of Education, Adalbert Falk, established state control of education via the May Laws, part of his anti-‐Catholic Kulturkampf. The "great questions of the time" would be answered by "blood and iron" according to, for the point, what Iron Chancellor of Prussia?
Otto von Bismarck
19) At this structure's opening ceremony, George Nares's Newport controversially surged past the imperial Eagle. A closure of this structure caused the Yellow Fleet to be trapped for eight years. Lester Pearson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for mediating a 1956 conflict in which British and French paratroopers tried to reclaim it from Gamal Abdel Nasser, who had nationalized it. For the point, name this Egyptian waterway that linked the Mediterranean to the Red Sea.
20) Two answers required. A demarcation line between these two countries has resulted in disputes over portions of Arunachal Pradesh. After a 1962 war, one of these nations annexed the Aksai Chin region from the other. These two nations agreed to Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, or Panchsheel, under leaders Jawaharlal Nehru and Mao Zedong. For the point, name these two countries, the two most-‐populous in the world.
Republic of India and the People's Republic of China -accept in either order)
21) This treaty, which was negotiated at the same time as the treaties of Saint-‐Germain and Trianon, led to the transfer of the Vistula River so that the Free City of Danzig could be established. It was panned by John Maynard Keynes, in part because of Article 231, the so-‐called "war guilt clause" that demanded reparations from the defeated Germany. For the point, name this treaty that ended World War I.
Treaty of Versailles
22) This leader, who was protected by the all-‐female Amazonian Guard, claimed responsibility for the 1988 Lockerbie bombings. This man detailed his Third International Theory in the Green Book shortly before taking the title "Brotherly Leader and Guide of the Revolution." In 2011, this leader was killed near his hometown of Sirte during the Arab Spring. For the point, name this longtime dictator of Libya.
Muammar Gaddafi -or Qaddafi)
23) This composer set a description of Solomon's anointing for an anthem that has been played at the coronation of every British monarch since George II. This composer of Zadok The Priest included the chorus "See the conqu'ring hero comes" in his oratorio Judas Maccabaeus. King George II supposedly began the tradition of standing during another work of this composer. For the point, name this Germanborn composer who included the "Hallelujah Chorus" in his Messiah.
George Frideric Handel
24) This man's party was the target of the Aventine Secession after he changed his country's voting system with the Acerbo [uh-‐chair-‐bow] Law. After this man was rescued by Otto Skorzeny, he led the Republic of Salo, which relied on German forces to control the northern half of a country as Victor Emmanuel III regained power from this man in the south. For the point, name this fascist dictator who took power after his militia, called the Blackshirts, marched on Rome in 1922.
Benito Mussolini -prompt on Il Duce)
25) In 2004, a US Army Ranger who had given up a career in this sport was killed by friendly fire in Afghanistan. In addition to Pat Tillman, this sport was played professionally by Junior Seau and Aaron Hernandez, each of whom were posthumously diagnosed with brain damage that results from head injuries. For the point, name this sport whose professional league has denied a link between brain damage and concussions received while playing positions like linebacker and quarterback.
-American or gridiron) football
26) This politician, who encouraged fiscal responsibility to combat inflation in the Whip Inflation Now campaign, signed the Helsinki Accords to improve relations with communist Europe. This president declared "our long national nightmare is over" after taking office in 1974. For the point, name this US president who pardoned his predecessor, Richard Nixon.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. -accept Leslie Lynch King, Jr.)
27) Soldiers raised in this city were trained on a field known as the Campus Martius, and its Temple of Janus opened its doors in times of war. This city's sewer, the Cloaca Maxima, drained a swamp that became the site of the first forum. This city was situated on seven hills and was legendarily founded by Romulus and Remus. For the point, name this city on the Tiber River, the namesake of an Italian empire.
28) Leland Stanford sponsored a study of these animals that Eadweard Muybridge ["edward my-‐ bridge"] used photography to undertake. A sculpture with a nickname translating to "Honeycat" shows Erasmo da Narni on one of these animals, and was based on an earlier statue of the emperor Marcus Aurelius on military campaign. For the point, name these animals which are typically featured with famous riders in equestrian statues.
horses -accept Bronco Buster)
29) Major construction of this project was only began under the leadership of Fritz Todt in 1933, though it had been proposed during the Weimar Republic. During World War II, parts of this system were converted into auxiliary airstrips by the Nazi Government. Dwight Eisenhower was inspired by the success of this system to pass the Interstate Highway Act. For the point, identify this German highway system, famous for its lack of speed limits.
autobahnen -accept bundesautobahnen)
30) Following protests on an excise tax on whiskey, this president sent the "Watermelon Army" to western Pennsylvania. This President's farewell address warned against permanent alliances and was published shortly before the first contested Presidential election. For the point, name this military general and first President of the United States.
31) Nationalists from this territory attempted to assassinate Harry Truman at the Blair House in 1950. Ricardo Rossello governs this unincorporated territory, where the potential failure of the Guajataca [gwa-‐ha-‐ta-‐ka] Dam in this territory prompted a mass evacuation of over 70,000 people here in 2017. For the point, name this U.S. territory with capital at San Juan that was devastated by Hurricane Maria.
1) Grover Cleveland was told that the US did not interfere in a rebellion in this island kingdom in the Morgan Report. After the overthrow of this kingdom, Lorrin Thurston refused to become president, leading to Sanford Dole's leadership. This Kingdom had the "Bayonet Constitution" imposed on Queen Liliuokalani. For the point, name this kingdom that followed Alaska to become the 50th US state.
Kingdom of Hawai'i
2) An emerald one of these figures has three sets of gold robes that are replaced by a current monarch at the end of each season. A daibatsu represents a giant sculpture of these figures, two of which were destroyed by the Taliban in Bamyan in 2001. The 9th-‐century temple of Borobodur on Java in Indonesia contains over 500 statues of these entities, which are often worshipped in Southeast Asia. For the point, name these figures that represent the founder of a religion with Mahayana and Theravada branches.
Buddhas -accept elaborations, like "sculptures of the Buddha")
3) During the War of 1812, Zebulon Pike died attacking this city in the Battle of York, so called because of this city's former name. A railroad conglomerate built a communications tower in this city that is named after the Canadian National company. For the point, name this city on the shores of Lake Ontario, the economic capital of Canada.
4) Cyrus Vance resigned during this event after disagreements over a botched helicopter rescue mission, Operation Eagle Claw. Canadian Ambassador Ken Taylor sheltered six people who escaped this event by posing as a film crew. This event ended on the day of Ronald Reagan's inauguration. For the point, name this event in which American citizens were held for 444 days in Tehran.
Iran Hostage Crisis
5) This commodity was brought to China when Spanish galleons traveled from Acapulco to Manila. Britain used this metal to trade for tea with China, before realizing that selling opium could reverse the flow of this commodity. Before traveling to Asia, this commodity was often mined in Bolivia via the mita system at Potosi. Chinese yuanbao ingots were made of gold and, for the point, what other precious metal?
6) During one battle at this location in 279 BC, Brennus managed to encircle the opposing forces, allowing him to move on to a sack of Delphi. In another battle at this location, a Phocian force on a hill was left to watch their enemies march by, encircling that enemy via a pass around this location revealed by Ephialtes. A 480 BC naval battle at Artemisium happened at the same time as a battle at, for the point, what "hot gates" where Leonidas was defeated with his force of around 300 Spartan soldiers?
-Battle-s) of) Thermopylae
7) One project of this type was overseen by governor Quintus Lollius Urbicus, began at Old Kirkpatrick, and includes depictions of conflicts with the Caledonians. Antoninus Pius oversaw one of these projects after succeeding a man who stopped Pict attacks by creating a 73-‐mile-‐long example of these structures in Brittania. For the point, name this type of defensive structure built by Hadrian.
Roman walls in Brittania
8) In 2007, 17 citizens of this country were killed in Nisour Square by private contractors. Three years earlier, the killing of four members of that private company, Blackwater, sparked the first Battle of Fallujah in this country. An invasion of this country was predicated on its attempt to buy yellowcake uranium from Niger. For the point, name this country that was named with Iran and North Korea in the "Axis of Evil" by George W. Bush in 2002, a year before the US invaded it to depose Saddam Hussein.
Republic of Iraq
9) One ruler of this kingdom created his own religion called the Din-‐i Ilahi, encouraged learning at his House of Worship, and abolished the jizya tax on non-‐Muslims. This empire began with Ibrahim Lodi's loss at Panipat in 1526. Another ruler of this empire built a mausoleum for his wife Mumtaz. For the point, name this empire ruled by Babur, Akbar the Great, and Shah Jahan, who built the Taj Mahal.
10) Though this dynasty was the first to establish a standing navy, it was partially conquered by the Jurchen Jin, leading it to be divided into Northern and Southern periods. The Four Great Inventions, including papermaking, printing, gunpowder, and the compass, were discovered during this dynasty. For the point, name this dynasty that fell to Kublai Khan's Mongols and was thus followed by the Yuan Dynasty.
11) John de Vere led the vanguard at both this battle and, two years later, a quashed rebellion at Stoke Field. A charge of roughly 1,000 knights was ordered by the loser of this battle, who had earlier served as Duke of Gloucester under his brother Edward IV. Richard III was killed at this battle, after which Henry VII was crowned. For the point, name this decisive 1485 battle of the Wars of the Roses.
Battle of Bosworth Field
12) This musical genre was introduced to England by Almack's social clubs. Maurice Ravel used two Schubert collections of these works for his own "noble and sentimental" works, and denied that World War I influenced a piece of his named for this dance that depicted an imperial ballroom circa 1855. "Tales from the Vienna Woods" and "The Blue Danube" are examples of, for the point, what dance in three-‐quarter time whose "King" was Johann Strauss Jr.?
waltzes -or La Valse)
13) This city is home to an airport that is named in honor of Prime Minister Adolfo Suarez and is the busiest in its country. This city's Vicente Calderon Stadium, which hosted its final game in 2017, included a stand of seating built over the M-‐30 highway that circles this city; a replacement stadium is being built a short drive from this city's aforementioned Barajas Airport. Nearly 200 people died in a 2004 terrorist attack on the train system of, for the point, what capital city of Spain?
14) These people allied with the Carthaginians against a Phocaean [fo-‐KAY-‐un] force at the Battle of Alalia. These people, who called themselves the Rasenna, were attacked by invading Gauls at the Battle of Melpum and lost considerable control over the Po Valley. For the point, name this ethnic group located around the Tyrrhenian Sea that, after it lost its city of Veii, assimilated into the Roman Republic.
15) This European refused to command Union troops, legendarily because Abraham Lincoln would not declare the abolition of slavery as the Union's goal. This man conquered the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in his Expedition of the Thousand. Count Cavour, Giuseppe Mazzini, and this man were known respectively as the brain, soul, and sword of the Risorgimento. For the point, name this "hero of two worlds" who led the redshirts in the fight for Italian unification.
16) Factories called maquiladoras [mah-‐kee-‐lah-‐dor-‐uhs] were established in this country during the rule of president Ernesto Zedillo. A rebel in this country adopted the name Subcomandante Marcos and began the Zapatista insurgency in 1994. For the point, name this country that is a member of NAFTA with its two northern neighbors.
Mexico -or the United Mexican States or Estados Unidos Mexicanos)
17) In a battle near Jindo Island, this weapon was deployed in an attack after changing currents caused enemy ships to collide. These vessels, which were used at the Battle of Myeongnyang [m'yong-‐ n'yang] in the Imjin War, had a dragon's mouth mounted at their front to exhale either flames or a smokescreen. Yi Sun-‐sin re-‐designed this type of ship, which is named for the plates covering its top. For the point, name these Korean warships whose shell-‐like armor earned a comparison to a reptile.
turtle ships -or Geobukseon)
18) A resident of one of these locations sews bread from his morning meal into his mattress for safekeeping. Lev Rubin is a resident of one of these locations in the novel The First Circle. Alexander Solzhenitsyn's novel One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich is set in, for the point, what type of location where Soviet dissidents were detained, often in Siberia?
gulags -accept Soviet prisons)
19) The May Fourth Movement gathered in this location, where a foam statue called the Goddess of Democracy was erected in 1989. Mao Zedong's mausoleum is found in this location, which also includes his portrait adorning a large gate. For the point, name this public square where, in 1989, a lone man repeatedly blocked a column of tanks in Beijing.
Tiananmen Square -prompt on Beijing before mentioned)
20) This work devotes two chapters to geographical distribution, including a brief discussion of boulders washed up on the Azores. Charles Lyell helped arrange the publication of this work, whose ideas were later applied to mankind in The Descent of Man. The study of finches and other creatures of the Galapagos Islands during a journey on the Beagle inspired, for the point, what 1859 work that introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection, written by Charles Darwin?
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
21) In 1995, this man's sons were discovered in KV5, the largest known tomb in the Valley of the Kings. After two spies enticed this man into fighting by the Orontes River, this husband of Nefertari signed the first ever peace treaty with Hattusilli III after the world's largest chariot battle. For the point, name this Egyptian ruler who defeated the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh and was known as "the Great."
Ramesses the Great -or Ramesses II; accept Ozymandias)
22) During this campaign, a side expedition was made to Samosata, and Kilij [kill-‐itch] Arslan lost the Battle of Dorylaeum. In this campaign, one side rallied forces against Kerbogha by finding the Holy Lance. Bohemond of Taranto defended Antioch during this conflict, which was preceded by Peter the Hermit's fight against the Seljuk Turks. "God wills it" was Pope Urban II's cry for, for the point, what military campaign called at the Council of Clermont in 1096 to capture the Holy Land?
First Crusade -prompt on Crusade-s))
23) This man may have issued the earliest mention of human rights on a cylinder, discovered in 1879, that has also led some biblical scholars to believe that this man ended the Babylonian Captivity. After defeating Croesus [kree-‐sus] of Lydia and the Median empire, this ruler established a new capital at Pasargadae [pass-‐AR-‐gah-‐dye]. This man's son, Cambyses II, carried on the Achaemenid line. For the point, name this founder of the Persian Empire.
Cyrus the Great -or Cyrus II)
24) General Kuropatkin lost 90,000 men and was forced to retreat from the largest battle of this war, Mukden. The Baltic Fleet was redeployed to join this conflict and relieve Port Arthur, only to be annihilated at the Battle of Tsushima Straits. For the point, name this 1904-‐1905 war in which an Asian power decisively defeated Tsar Nicholas II's forces.
25) This man and Roy Cohn caused the firings of many gay government employees in the Lavender Scare. At a series of hearings investigating the Army, Senator Joseph Welch asked this man "Have you no sense of decency?" For the point, name this Wisconsin Senator who claimed 205 State Department officials were communists at the peak of the 1950s Red Scare.
26) Guillaume Francois Debure's discovery of one of these in the Mazarin Library inspired an alternative name for these works, which are versions of the Vulgate. Only 49 copies of this work are known to have survived from the 1450s, when most of them were created in Mainz. The first major work to take advantage of the metal movable type was, for the point, what religious text named for the inventor of the printing press?
Gutenberg Bible -accept descriptive answers, like Bibles made by Johannes Gutenberg; prompt on partial answers)
27) In World War I, Apirana Ngata supported a pioneer unit composed of these people, who developed the King Movement to unite in the 19th century. Infighting among these people took place during the Musket Wars. Representatives of these indigenous peoples are guaranteed 7 seats in a parliament at Wellington. William Hobson signed the Treaty of Waitangi with, for the point, what native peoples of New Zealand?
Maori people -prompt on "indigenous New Zealanders" and "Aboriginal New Zealanders;" do not prompt on Aborigines)
28) This state, which was defended by the 1955 Formosa Resolution, lost its permanent seat on the Security Council in 1971 and has the largest economy of any non-‐UN member state. This member of the Four Asian Tigers was governed as a one-‐party state by the Kuomintang under the rule of Chiang Kai-‐ Shek. For the point, name this island state off the coast of mainland China.
