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122 terms

Anatomy and Physiology Final Exam

125 Questions; 100 of which will be on the exam
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Anatomy
The study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts is called:
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Which of the following is the correct sequence, going from simplest to most complex?
The lungs are lateral to the heart
In describing the relationship of the lungs to the heart:
anterior; posterior
In anatomical position, the face and palms are on the blank body surface and the buttocks and shoulder blades are on the blank body surface.
coronal
A cut made lenghtwise that divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior parts is what section?
superior and inferior
A transverse plane divides the body into what segments?
A sagittal section is a cut made along the horizontal plane.
Which of the following is NOT true of a sagittal place?
The maintenance of a stable internal enviroment
Homeostasis is a term that refers to:
The body is erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward.
Anatomical Position is:
heart, lungs, and stomach
Which of the following organs are found in the ventral body cavity?
The patellar region is distal to the femoral region
In describing the relationship between the patellar region and femoral regions:
cytoplasm
The semi-fluid internal medium of a cell that is found between the nucleus and the cell membrane is called:
It determines which substances enter and leave the cell, serves as a boundary between the cell and its enviroment, and contains receptor sites which determine how the cell interacts with its enviroment. (ALL OF THE CHOICES ARE CORRECT)
The function of the plasma membrane is:
Nucleus
Which structure contains the majority of genetic material within the cell?
Mitochondrion
Which of the following is the primary source of ATP production?
Diffusion
The process whereby small molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration is:
greater concentration of solute than the cytoplasm
A hypertonic solution contains:
Gains water
A cell in a hypotonic solution:
A concentration gradient
Which of the following is required for diffusion to occur?
Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscle.
Which of the following are the four primary body tissues?
connective
The tissue that generally has good blood supply and an extensive extracellular matrix is:
giving support, allowing movement and transport of materials.
Functions of connective tissue include:
protect, secrete, excrete, and absorb
Functions of epithelial tissue include:
recieve and conduct electrochemical impulses.
The function of nerve tissue is to...
Simple squamos
Name the epithelial tissue that is found in the capillaries and alveoli:
fibrocartilage
Name the connective tissue that is found in the nose, ear, and intervertebral disks:
Skeletal muscle
Muscle tissue that is voluntarily controlled and found attached to bone is:
hair, nails, skin, sweat and oil glands.
The integumentary system is a body system composed of:
Vitamin D activation, protection, thermoregulation
Which of the following are functions of skin?
Stratum corneum
The most superficial stratum of the epidermis is the:
Oil
Sebaceous glands secrete:
axial and appendicular.
The two divisions of the skeletal system include:
deliver blood
Which of the following is NOT a function of the skeletal system?
dense tissue that looks smooth and homogenous; small needlelike pieces of bone with lots of open spaces.
Compact bone is characterized by? whereas spongy bone is characterized by?
long, short, flat, sesamoid and irregular.
The classes of bones according to shape include:
wrist bones- short bones
Which of the following groups in the human body, categorized according to shape is correct?
the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage.
The axial skeleton contains:
osteon; central canal
One unit of bone is called ? and has a center canal called the ?
cardiac and smooth mucle
Muscular tissue that is involuntarily:
Skeletal muscle ONLY
The muscle tissue that consists of single, very cyndrical, multinucleate cells with striations are:
hematopoiesis
Which of the following is NOT a function of the muscular system?
the contractile unit of skeletal muscle
A sacromere is:
fascicle, fiber, myofibril, myofilament
Which of the following groups of terms is placed in order from largest to smallest?
Actin Filaments
During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to active sites of:
A Neurotransmitter
Acetylcholine is:
adduction
The body movement that moves the limb toward the midline is:
Frontalis
The muscle that raises the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead is:
biceps brachii
The muscle that flexes the elbow is:
hamstring group
The primary muscle of knee flexion is:
Consists of cell body, dendrites, and axons.
Which of the following is NOT true about neuroglia cells:
oligodendrocytes
Which of the following glia cells produce myelin?
astrocytes
Which of the following are glia cells that brace and anchor neurons to nutrient lines?
Dendrites carry information away from the cell body
Which of the following is NOT true concerning neurons?
Medulla
The part of the brain that regulates breathing and heart rate is the:
cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum.
The four major regions of the brain include:
visual area
The occipital lobe of the cerebrum houses the:
pons, medulla, and reticular formation.
The brain stem includes which of the following structures?
regulates heart rate, respiratory rate, and vomitting
The medulla oblongata:
The spinal cord extends from the medulla to the 1st or 2nd lumbar vertebra.
