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29 terms

Biology-2nd Semester Review-Part 1

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Why is Natural variation so important?
So disease will not wipe out a population.
Selective Breeding
Choosing characters in offspring.
Hybridization
Blending mixing or breeding 2 organisms.
-Ex: If you want a really healthy dog, breed a mutt, not a purebred.
How can inbreeding cause health problems?
Purebreds share similar genetic make-up.
2 Causes of Gene Shuffling.
1-Chromosomes of homologous pairs move independently during meiosis.
2-Crossing over further increases number of different genotypes.
Do Mutations cause serious health problems?
No.
2 diseases caused by minor mutations.
1-Sickle-cell anemia
2-cystic fibrosis.
Gene Pool
All genes and their different alleles in a population.
Relative frequency.
The number of times that allele occurs in the gene pool, compared to the number of times all other alleles for that same gene occur.
Monogenic Traits
Single gene trait.
-Bar graph
Polygenic traits
-bell curve
-multigenic traits
Natural Selection
The process by which organisms with favorable variations reproduce at higher rates than those without such variations.
Stabilizing Selection
individuals with the average form of the trait has the highest fitness.
Directional Selection
individuals with the more extreme form of a trait have a higher fitness than individuals with an average form.
Disruptive Selection
individuals with either extreme variation of a trait have a higher fitness than those with the average form.
Survival of the Fittest
The more fit (adapted) the organism, the better chances they have to survive.
How do organism adapt to their environment?
Change food, grow hair, etc.
What causes adaptations?
Change of climate.
Genetic Drift
the gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events
By what means does genetic drift occur?
Chance
The Founder Effect
when few individuals begin a new isolated population
Why does the Founder's Effect occur most likely after a Natural Disaster?
The organisms could be seperated by the natural disaster, forcing the animals to adapt to their new environment.
Hardy-Weinberg Principle
Allele frequencies remain constant unless there are 1 or more factors.
5 conditions to maintain genetic equilbrium.
1-Random mating
2-Very large population
3-no immigration or emmigration
4-No mutations
5-No Natural Selection
Speciation
The formation of a new species
3 types of reproductive isolation
1-Behavioral
2-Geographic
3-Temporal
Behavioral Isolation
2 populations are capable of interbreeding but do not understand each others courtship rituals.
Geographic Isolation
Geographic barriers seperate populations.
Temporal Isolation
2 or more species reproduce at different times.