Taiwan -or the Republic of China or Chinese Taipei, prompt on China alone, do not accept "People's Republic of China")
29) This battle was set up three months prior by the losing side's Operation Castor, a reinforcement by airdrop. During this two-‐month-‐long siege, Charles Piroth committed suicide after his forces were surrounded by artillery pieces hidden in the mountains. For the point, name this 1954 victory for Vo Nguyen Giap that led to French withdrawal from Vietnam.
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
30) A day after celebrating the end of this event onboard the USS Hornet, President Nixon announced his namesake doctrine at a press conference in Guam. During this event, which was followed by three weeks of quarantine in Houston, Michael Collins remained in the Command Module while the Eagle landed in the Sea of Tranquility. For the point, name this 1969 mission in which Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong became the first men to walk on the moon.
Apollo 11 -accept descriptions of the first Moon landing before "mission" is read, prompting on such descriptions after; prompt on Apollo)
31) In February 2017, this country's President joked that if he could, he would ban pineapple on pizza. The prime minister of this country resigned in 2016 after the release of the Panama Papers. This country's Pirate Party came in third place in October 2016 parliamentary elections, winning 10 seats in the Althing. Guoni Johannesson is president of, for the point, what Scandinavian country where the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull [AY-‐yah-‐f'yat-‐la-‐yo-‐kuk] eruption cancelled flights out of Reykjavik?
32) In this city, tossing arrows at a statue of a divination god named Hubal was a religious rite practiced by this city's ruling Quraysh tribe in the 5th-‐century. The "Year of the Elephant" refers to a story where an invading army's leading elephant stopped outside the gates of this city; that elephant stopped due to the birth of a prophet from this city, whose move to neighboring Medina was known as the hijra. For the point, name this home of the Kaaba and birthplace of Muhammad.
33) Creighton Abrams replaced William Westmoreland as general in this war, in which "tunnel rats" fought in caves and navy pilot John McCain participated in bombing runs during Operation Rolling Thunder. Chemical weapons like Agent Orange were used in, for the point, what Southeast Asian war that ended with Saigon being renamed Ho Chi Minh City?
34) This cabinet position was held from 1801 to 1814 by Albert Gallatin. The first holder of this position drafted the Report on Manufactures and lobbied for a tax on whiskey to help pay down the national debt. The US Mint is overseen by, for the point, what cabinet position first held by Alexander Hamilton?
Secretary of the Treasury
35) Some of this event's perpetrators took the pseudonym Piers Plowman. Archbishop Simon Sudbury was executed during this event, whose leader was killed by William Walworth. This event during the reign of Richard II began as a reaction to the Statute of Labourers, which tried to ban pay raises. Wat Tyler led, for the point, what 1381 rebellion named for its impoverished protesters?
Peasant's Revolt -accept Wat Tyler's Rebellion before his name is read; accept the Great Rising)
36) In 2013, a woman was arrested in Lens [lehn] for defacing this painting by writing "AE911" in black marker. This painting is an allegory of the July Revolution, which rocked Paris for three days in 1830, and shows a figure in a yellow dress and Phrygian cap stepping over several bodies. For the point, name this Eugene Delacroix [oo-‐zhen de-‐la-‐kwah] masterpiece whose title figure waves the French tricolor.
Liberty Leading the People -or La Liberte guidant le peuple; accept translations like
Liberty Guiding the People)
37) King George II led an army in this war's Battle of Dettingen, the last time a British king led troops in battle. The invasion of Silesia by Frederick the Great began this war, which was ended by the Treaty of Aix-‐la-‐Chapelle. For the point, name this war that began after the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 allowed Maria Theresa to hold a certain throne.
War of the Austrian Succession -accept First Silesian War until "Dettingen" is read)
38) John Frederick I of Saxony and Philip I of Hesse led a league against this man, but were beaten by him at the Battle of Muhlberg. Francis I also fought this leader in the Italian Wars, but was beaten at Pavia. Due to the Protestant Reformation and the Schmalkaldic League, this Emperor promulgated the doctrine of Cuius Regio, Eius Religio with the Peace of Augsburg. For the point, name this Holy Roman Emperor who called the Diet of Worms [vohms] against Martin Luther.
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor -accept Charles I of Spain)
39) Milton Eisenhower implemented this policy, which included the creation of Civilian Assembly Areas. Fred Korematsu lost his lawsuit against the US government over this policy, which was enacted in Executive Order 9066 by Franklin Roosevelt. Fears of disloyalty after Pearl Harbor were used to justify, for the point, what American policy of forcefully relocating certain Asian-‐Americans during World War II?
Japanese-‐American internment -accept descriptive answers relating to relocating Japanese-‐Americans into -concentration) camps)
40) To gain the support of the Beiyang Army, this man promised the presidency to Yuan Shikai while orchestrating the Xinhai [shin-‐hai] Revolution against emperor Pu Yi. This man believed in nationalism, democracy, and livelihood -‐ the "three principles of the people" -‐ and founded the Kuomintang. For ten points, name this first president of the Republic of China.
41) The "spilled blood" provision automatically grants members of this group citizenship after they are wounded in combat. This organization was formed after the July Revolution overthrew the House of Bourbon. During World War II, this section of the military refused to cooperate with the Vichy government. For ten points, name this branch of the French military primarily consisting of non-‐French volunteers.
French Foreign Legion -accept FFL; accept Legion Etrangere or LE; prompt on Foreign Legion)
42) This proponent of logical atomism supervised Ludwig Wittgenstein's Ph.D. thesis. This philosopher's namesake "teapot" is often used to shift the burden of proof in religious debates. With Alfred North Whitehead, this philosopher attempted to synthesize the foundations of mathematics in 1910. For ten points, name this British philosopher, the co-‐author of Principia Mathematica.
43) After forces on the losing side of this battle ran out of weapons, they threw oranges and lemons. This battle served as revenge for the siege of Famagusta. For maneuvering his forces away in this battle, Andrea Doria was accused of cowardice, though his ally, Don John of Austria led the winning side. For the point, name this last large-‐scale galley engagement, a naval battle in which the Ottoman Empire was soundly defeated by the Catholic Holy League in 1571.
Battle of Lepanto
44) As Vice President, this man oversaw the Senate's elimination of speaking limits and the impeachment of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase for partisan opinions. The Twelfth Amendment passed after this man was almost elected President while running on Thomas Jefferson's ticket. For the point, name this man who, after his political career was essentially over, shot and killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel.
Aaron Burr, Jr.
1) A controversial 2005 book by Claude Ribbe argued that this country's troops used sulfur dioxide to construct gas chambers in ships, killing tens of thousands of black slaves. A civil commissioner named Sonthonax ruled troops in a colony of this country that experienced a massive slave rebellion in 1791. This country's control over the western portion of Hispanola was ended by an insurrection partially led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. For the point, name this country that oversaw Haiti as the colony of Saint-Domingue.
2) This country introduced social welfare programs like Bolsa Familia and Fome Zero during the 2000s. The 2016 Copa Sudamericana was posthumously given to a team from this country after the crash of LaMia Flight 2933 en route to Colombia. Sergio Moro led Operation Car Wash in this country, which uncovered widespread corruption in this country's state-run oil company. For the point, name this country where Michel Temer became president after the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff.
Federative Republic of Brazil
3) William Seward sold this woman a house in Auburn, New York in 1859. This figure helped three steamboats avoid mines during the Combahee River Raid. William Lloyd Garrison gave the nickname "Moses" to this figure, who served in an organization that communicated via quilt designs and songs like "Follow the Drinking Gourd." In April 2016, Jack Lew announced that Andrew Jackson will be replaced on the front of the U.S. $20 bill by, for the point, what woman who led the Underground Railroad?
4) In one work, Thomas Carlyle cites how this statement's speaker could be met with "silence and abashed looks" after saying it. This statement's speaker apparently contradicted this statement on his deathbed, noting that while he is "going away," a certain entity "will always remain." This statement was probably a fabrication by opponents of its speaker. For the point, name this statement that may or may not have been said by Louis XIV in a demonstration of his absolutist power.