Which of the following statements is TRUE reguarding the spinal cord?
directly into body fluids such as blood.
Endocrine glands secrete hormones:
its target cells
The action of a hormone is directed at:
growth hormone and lutenizing hormone
The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secretes:
in the anterior throat
The thyroid gland is located:
insulin.
The pancreas is a gland that secretes:
growth hormone
The hormone that stimulates cells to increase in size and divide more frequently is:
insulin
The hormone that facilitates transport of glucose across cell membranes is:
connective
Blood is classified as what type of tissue?
sticky, red color, slightly alkaline pH, volume in human body 5-6 liters, temp 38 degrees C
Which of the following are physical characteristics of blood?
nutrients, hormones, and proteins
which of the following are components of plasma?
hemoglobin
The protein found in RBC's that is responsible for carrying oxygen is:
they are packed with organelles
Which of the following does NOT describe erythrocytes:
Fighting infections
What is the function of WBC's?
which two antigens, type A or type B, a person inherits.
ABO blood groups are based on:
Type AB
When blood typing, if the sample of blood agglutinates with anti-A and anti-B, what type of blood is it?
pericardium
The heart is enclosed by a double sac of membrane known as the:
are located superiorly and are the receiving chambers of the heart.
The atria of the heart:
pulmonary artery
Which vessel receives blood during right ventricular systole?
coronary arteries
The myocardium receives blood from the:
lymphatic vessels and nodes, thymus, spleen, tonsils
The lymphatic system is comprised of what structures:
subclavian veins
Lymph rejoins the blood and becomes part of the plasma in the
transporting oxygen and nutrients to tissue.
All of the following are functions of the lymphatic system EXCEPT:
It acts as a large lymph node and filters foreign particles and damaged red blood cells from blood.
What is the function of the spleen?
Innate defenses refers to those defenses that guard against pathogens; adaptive defenses are those that respond to specific foreign pathogens.
What is the difference between innate (nonspecific) defenses and adaptive defenses against infection?
skin and mucous membranes.
The body's first line of defense is:
exchange of gases between lungs and blood.
What are the primary functions of the respiratory system?
alveoli
Where does gas exchange occur?
atmospheric pressure
What is the driving force for inspiration?
elastic recoil of lungs and thoracic wall.
The force responsible for normal expiration comes mainly from
bound to hemoglobin
How is most oxygen transported in the blood?
as a bicarbonate ion
How is most carbon dioxide transported in the blood?
J-shaped smooth muscle organ; located on the left side of the abdominal cavity.
Which of the following describes the stomach?
mechanical breakdown of food
Which of the following are functions of the stomach?
activate pepsinogen into pepsin
What is the role of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
protein
The digestive enzyme pepsin begins the digestion of
small intestine
What is the body's major digestive organ?
completes chemical digestion of all food categories and absorbs nutrients into bloodstream
What are the functions of the small intestines?
Dry out the food residue by absorbing water and eliminate these residues.
What are the main functions of the large intestine?
produce enzymes that breakdown all categories of digestible foods.
What is the main digestive function of the pancreas?
store and releases bile
The function of the gallbladder is to:
emulsification of fats
Which of the following is the function of bile?
produce bile for fat digestion
What is the main digestive function of the liver?
produces hormones that aid in digestion
Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of the kidney?
retroperitoneal
Which of the following terms describes the location of the kidneys?
extremely high
Blood pressure in the glomerulus is:
filtration
The nonselective, passive process performed by the glomerulus is called:
glomerulus and renal tubule
The nephrons of the kidney have what two main structures:
urea
Which of the following is NOT one of the substances typically reabsorbed by the tubules:
creatinine
All of the following are NOT found in urine except:
anterior to the pubis symphysis
Which of the following does NOT describe the bladder:
testes
The male gonad are:
seminiferous tubules
The actual "sperm-producing factories" of the male reproductive system are the:
testes and the interstitial cells
Testosterone is produced by the:
temporarily stores sperm
What is the function of the epididymis?
epididymal fluid
Which of the following is NOT a component of semen?
activate sperm and neutralize urine
Secretions from the prostate gland:
contracts and relaxes to keep temperature of testes below body temperature
What is the function of the scrotum?
spermatogonia
The primitive stem cell of spermatogenesis is called:
23 chromosomes
Spermatids and ova have:
fallopian tube
Fertilization usually occurs in the:
endometrium
The layer of the uterus that sloughs off on a monthly basis is the:
FSH
The hormone responsible for ovulation is:
they have the same number of chromosomes
Human ova and sperm are similar in that: