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Chapter 10 - Democracy In America
Terms in this set (51)
the Dorr War (p. 373)
A reform movement in Rhode Island sparked by the continued exclusion of any white man from voting.
Democracy in America (p. 374)
Written by Alexis de Tocqueville in the early 1830s, a classic account of America society in the midst of its political transformation.
"information revolution" (p. 375)
A large expansion of the public sphere and an explosion in printing. The application of steam power to newspaper printing led to a great increase in output and the rise of the mass-circulation ''penny press'' priced at one cent per issue
"infant industries" (p. 378)
A term referring to the nascent manufacturing sector and the perceived need to protect it from international competition.
American System (p. 378)
Program of internal improvements and protective tariffs promoted by Speaker of the House Henry Clay in his presidential campaign of 1824; his proposals formed the core of Whig ideology in the 1830s and 1840s.
internal improvements (p. 379)
Government-sponsored projects such as roads and canals.
Second Bank of the United States (p. 379)
The Second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816 but President Andrew Jackson vetoed the recharter bill in 1832. Gave loans to farmers, businesses, etc. Meant to limit the amount of money being printed by the state banks.
Panic of 1819 (p. 380)
Financial collapse brought on by sharply falling cotton prices, declining demand for American exports, and reckless western land speculation. BUS was part of land speculation (buying land to sell it for a higher price)
McCulloch v. Maryland (p. 381)
U.S. Supreme Court decision in which Chief Justice John Marshall, holding that Maryland could not tax the Second Bank of the United States, supported the authority of the federal gover
Missouri controversy (p. 381)
A incident stemming from the suggestion by New York congressman James Tallmadge that the introduction of further slaves be prohibited and that children of those already in Missouri be freed at age twenty-five.
Monroe Doctrine (p. 386)
President James Monroe's declaration to Congress on December 2, 1823, that the American continents would be thenceforth closed to European colonization, and that the United States would not interfere in European affairs. Europe could not colonize new areas of Latin America, US would stay out of European affairs, and Europe would not interfere with newly free nations.
"spoils system" (p. 391)
The term meaning the filling of federal government jobs with persons loyal to the party of the president originated in Andrew Jackson's first term.
Eaton affair (p. 396)
An incident in which Peggy Eaton, the wife of Andrew Jackson's secretary of war, was ostracized because she was the daughter of a Washington tavern keeper, and thus allegedly a woman of ''easy virtue.''
Exposition and Protest (p. 396)
A document in which the South Carolina legislature justified nullification.
Force Act (p. 397)
A bill authorizing President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect customs duties.
Indian Removal Act (p. 398)
Signed by President Andrew Jackson, the law permitted the negotiation of treaties to obtain the Indians' lands in exchange for their relocation to what would become Oklahoma.
Worcester v. Georgia (p. 399)
A Supreme Court decision holding that Indian nations were a distinct people with the right to maintain a separate political identity.
the Bank War (p. 401)
The debate during Andrew Jackson's presidency over the rechartering of the Bank of the United States.
"hard money" v. "soft money" (pp. 402-403)
The argument over the use of ''hard money,'' such as gold and silver, against ''soft money,'' or paper currency issued by the government.
"pet banks" (p. 403)
Local banks that received deposits while the charter of the Bank of the United States was about to expire. The choice of these banks was influence by political and personal connections.
Panic of 1837 (p. 403)
Beginning of major economic depression lasting about six years; touched off by a British financial crisis and made worse by falling cotton prices, credit and currency problems, and speculation in land, canals, and railroads.
Alexis de Tocqueville
Frenchman; wrote Democracy in America in 1835
a Democratic-Republican who was voted into office in 1828. The people wanted representation and reform from the administration of John Quincy Adams. Jackson believed that the people should rule. He was the first president from the west, and he represented many of the characteristics of the west. Jackson appealed to the common man as he was said to be one. He believed in the strength of the Union and the supremacy of the federal government over the state government.
a political leader who worked his way up to the top from the bottom. Andrew Jackson was the model common man. He had been orphaned, so he fought in the Revolutionary War at age thirteen. In the War of 1812, he became a hero and launched his political career soon after. He was like the rest of the country, and that's why they liked him so much. The common man began to take over during the Jacksonian Democracy.
A political scandal that arose when the Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, allegedly met with John Quincy Adams before the House election to break a deadlock. Adams was elected president against the popular vote and Clay was named Secretary of State.
Leading American statesman during the Antebellum Period; leader of the Whig Party, opposed Jackson and the Democratic Party; spokesman for modernization, banking, and industry; served in the House of Representatives, Senate, and Secretary of State for 3 presidents; successful lawyer; member of the Great Triumvirate with Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun.
bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the governemtn could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
an aggressive and often heedless explotiation of the west. settlers often killed species to the point of extinction, and they farmed the lands dry. it was a hard land to live on, and ecological imperialism was sometimes the only way to survive and make a profit.