I am the state -or L'etat, c'est moi; accept close translations along the lines of I myself am the nation)
5) Soldiers from this dynasty allegedly filled nine sacks with ears from Polish captives at Legnica [leg-neetz-ah]. The last ruler of this dynasty, Sheikh Ahmed, was imprisoned by former Lithuanian allies who had aided this dynasty at the Vorskla River against Tamerlane. This dynasty was founded by Batu after the death of Mongke Khan and centered at Sarai. For the point, name this Mongolian khanate, named for the color of its tents.
6) According to legend, this island's first settlement was at Anakena. This island's first European visitor was Jacob Roggeveen in 1722, and its natives developed the still-undeciphered rongorongo script. Jared Diamond argued this island's society collapsed due to deforestation. Natives here used tuff to carve figures that were all toppled from their ahu platforms between European contact and 1868. Chile now controls, for the point, what Pacific island whose Rapa Nui people built giant stone heads known as moai?
Easter Island -accept Rapa Nui before mentioned)
7) This ruler was trapped in the castle of Mirebeau by the Duke of Brittany. The "Young" Henry's revolt was supported by this ruler, who was forced into 16 years of exile after its defeat. This ruler's Court of Love at Poitiers was known for its troubadours. The territory of this ruler and Henry II were joined to form the Angevin Empire under the House of Plantagenet. This ruler became regent after the imprisonment of her son, Richard the Lionheart. For the point, name this queen of England and France and Duchess of Aquitaine.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
8) The cut-stone Hall of Audience was commissioned by this ruler, who ascended to the throne after his predecessor disappeared on a voyage to explore the limits of the Atlantic Ocean. This ruler invited Ali Kolon to his court after conquering his homeland with the help of his general, Sagmandia. Andalusian architects were hired by this man to build the Djinguereber [jin-guh-rey-ber] Mosque in Timbuktu. For the point, name this ruler of Mali who ruined economies with highly generous spending during his 1324 hajj to Mecca.
9) The victor of this battle founded the city of Nicopolis in celebration. During this battle, Quintus Dellius betrayed the plans of the losing side, whose quinqueremes proved too unwieldy to deal with Liburnians. Titus Taurus' ground troops were not utilized in this battle, as much of it took place in the Ambracian Gulf. Marcus Agrippa led the fleet of one side in this battle, where defeat prompted Cleopatra and Marc Antony to commit suicide. For the point, name this 31 BC naval victory for Octavian.
Battle of Actium
10) Description acceptable. This concept allowed for exemptions amongst knights, thanks to the Declaratio Ferdinandei. This principle was balanced out by the "ecclesiastical reservation" of one treaty. The Edict of Restitution was an attempt to weaken this idea, which did not provide toleration for Calvinism or Anabaptism as an official state religion. The Treaty of Westphalia reaffirmed, for the point, what principle, put forth by the Peace of Augsburg, that formed the backbone of state religion within the German states?
cuius regio, eius religio -or Whose realm, His religion; accept any description that notes that the
prince or ruler of a region gets to pick the religion followed in that region)
11) William Alden Smith led a U.S. Senate probe into this event in an attempt to find malpractice. In 2016, Senan Molony suggested that this event was caused by a three-week-long coal fire, which weakened the bulkhead. The Californian failed to respond quickly to this event, which was described as an "act of God" when the White Star Line was found not to be at fault. Survivors of this event were rescued by lifeboats from the Carpathia. For the point, name this 1912 disaster involving a British passenger liner that struck an iceberg in the North Atlantic.
sinking of the RMS Titanic
12) This man was killed while on an expedition by the Scythian queen Tomyris. This man overthrew his grandfather Astyages [ah-STY-ah-geez] of the Median Empire and defeated Croesus [kree-sus] to conquer the Lydians. From his capital of Pasargadae [pass-ar-gah-dye], he created a system of satraps to govern his empire, and this ruler authorized the Jews' return to Israel after his conquest of Babylonia. For the point, name this "Great" founder of the Persian Empire.
Cyrus the Great -or Cyrus II of Persia; prompt on Cyrus alone before "Great" is read; accept Cyrus alone after "Great" is read)
13) The Duc de Crillon unsuccessfully tried to capture this location, whose "King's Bastion" managed to withstand a "Grand Assault" during the American Revolutionary War. Spain gave up Minorca and this territory following the Treaty of Utrecht, and it is home to a mountain once considered the northern "Pillar of Hercules." For the point, name this British possession found on the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula.
14) The fall of this country's leader, Antonin Novotny, led to the proposal of the Action Programme by the new government. Jan Palach committed self-immolation to protest an invasion of this country, where a set of reforms described as "Socialism with a human face" were introduced by Alexander Dubˇcek [doob-check]. The Civic Forum came to power under Vaclav Havel in this country after the Velvet Revolution. For the point, name this country that split apart in the 1993 Velvet Divorce and underwent the Prague Spring.
Czechoslovakia -do not accept or prompt on the Czech Republic or Slovakia)
15) This conflict escalated when a massacre at Philippeville prompted reprisals against Muslims. The Secret Army Organization worked to prevent a ceasefire in this conflict, whose aftermath included a mass migration of pied-noirs [peed-nwar]. Ahmed Ben Bella rose to power after this conflict, which ended when the FLN signed the Evian Accords. For the point, name this 20th century war in which a North African country gained its independence from France.
Algerian War of Independence -or French-Algerian War)
16) This figure is credited with developing the "rose diagram" variant of the pie chart, which was used to describe deaths at the Selimiye [seh-lim-ee-yeh] Barracks. This figure convinced Isambard Kingdom Brunel to build the Renkioi facility after taking out a newspaper report on the inadequacy of the hospitals at Scutari. This figure, the only woman to appear in Lytton Strachey's Eminent Victorians, became famous during the Crimean War as the "Lady with the Lamp." For the point, name this British woman, the founder of modern nursing.
17) The Allon Plan called for the conversion of this region into a Druze state. While spying on this region, Eli Cohen discreetly planted trees that would grow up to mark enemy fortification spots. This region was breached during Operation Badr, and a ceasefire led to the establishment of the Purple Line in this region. An army came within miles of Damascus in the early days of the Yom Kippur War after taking, for the point, what mountainous region between Israel and Syria?
18) Robert Guiscard ended this empire's presence in Apulia by capturing Bari. A princess of this empire married Vladimir of Rus' after his conversion to Christianity, while another described political intrigue in the Alexiad. This empire's split over the practice of iconoclasm was ended by its Empress Irene. This empire's defeat at Manzikert while defending Asia Minor led to the rise of Alexios I and the call for the First Crusade. For the point, name this Orthodox empire centered at Constantinople.
Byzantine Empire -or Eastern Roman Empire)
19) This ally of Jose Felix Ribas pondered the fate of numerous occupied countries in a letter to Henry Cullen sent from Jamaica. He argued for the death of all unsupportive peninsulares in his "Decree of War to the Death," which was issued shortly after he took Merida in the Admirable Campaign. This president of Gran Colombia defeated the Spanish at Carabobo, securing the independence of Venezuela. For the point, name this 19th century liberator of South America.
20) On a foreign visit, this man angrily asked if he had to commit suicide before he could visit Disneyland. A few months earlier, this man claimed "in passing you by, we will wave to you" in explaining his country's progress to the U.S. Vice President. This leader attempted to alleviate food shortages with his Virgin Lands campaign, and he established a hotline with Washington D.C. shortly after he tried to arm Fidel Castro in the Cuban Missile Crisis. For the point, name this Soviet premier who succeeded Joseph Stalin.
21) This man sold his land holdings at Willow Run to enable the construction of a bomber factory during World War Two. This man's personal secretary, Ernest Liebold, pushed him to acquire The Dearborn Independent to promulgate his anti-Semitic views. This man established the five-dollar workday and quipped that people could purchase his company's signature product in any color they liked, so long as that color was black. For the point, name this American automaker who marketed the Model T.
