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20 terms

Chapter 13

DNA Structure and Function
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DNA Polymerase
Picks up where primase left off and does majority of work. Main enzyme of replication. Joins free nucleotides into the new "daughter strand" DNA
DNA Ligase
"Cleans up the mess." Fills any nicks or mistakes made.

Joins Okazaki fragments in lagging strand
Leading Strand
Strand of DNA being replaced continuously toward replication fork.

Read and replicated 3' to 5'
Lagging Strand
Strand of DNA being replicated away from work in 5' to 3' manner (think back-stitching).

Synthesized discontinuously.
Anti-Parallel
DNA strands run in opposite direction. The last sugar group on 1 strand is called 3' (prime) end; the last phosphate group on the opposite strand is called 5' end.
DNA Ligase
Enzyme that joins 2 elements of DNA strands
Okazaki Fragment:
Fragments of DNA produced on lagging strand
Daughter Strand
New DNA strand
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid.

Nucleic acid that stores hereditary information about traits.
DNA Replication
Step-by-step process used by the cell to copy DNA before revision
Semi-Conservative
when 1 strand of DNA is old and 1 strand is new
chromatin
All the DNA molecules in a cell with the associated proteins. Located inside the nucleus, loose like pasta
chromosome
a single strand of DNA w/associated proteins
Gene
A section of chromosome that contains instructions for making a specific protein
DNA Triplet
Group of 3 nucleotides used to make DNA
nucleotide
monomers of nucleic acids
pyrimidine
nitrogenous bases thymine and cytosine

single ring structure
purine
nitrogenous bases adenine and guanine

double ring structure
helicase
"hell of a day and unwind"

Enzyme that breaks the helix hydrogen bonds so DNA can unwind
DNA primase
"Gets the party started." Enzyme that attaches to the parent strand and "reads" from 3' to 5' direction. Attaches 10 nucleotides to create a working template and get replication process started, creating "daughter strand." Tells polymerase to get going...