A nickname for John Tyler. Whig extremists gave this name to Tyler because they hated him so much because of his hostility to a centralized bank
Becomes president after Harrison's death, stubbornly attached to principle, ex-democrat (became a Whig because he did not like the dictatorial tactics of Jackson), accused of being a Democrat in Whig clothing which is only partially true (Whig party, like Democratic party, was a catchall and Tyler belonged to the minority wing), Tyler had been put on the ballot to attract the fringe group of Jeffersonian states' righters
John C Calhoun
Vice President under Andrew Jackson; leading Southern politician; began his political career as a nationalist and an advocate of protective tariffs, later he becomes an advocate of free trade, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
Appointed by John Adams ( 1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the state's rights Jeffersonians. ( served 30 days under Federalist administration and 34 years under the Jeffersonians and their successors) The Federalists died out but Marshall continued to hand down Federalist decisions. IMPORTANT ACT- Although he dismissed the Marbury suit ( 1801) to avoid direct political showdown, he said that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional. Marshall greatly magnified the authority of the court. In the Marbury v. Madison case Marshall inserted the keystone into the arch that supports the tremendous power of the Supreme Court. Marshall's decision regarding Marbury spuried the Jeffersonians to lay rough hands on the Supreme Court through impeachment. Jefferson's ill advised attempt of " Judge Breaking" was a reasuring victory for the independence of the juiciary and the separation of powers among the three branches.
John Quincy Adams
- became president even though he technically came second in the election. Ran against Jackson who had the most popular votes, but not the majority of electoral votes. He supported the American System and helped US buy Florida
Took office after the death of William Henry Harrison in 1841. He was a democrat but was swayed by his adoptive Whig Party. He signed a law to end the independent treasury but he vetoed attempts to create a Fiscal Bank. "His accidency".
In 1824, voters were crying that the people must be heard and down with King Caucus. This new and more democratic method of nominating presidential candidates was the have a national nominating convention. A caucus are the leaders of a small political organization. Up until 1820, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses of the two parties in Congress, but in 1824, this idea was overthrown. Andrew Jackson's term for selection process of candidates
Martin Van Buren
created the system of party government. claimed that political parties were necessary to "check" the government from abusing its power. created the first political machine. denounced the American System and opposed the Whigs. (Jackson's sucessor)
Maysville Road veto
1830 - The Maysville Road Bill proposed building a road in Kentucky (Clay's state) at federal expense. Jackson vetoed it because he didn't like Clay, and Martin Van Buren pointed out that New York and Pennsylvania paid for their transportation improvements with state money. Applied strict interpretation of the Constitution by saying that the federal government could not pay for internal improvements.
1820, The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
(1832-1833) showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833. compromise tariff of 1833 was passed as a measure to to resolve the nullification crisis, it provided that tariffs be lowered gradually, over a period of 10 years, to 1816 levels
popular (hoopla) campaigning
Candidates for office directed their campaigns to the interests and prejudices of the common people. Politics also became a form of local entertainment. Campaigns of the 1830s and 1840s featured parades of floats and marching bands and large rallies in which voters were treated to free
food and drink. To be sure, there was also a negative side to the new campaign techniques. In trying to appeal to the masses, the candidates would often resort to personal attacks and downplay the issues. A politician, for example, might attack an opponent's "aristocratic airs" and make him seem unfriendly to "the common man."
popular election of president
n the presidential election of 1832, only South Carolina used the old system whereby its electors for president were chosen by the state legislature. All other states in the Union had adopted a new and more democratic method of allowing the voters to choose a state's slate of presidential electors
Part of Webster-Hayne debate of 1830. Voiced the animosity that the south held for the northern states.A young senetor from South Carolina who responded to someone suggesting that all land sales and surveys be temporarilly discontinued by charging that slowing down the growth of the west was a way for the east to restrain its political and economic power. He hoped his stance would attract support from westerners in Congress for South Carolina's drive to lower tariff. He argued that both the south and the west were victims of tyranny of the northeast. He hinted that the two regions might combine to defend themeselves.
Self-made men were men of the middle class who rose to wealth or to a higher social status from humble origins through self-discipline, hard work, and temperate habits.
The self made man became a central theme of American popular culture. (CULTURAL)
South Carolina Exposition & Protest
In 1828 Calhoun anonymously wrote this widely circulated book which he spelled out his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that aggrieved states therefore had the right to nullify the law within their borders.
issued by President Jackson in 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
According to the compact theory of the Union the states retained all powers not specifically delegated to the central government by the Constitution.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South; The bill favored western agricultural interests by raising tariffs or import taxes on imported hemp, wool, fur, flax, and liquor, thus favoring Northern manufacturers. In the South, these tariffs raised the cost of manufactured goods, thus angering them and causing more sectionalist feelings.
trail of tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.; The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
universal male suffrage
allowed all free white males to vote and hold office without having to own land or belong to a particular religious group
Famous debate in the US between Daniel Webster (Senator of MA) and Robert Y. Hayne (Senator of South Carolina); January 19-27, 1830; regarding protectionist tariffs; heated speeches between Webster and Hayne were unplanned and stemmed from debate over a resolution by Connecticut Senator Samuel Foote calling for the temporary suspension of further land surveying until land already on the market was sold; Webster's "Second Reply to Hayne" (1830).
political party that had no stand on slavery, was elected because people did not want to rock the boat and have war, An American political party formed in the 1830s to oppose President Andrew Jackson and the Democrats, stood for protective tariffs, national banking, and federal aid for internal improvements
William Henry Harrison
was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
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