22) A house in this city contained a mosaic, based on a Greek painting, showing Darius III fleeing from Alexander the Great at the Battle of Issus. Scenes of the cult worship of Dionysus can be viewed in this city's Villa of the Mysteries. This city's Lupanar, a brothel, famously features well-preserved graffiti. From across the Bay of Naples, Pliny the Younger wrote about a disaster in this city. For the point, name this Roman city that, like Herculaneum, was ruined by the 79 AD eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
23) This man's teacher during the Second Sophistic, Herodes Atticus, was completely ignored by this author during his later works. While on deployment, James Mattis was known to carry a copy of this man's most famous work. This man constantly calls for himself to evaluate life from a cosmic perspective in a book written while on campaign against the Marcomanni tribes in Germania. For the point, name this Stoic Roman Emperor and author of the Meditations.
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus
24) One member of this party criticized it in the essay "Wild Lily." A longtime leader of this party used the slogan "to rebel is justified," while a later leader established its "four cardinal principles" in response to the "Democracy Wall Movement." A statue of the Goddess of Democracy was set up to protest this party; troops who opened fire on it were defied by Tank Man. For the point, name this political party that carried out the Tiananmen Square Massacre and which has led mainland China since 1949.
Chinese Communist Party -or CCP, or Zhongguo Gongchandang; prompt on "Communist" until "China" is read, then accept it)
25) This man allegedly shook hands with a tree, thinking it was the king of Prussia. Though Charles James Fox had earlier opposed this man's appointment of Lord Shelburne, he included Fox in his "ministry of all the talents." The Act of Union with Ireland was passed under this king's tenure due to the efforts of William Pitt, though this king later had to give up power with the 1811 Regency Act due to his porphyria. For the point, name this English king who lost the Thirteen Colonies in the American Revolution.
26) In this book, several generations buried their dead in the Cave of Machpelah, and a grandson is inexplicably cursed for a misdeed caused by his father, who saw his grandfather drunk and uncovered. This book's second chapter describes the source of four rivers, including the Pishon, Tigris, and Euphrates, after its first chapter repeats the phrase "and God saw that it was good." The Creation and Fall of Man narratives are told in, for the point, what first book of the Old Testament?
Book of Genesis -prompt on Bible, Old Testament, and/or Torah until "Old Testament" is read)
27) This event was predicted by Roger Babson, the namesake of a "Break" that preceded this event by about a month. This event was investigated by a commission led by Ferdinand Pecora. In the lead-up to this event, P-E ratios peaked at an all-time high of 32.6, and this event worsened as margin calls came in. This event encompassed days called Black Thursday, Monday, and Tuesday. For the point, name this economic event that marked the end of the Roaring Twenties and triggered the Great Depression.
Stock Market Crash of 1929 -accept other elaborations, like Wall Street Crash of 1929, Dow Crash of 1929, etc.; prompt on stock market crash, etc., if given without the year; prompt on Black Thursday, Monday, and/or Tuesday before mentioned; prompt on Great Depression before mentioned)
28) In 1851, the first international tournament of this game took place in London; during a break in the action, Adolf Anderssen and Lionel Kieseritzky competed in the "Immortal Game." This game's "Game of the Century," played at the Marshall Club in New York, involved former U.S. Open champion Donald Byrne losing to a 13-year-old. For the point, name this game, mastered by Bobby Fischer, Magnus Carlsen, and the Deep Blue computer, which often concludes with a checkmate.
29) In ancient times, this currency was worth 6 obols. In 1828, the phoenix replaced the Ottoman kurus, then itself was replaced four years later by the "phoenix," adorned with King Otto's face; both this currency and the phoenix were equivalent to 100 lepta. In 1973, this currency replaced the image of the deposed King Constantine with more phoenix imagery and the phrase "Hellenic Republic." For the point, name this currency used by both the ancient and modern, pre-Euro Greeks.
30) This man developed a "Wheel Cipher" to prevent his mail from being read. He developed a system of weights to tell the days of the week that goes through the floor of his house; that residence also includes a "polygraph" that makes a copy of all written documents on it. This man succeeded Benjamin Franklin as minister to France in 1784, leaving his home of Monticello. For the point, name this prolific Virginia inventor and politician whose epitaph fails to mention his service as the 3rd President of the United States.
1) During a meeting with Melih Absel, this man said "The illegal we do immediately. The unconstitutional takes a little longer." This man outlined one of his famous strategies in his book The Necessity for Choice; that strategy was a response to an earlier policy of "massive retaliation" and involved a "flexible response" to nuclear threats. This man's frequent flying between Middle Eastern capitals, attempting to resolve the Yom Kippur War, became known as "shuttle diplomacy." For the point, name this proponent of detente who served as Secretary of State under Presidents Ford and Nixon.
Henry Alfred Kissinger -or Heinz Alfred Kissinger)
1) A participant in this event carried a piece of wood from the Wright Brothers' first plane with him. William Safire wrote the "Fate has ordained" speech in case this event didn't go as planned. The command module Columbia was piloted by Michael Collins during this event, which an estimated 600 million people watched live on July 20, 1969. For the point, name this "giant leap for mankind," a NASA mission in which Buzz Aldrin and Neil Armstrong became the first men to walk on the moon.
Apollo 11 -prompt on descriptions of the first moon landing; prompt on Apollo alone)
2) After Henry Menzies was appointed to collect a dog tax from these people, they were led into rebellion by Hone Toia. These people made the design of their pa forts more effective after a series of civil wars was triggered by the British introduction of muskets. William Hobson believed he had been appointed governor after these people signed the ambiguously-worded Treaty of Waitangi. For the point, name these indigenous people of New Zealand.
Maori people -prompt on descriptions of indigenous people of New Zealand, and partial answers thereof, before mentioned)
3) Armed clashes that broke out in this country's capital city were ended by a 2008 agreement signed in Qatar's capital, Doha. This country's parliament primarily consists of the March 8 and March 14 coalitions. A 29-month political deadlock in this country was ended with the October 2016 election of President Michel Aoun. In recent years, around one quarter of this country's population has been Syrians fleeing a neighboring civil war. For the point, name this Levantine Arab country with a significant Maronite population with its capital at Beirut.
4) Avici is one of these places situated in Naraka in Buddhism. The Florentine Codex describes Tlalocan, one of these places ruled by Chalchiuhtlicue [chall-wee-tl'ee-koh] and Tlaloc, as a region characterized by water. Hun-Came, the owner of a ball court, rules one of these places, another of which is called Yomi in Shinto traditions. The Isles of the Blessed comprise one of these, along with the Asphodel Fields and Elysium, in Greek mythology. For the point, name these spiritual places ruled by gods like Osiris and Hades, the home of spirits of the dead.
mythical underworlds -accept descriptions of realms of the dead, including hell)
5) Affirmative action programs in this country favor native residents known as "bumiputeras." This country's city of Penang was the capital of the Straits Settlements. This country's capital is home to a pair of twin towers that were the tallest in the world from 1998 to 2004. It was formed from the union of Sarawak, North Borneo, and a namesake peninsula. In 1965, Singapore was kicked out of, for the point, what Southeast Asian nation whose Petronas Towers are in Kuala Lumpur?
6) A bombardment before this battle was halted by Samuel Graves when the Lively's guns woke him up from his sleep. In this battle, William Prescott withdrew his men to Cambridge after running out of ammunition. General Thomas Gage was dismissed after this battle, in which Israel Putnam allegedly ordered his militia to not fire "until you see the whites of their eyes." For the point, name this early battle of the Revolutionary War that predominantly took place on Breed's Hill.
Battle of Bunker Hill -accept Battle of Breed's Hill before mentioned)
7) This country began to clear out slum areas in 2005 in Operation Drive Out the Rubbish, years after launching "Fast Track Reforms" that seized land from minority white populations. This country gained its independence after the Bush War and the signing of the Lancaster House Accords with Great Britain. Morgan Tsvangirai's [chong-ghee-rai's] Movement for Democratic Change currently opposes this country's ruling party, ZANU-PF. For the point, name this African country currently led by Robert Mugabe.
