18 terms

Year 10 Evolution

STUDY
PLAY
evolution
A change in a species over time
natural selection
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
Gondwana
A supercontinent that consisted of today's South America, Africa, Antarctica, India, and Australia.
fossil
A preserved remnant or impression of an organism that lived in the past.
Charles Darwin
1809-1882 English naturalist and scientist who developed the theory of evolution through natural selection.
homologous structures
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry, such as the forearm of mammals
mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome that is the original cause of variation in living things
species
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
common ancestor
An ancestor (distant relative) that two organisms have in common.
extinction
A species dies out forever.
selection pressure
Something in the environment that helps one trait survive better than the other trait
adaptation
A characteristic that improves an individual's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Variation
The differences between individuals within a species. These variations help the organism survive in its environment.
Divergent evolution
When new species evolve from a common ancestor. Over time the two new species will not be able to interbreed, creating two new species. This could be due to Geographical isolation or environmental changes.
Competition
Individuals in a population competing for resources in an area.
Convergent evolution
Where similar selection pressures in an environment, produce similar adaptations in different species eg. dolphin and shark both develop fins for swimming.
Analougus structures
Unrelated species developing similar structures - living in similar environments, eg. bat and insect wings.
Environmental changes
Global warming, climate change, human activity, natural disasters and continental drift