8) This battle was prompted by Pope Pius V's pleas to rescue Famagusta. Sebastiano Venier, a future Doge of Venice, rose to prominence after serving in the centre division of this battle alongside the flagship Real, a galley. The author of Don Quixote, Miguel de Cervantes, was wounded in this battle while fighting against the forces of Ali Pasha. For the point, name this 1571 battle in which Don Juan of Austria led the Holy League to victory over the Ottoman fleet.
Battle of Lepanto
9) This man instructed his warriors to sing an enemy victory chant to lure out his opponent's defenses in the final defeat of his rival, Zwide [zwee-day]. This leader instructed his troops to envelop enemies while attacking in a "buffalo horns" formation and introduced the tactic of offensive shield hooking while using a shorter, stabbing spear called the iklwa. Dingane [din-gah-nay] helped assassinate this chieftain in 1828. For the point, name this early leader of the Zulu kingdom.
Shaka Zulu -or Shaka kaSenzangakhona)
10) A Mitchell and Webb skit inverts the story of this figure by comparing his implied unexpected nature to an "albino Nubian" and climaxes by calling Jesus a racist. In the series finale of Seinfeld, the four main characters are arrested for violating a law named for this figure when they record an obese man's carjacking and fail to call 911 or stop the crime. A series of laws protecting bystanders who try to help those in need are named for, for the point, what Biblical figure from a parable of Jesus who assists an injured stranger?
Good Samaritan -accept the Parable of the Good Samaritan or other elaborations)
11) Akos Eleod designed this city's Memento Park, a resting place for old statues built during Communist rule. This city contains the islands of Margaret, Csepel [cheh-pell], and Obudai, the last of which holds the massive Sziget [sih-get] music festival every August. The Gellert Hill overlooks this city and served as an important vantage point during a 100 day siege in World War II. The Chain bridge and Arpad bridge are located in this city, whose Heroes' Square is the resting place of Imre Nagy [nahj], the leader of an anti-Soviet 1956 revolution. The Danube River runs through, for the point, what capital of Hungary?
12) Members of this group styling themselves the "Knights of Mary Phagan" kidnapped and lynched Leo Frank. This group, which held a large rally near the 1924 Democratic National Convention, was revitalized by William Simmons during a meeting at Stone Mountain. D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation glorified, for the point, what American white supremacist group, led by Grand Wizards who wear white hoods?
Ku Klux Klan -or KKK)
13) Yegor Ligachev's insults prompted this man to write a resignation letter; well after, Ligachev famously noted that this man "was wrong." In an attempt to avoid enriching his country's mafia and bureaucrats, this leader implemented a voucher system to sell state-run enterprises, but most people sold their vouchers off. This man agreed to the Belavezha Accords, establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States. In 1991, this man stood on top of a tank to denounce a revolt led by the KGB, shortly before he replaced Mikhail Gorbachev in power. For the point, name this first post-Soviet President of Russia.
14) One side in this conflict received funding from France after the Treaty of Barwalde. Despite having won at this war's battles of Dessau Bridge and Wolgast, Albrecht von Wallenstein was accused of treason and assassinated. One year after Count Tilly was routed at Breitenfeld in this war, an ill-fated cavalry charge at Lutzen led to the death of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. The Treaty of Westphalia ended, for the point, what religious war in Europe that lasted from 1618 to 1648?
Thirty Years' War
15) The Greek ambassador Megasthenes described how this man never slept in one room for two consecutive nights. His advisor, Kautilya, wrote a text on politics, often compared to The Prince, called the Arthashastra. This ruler reconquered land from Seleucus I, who had come to rule the eastern territories of Alexander the Great, and he defeated the Nanda Empire to conquer most of India. For the point, name this founder of the Mauryan Empire and grandfather of Ashoka.
16) During this type of event, "Soapy" Smith was killed in a shootout between two rival gangs. One of these events caused the expansion of the towns of Dyea [dye-EE], Skagway, and Dawson City, and another of these events began on the American River with a discovery on Sutter's Mill. For the point, name these crazes where prospectors flocked to the Klondike or to California in search of a precious metal.
gold rushes -accept Klondike Gold Rush; accept California Gold Rush)
17) Those who wronged this man were protected by the Amnesty Bill of Waldeck-Rosseau. This man was implicated after a letter was found in ambassador Max von Schwartzkoppen's garbage. Georges Picquart was sent to North Africa for supporting this man. The crimes of Ferdinand Esterhazy were blamed on this man, who was imprisoned on Devil's Island. Emile Zola penned the open letter J'accuse in defense of, for the point, what Jewish army officer who was accused of treason in 19th century France, triggering a namesake affair?
Alfred Dreyfus -accept Dreyfus Affair)
18) John Adams's diary contains an anecdote about this poem whereby a boy mistranslated the word "sing" as "dog." An omen in this poem involves the main character's father's head bursting into flame. The ghost of Creusa advises a man in this poem, which begins with the invocation "I sing of arms and the man..." This poem's main character battles Turnus and spurns the love of Dido on his journey from Troy to establish the city of Rome. For the point, name this epic poem by Virgil.
19) One member of this group reformed Alyosius Lilius's Gregorian calendar. Another member of this group was the first to publish a grammar of the Coptic language and is considered the "founder of Egyptology." Athanasius Kircher was a member of this group, which also included one of the judges who agreed to the sentencing of Giordano Bruno to death in 1600; that theologian argued against heliocentrism at the trial of Galileo. Cardinal Robert Bellarmine was a member of, for the point, what Catholic congregation founded by Ignatius of Loyola?
Society of Jesus -accept Jesuits; accept Societas Iesu; prompt on Catholic Church)
20) In this country, political appointees were required to join the Can Lao party, which worked to support its ruler. The Case-Church amendment ended American support for this country. A massacre in this country at Hue [who-ay] sparked a civil resistance movement led by Buddhist monks. In 1963, this country's Catholic leader, Ngo Dinh Diem [no-din-yeam], was assassinated. For the point, name this nation that was conquered by its communist northern neighbor shortly after the U.S. withdrew from Saigon.
South Vietnam -or the Republic of Vietnam; prompt on Vietnam alone)
21) The spy Sicinnus enticed the evenutal losers of this battle to press the attack, despite Artemisia's preference to fight on land. The losing commander at this battle observed his forces from a throne on Mount Aigaleo. The winning side of this battle had moved ships to the Saronic Gulf after learning of Sparta's defeat at Thermopylae, leaving Athens undefended. For the point, name this 480 BC naval battle, a victory for Themistocles and the Greeks over Xerxes I, a turning point of the Persian Wars.
Battle of Salamis
22) In 2000 several European Union countries imposed sanctions on this country after the OVP entered a coalition government with Jorg Haider's political party. A 2016 presidential election in this country was redone because 77,000 absentee votes were counted too early. In that election, Green candidate Alexander Van der Bellen eventually defeated far-right FPO candidate Norbert Hofer. For the point, name this country, led until 2016 by Heinz Fischer from Vienna.
Austria -or Osterreich)
23) A photo taken in the aftermath of this event shows a helicopter flying over a line of buses in front of a highway sign featuring the word "Mandeville." Plaquemines [plak-uh-meen] Parish suffered extreme damage in this event, in which the 17th Street Canal levee broke. Mayor Ray Nagin controversially argued that "God wanted" a "chocolate" New Orleans to be rebuilt after, for the point, what 2005 hurricane?
24) This man ordered troops to besiege Sidi Ifni after a series of rebellions broke out in the Forgotten War. Though his country was officially neutral in World War II, he dispatched the Blue Division to fight against the Soviet Union. The reputation of this man grew after serving as head of the Foreign Legion in the Rif War. This man merged the Carlist and Falange parties and requested the German Condor Legion's bombing of Guernica in his country's civil war. For the point, name this Spanish fascist dictator.
25) This monarch employed the jeweler Nicholas Hilliard, who created the Phoenix portrait of her. A portrait of this woman as a princess was created by Levina Teerling, who worked in the court of this queen's father alongside Hans Holbein. Another portrait of this woman with her hand resting on a globe shows a naval battle that ended with the 1588 defeat of the Spanish Armada. For the point, name this daughter of Henry VIII, the "Virgin" Queen of England.
Elizabeth I or Elizabeth Tudor -accept The Virgin Queen until mention; prompt on Elizabeth)
26) A military engineer from this country served under Nathanael Greene at the Battle of Guilford Court House. Another military figure from this country died leading the siege of Savannah, is called the "father of the American cavalry," and is honored with a holiday in early March in Chicago. Those two commanders from this country aided the American Revolution after gaining experience fighting against Russia. For the point, name this European country where Tadeusz Kosciuezko [tah-dah-oosh koh-shoo- skow] and Casimir Pulaski fought against partitions.
27) This city was rebuilt with a pavilion called the Drum Tower at its center. A group based in this city won the War of the Two Capitals when it was known as Khanbaliq. The Summer Palace was built in this city by the Jin Dynasty. This city became the northern terminus of the Grand Canal in the 7th century. The Yongle Emperor moved his capital here, and his son failed to move the capital back to Nanjing. The site of the Forbidden Palace is, for the point, what modern capital of China?
Beijing -or Peking; accept Dadu; accept Khanbaliq before mentioned)
28) This man faced a rebellion by the Sealed Knot movement, led by John Penruddock. His troops committed atrocities at Drogheda [DRAW-duh] and Wexford during his campaigns in Ireland. This man appointed the Barebones Parliament and dismissed the Rump Parliament. After the passage of the Self- denying Ordinance, he served as the cavalry commander in the New Model Army and supported the execution of Charles I. For the point, name this Lord Protector who came to power during the English Civil War.
29) This empire adopted a border defense force called the limantei. Auxiliary forces in this empire were grouped into alae [al-ee] and recruited from regional allies called socii [soke-ee-ee]. Its cavalry traditionally drew from the equites [ek-wee-tays] class and it separated its heavy infantry into hastati, principes [prin-key-pays], and triarii. Later fighting forces of this empire were comprised of ten cohorts and carried an eagle standard. For the point, name this ancient empire whose basic fighting unit, called a legion, defended the Italian peninsula.
Rome -accept more specific answers like Roman Empire or Roman Republic)
30) During this president's tenure, the capture of a ship carrying munitions for Cuban revolutionaries led to the Virginius Affair, though the tension was defused by Secretary of State Hamilton Fish. The Transcontinental Railroad was completed during the tenure of this president, whose private secretary, Orville Babcock, was caught embezzling distillery taxes in the Whiskey Ring scandal. The Credit Mobilier scandal hurt the credibility of, for the point, what U.S. president and former Union general during the Civil War?
Ulysses S. Grant
1) Note: Three answers required. The Voice Dialogue method is a way of engaging one of these three things to bring it in harmony with the other two. James Strachey's translation of these concepts has been criticized by Bruno Bettelheim. One of these three concepts is weaker in women because they do not identify with the father as much as men do with their mothers; that concept was explored in a book titled for two of these concepts, written by their formulator. Instinct, realism, and morality are modeled by, for the point, what three psychological concepts that theoretically make up the mind according to Sigmund Freud?
id, ego, and superego -must have all 3; any order is fine; prompt if fewer than 3 are given)
1) The city of Ravenna hid one of these things, belonging to Dante, behind a false wall when Florentine agents tried to steal it. One of these objects was smuggled to Venice from Alexandria in a crate of rotting pork and cabbages. In an 897 synod, Pope Stephen VI put one of these objects, belonging to Pope Formosus, on trial. Another of these objects, belonging to Vladimir Lenin, remains on display in Moscow in his mausoleum. For the point, name these things, which are usually placed in graves.
dead bodies -accept cadavers and other obvious equivalents)
2) This activity was re-affirmed to not be interstate commerce by Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. in the case Flood v. Kuhn. One of this activity's first prominent regulators was Kennesaw Mountain Landis, who opposed racial integration within it. In 1908, a scandal in this activity mockingly dubbed "Merkle's Boner" controversially favored Chicago. In 1919, "Shoeless" Joe Jackson was banned from this activity in the wake of the Black Sox scandal. For the point, name this sport whose color barrier was broken in 1947 by Jackie Robinson, a Dodgers second baseman.
baseball -accept Major League Baseball or MLB)
3) This event was presaged by an Emily Hobhouse "open letter" that asked "is it not our mission to preserve life?" A similar-but-unsuccessful attempt at this event was Benedict XV's [fifteenth's] "Truce of God." A football game at Messines was speculated to have taken place during this event, whose participants crossed No Man's Land to sing songs and swap rations with each other instead of bullets. For the point, name this festive event during the winter of 1914 in which German and Allied forces stopped fighting.
Christmas ceasefire of World War I -accept descriptions of a truce or any sort of pause in fighting on Christmas 1914)
4) This dynasty raised the Huai army to defeat a rebellion when its Green Standard armies proved ineffective. This dynasty tried to reform through the Self-Strengthening Movement. A man claiming to be the brother of Jesus, Hong Xiuquan [shiu-chwan], led a rebellion against this dynasty from his capital of Nanjing. The Eight-Nation Alliance forced its ruler, Cixi [see-shee], to provide reparations after attacks on Westerners in Beijing. For the point, name this dynasty that faced the Taiping and Boxer rebellions, the last imperial dynasty to rule China.
Qing [ching] Dynasty -or Manchu Dynasty; do not accept Qin [chin] dynasty
5) Most knowledge about this battle is derived from the Mozarabic Chronicle. One side in this battle had been called to aid Odo the Great after he had suffered heavy losses at Toulouse and Bordeaux. This battle was lost by an unsuccessful uphill cavalry charge ordered by Abd ar-Rahman, and the winner of this battle was granted the nickname "the hammer." For the point, name this battle in which Charles Martel halted the Muslim invasion of Western Europe.
Battle of Tours -or Battle of Poitiers)
6) This man advocated for war to protect national honor in his Mansion House Speech, given in response to the Agadir Crisis. He heavily increased a land tax to fund welfare programs in his "People's Budget," and this leader's foreign minister advocated for the "establishment...of a national home of the Jewish people" in the Balfour Declaration. For the point, name this Welsh prime minister who led Britain through World War I.
David Lloyd George -prompt on George)
7) To streamline this effort, crews were banned from leaving to go to snack bars, and Jeeps were converted into mobile snack shops; that improvement was made after Black Friday by its new commander, William Tunner. This effort led to the creation of a new runway at Tempelhof Airport and it included morale-boosting candy drops to children, called Operation Little Vittles. This event used C- 54 transports to carry coal and food. For the point, name this 1948-49 effort to supply an Allied city that had been cut off by Soviets in East Germany.
Berlin Airlift -accept descriptive answers regarding the Allies providing supplies to West Berlin
via the air; prompt on partial answers)
8) This country paid families in the U.S. $80,000 as negotiated by Caleb Cushing, after troops from this country executed people on board the Virginius. The unknown source of the Arkansas River shifted a boundary that had been defined in an 1819 treaty between the U.S. and this country; that treaty was negotiated by John Quincy Adams and Luis de Onis. For the point, name this European country that fought an 1898 war against the U.S. after the explosion of the Maine.
9) This city was the western terminus of the Khorasan Road and was situated just north of Ctesiphon. This city, the site of the Translation Movement, was founded by al-Mansur after his brother's victory at the Battle of Zab. Harun al-Rashid constructed the House of Wisdom in this city, which was brutally sacked by Hulagu Khan as the Tigris ran "black with ink" and "red with blood." For the point, name this center of Islamic learning and culture, the capital of both the Abbasid Caliphate and modern Iraq.
10) A Japanese version of this institution called the Ooku was created by Tokugawa Hidetada. Leaders of another of these institutions held either the title of Haseki or Valide. According to a probably fabricated legend, the Yongle Emperor killed 2800 members of one of these institutions to suppress a scandal. This term generally refers to a reserved domestic space, but has taken on the connotation of a brothel. For the point, give this term for the quarters of the wives and concubines of imperial Ottoman rulers.
harem -accept seraglio; accept zenanna)
11) This general was victorious against Onomarchus at Crocus Field, one of the bloodiest battles in ancient history. A stray vine prevented the escape of this man's assassin, Pausanias. This man was given the one-word reply "If" after issuing a series of threats to Sparta. This man created the League of Corinth to oppose Persia shortly after he defeated Thebes's Sacred Band at Chaeronea. For the point, name this Macedonian ruler and father of Alexander the Great.
Philip II of Macedon
12) Holders of this position presided over a supreme court called the hofgericht [hoff-gehr-isht]. A holder of this position enforced peace among his vassals by passing the Ewiger Landfriede [eh-vig-er land-free-deh]. This title was created for a man who rescued John XII and had previously won the Battle of Lechfeld. According to the Golden Bull of 1356, seven electors chose the next holder of this position, which was dominated by the Habsburgs for 400 years. For the point, name this position, the ruler of a loose confederation of Germanic states.
Holy Roman Emperor
13) A successful example of this type of business was founded in Philadelphia by Stephen Girard in 1811 after the "First" of these "of the US" had its charter expire. The "Pet" and "Wildcat" varieties of these businesses were active in the 1830s after Andrew Jackson effectively killed the United States's second national one. For the point, name these businesses, modern examples of which include Wells Fargo and JPMorgan Chase, which are responsible for storing and lending money.
14) The Russian Empire helped foment this conflict by sponsoring the Orlov Revolt. The London Protocol ended this conflict shortly after Edward Codrington outmaneuvered Ibrahim Pasha at the Battle of Navarino. Alexander Ypsilantis led one side in this conflict, which was depicted by Eugene Delacroix in his Massacre at Chios and Ruins of Missolonghi. Lord Byron died fighting in, for the point, what 1820s war in which the First Hellenic Republic broke away from the Ottoman Empire?
Greek War of Independence
15) This event was the result of the "Biennio Rosso," or "two red years." A king refused to authorize Luigi Facta's use of force to stop this event, which led to the following year's Acerbo [ah-chair-boh] Law granting one party a parliamentary majority. Michele [mee-KAY-leh] Bianchi and Cesare [CHAY-sar-ay] Vecchi organized this event, which prompted Victor Emmanuel III to transfer power to the leader of the Blackshirts. For the point, name this event in which Benito Mussolini seized power after his men entered the capital city of Italy.
March on Rome -accept additional information, like Mussolini's Blackshirts marching on Rome)
16) This composition is often erroneously claimed to be the first of its type to include trombone and piccolo. Its third movement borrows a theme from Mozart's Symphony no. 40, and was premiered in an 1808 concert along with the next piece of its type by the same composer. A theme from this work was used in the "V for Victory" campaign during World War II and has been described as "fate knocking at the door." For the point, name this Ludwig van Beethoven symphony in C minor, famous for its short- short-short-long opening motif.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony no. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 -"Beethoven" and "Symphony" not needed after mention)
17) The first federally funded housing initiative in this city created the community of First Houses, and this city pioneered the use of "Dumbbell" housing. The George Bellows painting Cliff Dwellers depicts tenement dwellers in this city's Lower East Side, and an 1890 book of muckraking photojournalism by Jacob Riis exposed conditions in this city's tenements. How the Other Half Lives described conditions in, for the point, which city that processed immigrants at Ellis Island?
New York City -or NYC)
18) The second epistle to Timothy identifies this figure's enemies as Jannes and Jambres. This man once asked for his name to be blotted out from the Book of Life. His older sister was struck with leprosy for criticizing this man's wife, whom he first met after rescuing her from some heckling shepherds at a well. At Meribah, this man displeased God by striking a rock in anger. For the point, name this supposed author of the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, who led the Israelites out of Egypt.
Moses -or Moshe)
19) Jose Barrionuevo was imprisoned for his activities in this region. Families of those imprisoned from this region founded an activist group called Etxerat [etch-er-at]. Banned political parties from this region include Batasuna and Askatasuna. The GAL, an illegal paramilitary group founded by the government of Felipe Gonzalez, once operated in this region to fight the ETA, a terrorist group that promoted this region's separation. Bilbao is the largest city in, for the point, what highly nationalistic region of northern Spain?
20) During an October 1967 protest at this facility, George Harris placed carnations in the barrels of the guns of soldiers. The Phoenix Project helped repair this facility after Hani Hanjour and four others hijacked American Airlines Flight 77 and crashed it into this structure, which includes over six million feet of floor space in a building only five floors high. For the point, name this Arlington County, Virginia facility that houses the Department of Defense and is named for its shape.
21) This king is the subject of a mostly-lost epic poem set at Paderborn. This ruler was unable to secure the submission of the Duchy of Benevento when he subjugated the Lombard kingdom. Alcuin was a notable philosopher during this man's reign, which was chronicled by his biographer Einhard. His defeat at Roncevaux Pass inspired The Song of Roland. For the point, name this Carolingian king who was crowned by Leo III on Christmas Day 800 as the first Holy Roman Emperor.
Charlemagne -accept Charles the Great, Karl der Grosse, or Carolus Magnus)
22) This man advised Auda Abu Tayi during the Battle of Aqaba and led guerrilla attacks on the Hejaz Railway. This man described his experiences, including his victory at the Battle of Tafileh that earned him a Distinguished Cross, in Seven Pillars of Wisdom. This man's promises of an Arab homeland were violated by the Sykes-Picot Treaty. For the point, name this British soldier who fought the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East during World War I.
Thomas Edward Lawrence -or Lawrence of Arabia)
23) A week after this man criticized his political party, the "Declaration of 46" letter agreed with his concerns. This man wrote The Revolution Betrayed while living in exile with Diego Rivera. As Commissar of Foreign Affairs, this man handed the Baltic States to Kaiser Wilhelm II by signing the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk. Years after he founded the Red Army, this man was killed in Mexico by an ice pick to the head. For the point, name this Soviet politician who lost a power struggle with Joseph Stalin.
24) This man was forced into exile after Publius Clodius Pulcher passed a law targeting those who executed Roman citizens without trial. He rose to prominence by successfully prosecuting Gaius Verres. As consul, he exposed the Catiline Conspiracy to the Senate and was awarded the title Pater Patriae. For the point, name this politician, a staunch supporter of the Roman Republic and notable orator who opposed Mark Antony with his Philippics.
Marcus Tullius Cicero
25) This city faced the revolt of Spendius and Mathos over unpaid soldier salaries in the Mercenary War. A commander from this city had his head thrown into the tent of his brother after the Battle of the Metaurus River. Salt was sown into the ground of this city so that it could never rebuild after its destruction, which was advocated by Cato the Elder. For the point, name this African city, led in the Punic Wars by Hannibal Barca.
26) This man believed Nebraska brought forth a "sacred right" and placed "it on the high road to extension and perpetuity." This man challenged Americans to "do our duty as we understand it" by having "faith that right makes might." This orator of the Peoria Speech looked to "bind up the nation's wounds" "with Malice toward none, with charity for all" in his Second Inaugural Address. For the point, name this U.S. president who claimed "that government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth" in his Gettysburg Address.
27) In response to criticism of this country's human rights record, this country's leader responded "it is better to be a dictator than to be gay." In a 2007 radio broadcast, that leader blamed Jews for "turning the city of Babruysk into a pigsty." This country's capital city is the namesake of two failed ceasefire agreements over the conflict in eastern Ukraine. In March 2017, protests erupted in this country over a newly introduced "social parasite tax." For the point, name this country led by Alexander Lukashenko from Minsk.
28) During this event, "John Johnson" aroused suspicions when he claimed that the firewood he owned belonged to Thomas Percy. During the siege of Holbeche House at this event's conclusion, the perpetrator Thomas Wintour was captured. A letter of warning sent to Lord Monteagle thwarted this event, which was planned by Roger Catesby. For the point, name this event, an